A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway
Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway, SILK known as Kajang SILK Highway, is an expressway built to disperse and regulate the traffic flow in Kajang, Malaysia. The 37 km expressway is to allow motorists to bypass the town centre of Kajang, it is useful as the main ring road of Kajang. The Kilometre Zero is located at Mines Interchange near Seri Kembangan. Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway used to be called Jalan Kajang–Puchong 11 and Jalan Balakong 3211; the huge traffic jams that clogged traffic flow in Kajang town centre were the main reason behind the construction of the highway. Construction began in 2002; the expressway was completed in 2003 and began operation on 15 June 2004. Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway is lit at night and has 11 multi-level interchanges; the expressway uses the Touch'n Smart TAG electronic payment systems. The expressway has computerized traffic information display and monitoring system and 24-hour highway patrol; the expressway concessionaire offers vehicle breakdown assistance.
The Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway using opened toll systems. As part of an initiative to facilitate faster transaction at the Sungai Long, Bukit Kajang, Sungai Ramal and Sungai Balak Toll Plazas, all toll transactions at four toll plazas on the Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway have been conducted electronically via Touch'n Go cards or SmartTAGs since 1 June 2016. Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
Sungai Buloh–Kajang line
The MRT Sungai Buloh–Kajang line, or known as SBK Line, is the ninth rail transit line and the second automated and driverless rail system in the Klang Valley area, Malaysia after the Kelana Jaya Line. It is a part of Klang Valley Integrated Transit System; the line is numbered Green on official transit maps. It is one of three planned rail lines under Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit Project by MRT Corp; the Phase 1 between Sungai Buloh and Semantan commenced service on 16 December 2016. Phase 2 between Muzium Negara and Kajang was opened on 17 July 2017, as a free shuttle service, by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Dato' Seri Najib Tun Razak in a ceremony at the Tun Razak Exchange station. Full revenue service between Sungai Buloh and Kajang began the following day. In August 2006, The LRT Kota Damansara–Cheras line proposal was first made known to the public by the deputy Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak under a RM10 billion government allocation for the improvement and expansion of the public transportation network in Klang Valley.
The line is targeted to alleviate traffic congestion in the Klang Valley by encouraging more commuters to opt for public transport. It is aimed to reduce overcrowding on the KL Monorail Line and provide an alternative transport mode due to rising fuel prices, it is estimated to be 30km in length. This is planned in-line with the extension of the LRT Kelana Jaya Line, Ampang and Sri Petaling Lines, to USJ and Puchong and converging at Putra Heights; the combined cost of the new line and the proposed extensions were estimated at RM7 billion. Syarikat Prasarana Nasional Berhad was in charge of the construction of these lines; the Kota Damansara line was planned to be served by 140 coaches, the track gauge to be similar to existing LRT lines. The Ministry of Transport had approved the alignment of the new line in July 2007 which would be tabled to the Cabinet for approval; the Finance Ministry Parliamentary Secretary announced that the line from Kota Damansara to Cheras and Balakong would be completed by 2012.
The line would be 40km long, serving densely populated areas in Damansara and Cheras via "The Golden Triangle" of Kuala Lumpur city. The alignment was to be from Persiaran Surian to the Balakong Interchange on the Cheras—Kajang Expressway, passing through the Damansara—Puchong Expressway, Sprint Highway, the city, Jalan Tun Razak and Jalan Cheras, stopping at around 30 stations. Ownership of the line belongs to SPNB, would be operated by RapidKL; the estimated construction cost is between RM4 RM5 billion. In September 2008, Executive Director of SPNB said that a 5.9 km section of the line in Central Kuala Lumpur will be underground, serving 5 stations. However, the locations of underground stations were not announced, it was during this time that the line was said to be 42 km with 32 stations in total, which would serve areas of Bandar Utama, Bangsar, KL Sentral, Bukit Bintang, Bandar Tasik Selatan and Cheras. The line was being considered for as a Mass Rapid Transit system after taking into consideration the catchment area serving a population of 878,000.
It was reported that the detailed design stage for the line would commence in the second quarter of 2009 and the opening date is expected to be in 2014. On 14 September 2009, SPNB managing director Datuk Idrose Mohamed was reported as saying that the new line could end up longer than the earlier announced alignment although he did not offer any further details. A public display of the alignment was launched a day after the announcement. SPNB has raised the necessary funds from Islamic investments of RM2 billion and hopes to gain approval from the Ministry of Transport to call out for tenders. In April 2010, a proposal to extend the line by 16 km was being studied by the government; the proposal includes extensions from Kota Damansara from Cheras to Kajang. This is to provide convenient interchanges to the existing Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad stations at Sungai Buloh and Kajang, as well as supporting the upcoming development of some 3000–acre land in Sungai Buloh. An additional branch line from Damansara Utama to Kelana Jaya aimed to relieve congestion on the Lebuhraya Damansara—Puchong Highway was being studied, bringing the total length of the line to 59 km.
Unofficial statements in 2009 claimed. In June 2010, during the tabling of the 10th Malaysia Plan, Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak announced that the government was now considering a RM36 billion Klang Valley MRT proposal from Gamuda Berhad and MMC Corporation Berhad, the largest national infrastructure project; the proposal includes 3 lines, including one, similar to the Kota Damansara—Cheras proposal. The MRT lines were to be underground with stations 500m to 1km apart in areas with high demand; the concept is similar to the Hong Kong mass rapid transit systems. The project, aimed to improve public transport in the Klang Valley, was approved by the Malaysian cabinet on 17 December 2010 and construction of the first line from Sungai Buloh to Kajang would begin in July 2011 with a duration of five to six years. Gross national income from these future lines is between RM12 bil; the government had appointed MMC-Gamuda JV Sdn Bhd as Project Delivery Partner where it would play the role project manager, supervised by the Land Public Transport Commission.
The whole project would be divided into nine parcels in. 10 km of the line would be the remaining 50 km above ground with 35 new stations. MMC-Gamuda would be barred from b
The Klang War or Selangor Civil War was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1867 to 1874 in the Malay state of Selangor. It was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang, Raja Mahadi bin Raja Sulaiman, it was joined by Tengku Kudin, as well as Malay and Chinese rival gangs. The war was won by Tengku Kudin and Abdullah's son, Raja Ismail. In 1854, the sultan of Selangor Sultan Muhammad Shah appointed Raja Abdullah bin Raja Ja'afar as Klang's administrator. Raja Abdullah and his brother Raja Juma'at had helped Raja Sulaiman pay a debt incurred during a failed mining venture, was therefore rewarded with the chieftainship of Klang. Raja Mahdi, Sultan Muhammad Shah's grandson and whose father Raja Sulaiman was the previous Klang's head, therefore became disinherited. Raja Abdullah and Raja Juma'at, who had opened successful tin mines in Lukut obtained the finance to open tin mines near Kuala Lumpur in 1857; the success of the tin mines generated considerable revenues, the struggle for the control of the revenues from the tin mines as well as political power were the reasons for the war.
Sultan Muhammad died in 1857, Sultan Abdul Samad took the throne after a power struggle. Sultan Abdul Samad however only controlled Langat and did not have absolute control over Selangor, ruled by four chieftains in Bernam, Lukut and Kuala Selangor; when the disgruntled Raja Mahdi initiated the conflict, the Malays would split into two camps in the ensuing war. On Raja Mahdi side were Raja Mahmud, son of the Panglima Raja of Selangor. Raja Abdullah's faction included his son, Raja Ismail who continued the war after Raja Abdullah's death joined by Tengku Kudin and supported by the Sultan of Selangor; the Chinese tin miners were divided between the two camps. Some of the Malays however switched sides in the course of the war: for example the Dato Dagang Mohamed Tahir who helped Raja Mahadi capture Klang from Raja Abdullah switched to Tengku Kudin's side. In the stages Tengku Kudin gained the support of British colonial administrators and fighters from Pahang. In 1866, Raja Abdullah leased Klang to two traders from the Straits Settlements: William Henry Macleod Read and Tan Kim Ching.
Among the benefits of being a renter was tax collection from the opium trade, in which Raja Mahdi was involved. When the two traders went out to collect tax, Raja Mahdi was offended as he felt he was exempted from the tax, refused to pay. Raja Abdullah saw this as an act of defiance by Raja Mahadi towards him; this incident, exacerbated by Raja Mahadi's continued dissatisfaction for being ignored as the successor to Sultan Muhammad for the Selangor throne following his death in 1857 in favour of the Raja Abdul Samad, further conflicts between their followers worsened the tense relationship between the two antagonists, which many believe were the initial causes for the outbreak of the Klang War. At that time there was a long-standing animosity between the Bugis Malays and the Sumatran Batu Bara ethnic groups. Raja Abdullah a Bugis, refused to punish a member of the Bugis Malays he had sent to guard Bukit Nanas who murdered a villager from the Batu Bara ethnic group. Angered by Raja Abdullah's refusal to take action against the murderer nor pay compensation for the death of one of his men as an alternative, the Batu Bara Malays' leader Mohamed Akib informed Raja Mahdi of the incident and said they would support him if he wanted to fight against Raja Abdullah.
Raja Mahdi, supported by the Sumatran traders laid siege to the fort of Klang. Mohamad Akib however was shot and killed in 1867 while fighting at the fort, his younger brother Mohamed Tahir assumed leadership of the Sumatran Malays. Mohamad Akib's body together with several other slain Sumatran Malays were buried within the grounds of the fort, whose graves still remain there to this day. Raja Abdullah evacuated with his family to Malacca, where he died, while his two sons continued with the fighting. In March 1867, Raja Mahdi gained possession of the control of Klang. One of Abdullah's sons, Raja Ismail, returned with three small ships to lay siege to Raja Mahdi, but was unable to take Klang; when the Selangor Civil War broke out, Kapitan Cina Yap Ah Loy was faced with internecine fighting among dissident Chinese groups as well as attacks from Malay factions. The two largest Chinese gangs, the Hai San and the Ghee Hin, had engaged in fighting to gain control of tin production in the town; the Chinese factions would joined opposing sides in the civil war, with the Ghee Hin siding with Raja Mahdi, the Hai San with Yap Ah Loy siding with Tengku Kudin.
At Kanching, the headman Yap Ah Sze, an ally of Yap Ah Loy was murdered, most at the instigation of Chong Chong, another Hakka headman. Yap Ah Loy, the Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, went to Kanching with his men to drive out Chong Chong, many from the Kanching faction we
Semenyih is a mukim and town in Hulu Langat District, Malaysia along the Kajang–Seremban road highway. The meaning of the name of the town is uncertain and it does not appear in any dictionary, it is related to its past. According to an oral story, it is based from a word in the Negeri Sembilan dialect, meaning "hidden" - the standard Malay word for "hidden" will be sembunyi; the surrounding area is hilly, the highest peak nearby is Bukit Arang, 560 m high. This makes the area home to numerous scenic waterfalls. A more popular tourist attraction in the town is the Ostrich Wonderland Show Farm; the town is becoming more accessible, with new highways. New development such as the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, has contributed to the growth in population; the 15,100 people recorded in the 1991 census had grown to over 45,000 by 2000. This corresponds to an annual growth rate of 12.9%, compared with the national average of 2.66% over the same period. A 1.5 billion ringgit incinerator project was planned for a site between Semenyih and nearby Broga by the federal government.
In early 2005, a temporary injunction was issued, stopping work on the project, in response to a lawsuit by residents of the two towns. The project has since been scrapped. Bandar Sunway Semenyih is a new township located along the Kajang Semenyih road. There are two new highways near to this township: 1. Silk Highway, which belongs to a subsidiary of Sunway Group, a property conglomerate.2. Lekas Highway, which belongs to IJM Corporation, another conglomerate in Malaysia; this highway allows access to Kuala Seremban. The township construction has been planned in 19 phases; as of 2008 seven phases had been completed. Facilities include a clubhouse with a swimming coffee house. A river runs through the township. Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Semenyih University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus Semenyih is served by the UNMC-Kajang Shuttle Bus. Kajian Geografi Semenyih Portal Komuniti Semenyih Bandar Sunway Semenyih web.archive.org Sunway Semenyih Residents association website
KTM Komuter is a commuter rail system in Malaysia operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu. It was introduced in 1995 to provide local rail services in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding Klang Valley suburban areas; the service was introduced in Greater Penang in September 2015 after the completion of the Ipoh-Padang Besar Electrification and Double-Tracking Project. On 10 October 2015, the southern sector service was introduced between Seremban and Gemas in Negeri Sembilan after the completion of the Seremban-Gemas Electrification and Double-Tracking Project, although a route revamp in July 2016 saw the southern sector services merged with that of the central sector, with the southern terminus being pulled back from Gemas to Pulau Sebang/Tampin; the trains used are air-conditioned electric multiple units.'Park & Ride' facilities are provided at stations at a nominal charge. KTM Komuter contributed RM146.2 million to group revenue in 2017, carrying a total of 37.235 million passengers. The total number of passengers travelling with KTM Komuter in 2017 shows a decrease of 10.2% following the ongoing Klang Valley Double Track Project which involves the rehabilitation project on 42 kilometres of tracks between Rawang and Salak Selatan scheduled to be completed in 2019.
KTM Komuter's 175 km metre-gauge network in the Central Sector cover in Klang Valley has 53 stations. It consists of namely the Port Klang Line and Seremban Line. Transfers between the two main lines can be made at any of the four stations on the central core: KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Bank Negara and Putra. Same-platform or cross-platform interchange is available at Kuala Lumpur. KTM Komuter services shopping complexes and recreational centres; the Mid Valley station opened in 2004 next to the Mid Valley Megamall. Other shopping centres near KTM Komuter stations are Subang Parade, ÆON BiG Subang Jaya and The MINES. Passengers for Kuala Lumpur International Airport may take the KTM Komuter to Nilai Komuter halt and change to an airport bus, or they may change at KL Sentral station to the dedicated KLIA Ekspres. Interchange with the Rapid network is available at Bandar Tasik Selatan station for the Sri Petaling Line and at KL Sentral for the Kelana Jaya Line. Passengers may transfer to the Ampang Line in the city centre at Bank Negara station by means of a 200-metre covered walk to the Bandaraya LRT station.
If passengers wish to go to Subang Airport, they can take the KTM Skypark Link to Subang Skypark at the Terminal Skypark KS03 from KL Sentral station KS01 KTM Komuter tickets are sold at counters and via vending machines, available at all stations and halts. The service is subject to overcrowding during rush hours. To help alleviate this, the operator introduced a new queuing system to help passengers line up when the trains are coming; the lines are painted on the floor with three colour codes representing each of the train set. The system was first implemented at KL Sentral station on 17 October 2008; the operator is considering introducing express services between Sungai Buloh and Kajang stations and between Kuala Lumpur and Shah Alam station during rush hours by the end of 2008. From 15 December 2015, the routes of Seremban Line and Port Klang Line were switched as part of a six-month trial. Trains from Seremban began heading towards Batu Caves, while trains from Port Klang headed towards Rawang, vice versa.
Transfers could be done at the four shared stations. KTM Komuter service to stations north of Rawang was run as a shuttle service when it was extended beyond Rawang to Rasa in April 2007, to Kuala Kubu Bharu in January 2008, to Tanjung Malim on 1 June 2009; the Rawang-Tanjung Malim shuttle service was absorbed into the main Port Klang Line on 11 July 2016. On 11 July 2016, the KTM Komuter Southern Sector, a shuttle service between Seremban and Pulau Sebang/Tampin, was absorbed into the Seremban Line, adding four more stations to the line, namely Senawang, Sungai Gadut and Pulau Sebang/Tampin. On 11 September 2015, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad introduced the Northern Sector KTM Komuter Shuttle service between Gurun in Kedah, Butterworth in Penang and Kamunting in Perak; this followed the completion of the Ipoh-Padang Besar Electrification and Double-Tracking Project in December 2014. On 1 January 2016, a second line was introduced between Butterworth and Padang Besar in Perlis, while on 17 January 2016, the Gurun-Butterworth-Kamunting route was replaced with two separate routes: Butterworth-Gurun and Butterworth-Kamunting.
The three-line service operated until 1 July 2016 when the Butterworth-Gurun route was dropped, subsequently on 1 September 2016, the Butterworth-Kamunting route was modified to run from Bukit Mertajam to Padang Rengas and vice versa, with Bukit Mertajam as the interchange station with the Butterworth-Padang Besar line. KTMB introduced a new service for the southern route, KTM Komuter Southern Sector, on 10 October 2015 following the completion of the Seremban-Gemas Electrified Double Tracking Project on 30 October 2013; this service is the second KTM Komuter service outside the Klang Valley after the northern counterpart. The Gemas and Batang Melaka stops were removed starting 20 June 2016 with the train running between Seremban and Pulau Sebang/Tampin. Subsequently, the shuttle service was terminated on 11 July 2016 when it was absorbed into the Seremban Line; the Komuter service was built from existing lines, with minor alterations. Relevant station platforms were add