Kalamazoo College known as K College or K, is a private liberal arts college founded in 1833 in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The college campus is located east of Western Michigan University; the school was founded by American Baptist ministers, but today it maintains no religious affiliation. Kalamazoo College is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association, it is listed in Loren Pope's Colleges. In 2012, Forbes rated it 65th of America's Best Colleges, the highest ranked private college in Michigan, it was known as a leading producer of Peace Corps volunteers among small liberal arts colleges. Kalamazoo College was founded in 1833 by a group of Baptist ministers as the Michigan and Huron Institute, its charter was granted on April 22, 1833, the first school chartered by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan. Instruction at the Institute began in fall 1836. In 1837, the name of the fledgling college was changed to the "Kalamazoo Literary Institute" and school officials made their first attempt to secure recognition as a college from the state of Michigan.
In 1838, the University of Michigan opened the Kalamazoo Branch of the University of Michigan, providing a local competitor to the Literary Institute. In 1840, the two schools merged, from 1840 to 1850 the College operated as the Kalamazoo Branch of the University of Michigan. In 1850, the Kalamazoo Literary Institute name was restored and in 1855 the school received an educational charter from the State of Michigan, establishing explicit recognition of the school as a college. After receiving its educational charter, the school changed its name to Kalamazoo College. James Andrus Blinn Stone, the first president of Kalamazoo College, led the school from 1842 through 1863 and was responsible for instituting the high academic standards that allowed the college to receive its charter. Shortly after becoming president, Stone proposed the addition of a theological seminary to increase the supply of ministers in the region. With the support of the Baptist church, classes at the Kalamazoo Theological Seminary began in 1848 with 11 students.
At the same time, the Female Department continued to expand under the watchful eye of Lucinda Hinsdale Stone. In 1845-46 half of the 90 students enrolled in Kalamazoo were women; the Stones played a role in the creation of the Republican Party. A meeting of disgruntled Michigan Whigs and abolitionists at the Stones' Kalamazoo residence set the date for an anti-slavery convention in Jackson, which resulted in the formal birth of the Republican Party; the first known student of African descent to attend Kalamazoo College was ex-slave Rufus Lewis Perry. Perry left before he received a diploma, he was ordained a Baptist minister in Ann Arbor in 1861, earned a Ph. D. from State University in Louisville, Kentucky. Jamaican-born brothers Solomon and John Williamson were the first black graduates from "K," receiving their diplomas in 1911. Kalamazoo College served as a pioneer in coed education, granting its first degree to a woman, Catherine V. Eldred, in 1870. In 1877, Kalamazoo College students published the first edition of The Index, a student-run newspaper that continues to publish today.
The college publishes The Cauldron, an annual literary-arts journal, The Passage, an annual compilation of students' work from study abroad. Kalamazoo College's reputation as an academic powerhouse and a leader in international education was built during the presidency of Weimer Hicks, who served from 1954 to 1971. Hicks conceived of the "K Plan" program under which most Kalamazoo students spend at least one term abroad and spend at least one term working in an academic internship; as part of the original K Plan, Kalamazoo College students could attend school year-round. One typical pattern was: First year: Fall: on campus. However, the college scrapped its summer term in 1996 due to the difficulty of attracting students to a year-round college. On January 3, 2006, Kalamazoo College opened the new Upjohn Library Commons which includes the renovated skeleton of the older library, an extension which adds to its volume capacity. Kalamazoo offers 30 majors spread across the fields of Fine Arts, Humanities and Classical Languages and Literature, Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Social Sciences.
Additionally, the college offers 22 minors, 5 special programs, 13 concentrations. It is ranked number five in The Washington Post's Hidden Gems college list, as the best school in Michigan and 52nd best college in the nation by Forbes, 68th in US News & World Report's category of national liberal arts colleges, is listed in Loren Pope's Colleges That Change Lives. A 2017 study by Higher Education Data Sharing lists Kalamazoo College in the top 2 percent of four-year liberal arts colleges in the United States whose graduates go on to earn a Ph. D. According to this study, Kalamazoo College is ranked number seventeen among all private liberal arts colleges and — when compared with all academic institutions — it ranks number thirty-three in Ph. Ds per capita. Among all undergraduate institutions, Kalamazoo College was #1 per capita in 2005 for recruitment of Peace Corps volunteers.96 percent of full-time faculty hold a Ph. D. or the term
Drishti, or focused gaze, is a means for developing concentrated intention. It relates to the fifth limb of yoga concerning sense withdrawal, as well as the sixth limb dharana relating to concentration. In Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, each asana is associated with one of the 8 focused gazes, namely Angusthamadhye, Nasagre, Parshva, Urdhva, Nābhicakre, Padayoragre dṛṣṭi. In some other styles such as Sivananda Yoga, less use is made of dṛṣṭi, fewer types are employed; the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali do not mention dṛṣṭi. The sixth limb, however requires holding one's mind onto an inner state, subject or topic; the mind can for example be fixed on a mantra, one's breath, or a part of the body such as the navel or the tip of the tongue. This is an internal concentration of attention, not a gaze. In the Bhagavad Gita VI.13, Krishna instructs the hero Arjuna to "hold one's body and head erect in a straight line and stare at the tip of the nose". The 1737 Joga Pradīpikā uses the same two dṛṣṭi, Nāsāgre and Bhrūmadhye, requiring their use with each of the 84 asanas described in the text.
Styles of modern yoga as exercise such as Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, Iyengar Yoga and Sivananda Yoga make differing uses of dṛṣṭi. Each yoga āsana is associated in Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga with a particular dṛṣṭi. There are eight dṛṣṭis. Iyengar Yoga speaks of dṛṣṭi, but in its instructions for some asanas tells the practitioner to look in a certain direction, for example upwards in Trikonasana and forwards in Virabhadrasana II. Sivananda Yoga makes use of two dṛṣṭi, namely Nāsāgre and Bhrūmadhye, for tratak exercise rather than in asana practice. Vishnudevananda cautions that prolonged or incorrect practice may cause problems for the eye muscles or nervous system. Initial practice is done for only minutes at a time, but is increased to up to ten minute intervals
The Brunswick Line is a MARC commuter rail line between Washington, D. C. and Martinsburg, West Virginia, with a branch to Frederick, Maryland. It serves the northern and western suburbs of Washington; the line, MARC's longest at 74 miles, is operated under contract to MARC by Bombardier Transportation and runs on CSX-owned track, including the Metropolitan, Old Main Line, Cumberland Subdivisions. It is the successor to commuter services provided by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, which date to the mid-19th century. Prior to MARC, the B&O operated commuter trains between Washington and Martinsburg, which continued after the start of Amtrak on May 1, 1971. Maryland began subsidizing the trains in 1974 and, in 1975, assumed full responsibility for the subsidy and equipment replacement. West Virginia followed suit soon after. In 1983, Maryland – along with a number of other Northeastern states – took control of its commuter railroads, organizing them under the "MARC" service name. Trains on the Brunswick Line were operated under contract by CSX Transportation, successor to the B&O. Brunswick Line service was augmented in 1986 when Amtrak transferred its Washington–Martinsburg Blue Ridge to MARC after agreeing to subsidize the train for five years.
In May 2010, MARC announced that it planned to find a new operator for the Brunswick and Camden Lines after CSX announced its desire to discontinue operation of commuter trains. MARC selected Bombardier Transportation Services USA Corporation to replace CSX, BTS assumed operations and maintenance of the lines on June 29, 2013. CSX continues to dispatch the lines. Brunswick Line trains have 3–6 single or bilevel passenger cars and one or two diesel locomotives; the trains operate in a push-pull configuration, with the cab car facing Washington. Prior to being replaced by new Bombardier Multilevel II cars, MARC's ex-Metra Pullman Gallery cars were used on the Brunswick Line, the only MARC line with all low-level platforms; the Brunswick Line has service only on weekdays, with 9 trains in each direction, an additional train outbound from Union Station on Fridays. Three of the 9 trains in each direction serve the Frederick branch. Of the remainder, 3 inbound and 3 outbound serve Martinsburg, while the remainder originate or terminate at Brunswick.
A bus runs between Frederick and Point of Rocks, meeting trains that do not serve the Frederick Branch. Martinsburg, Harpers Ferry and Union Station are served daily by the Amtrak Capitol Limited. Connections to the Washington Metro's Red Line are available at Rockville, Silver Spring, Union stations; the Brunswick Line serves the following stations. Not all trains stop at all stations