The Kalevala is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology. It is regarded as the national epic of Karelia and Finland and is one of the most significant works of Finnish literature; the Kalevala was instrumental in the development of the Finnish national identity, the intensification of Finland's language strife and the growing sense of nationality that led to Finland's independence from Russia in 1917. The first version of The Kalevala was published in 1835; the version most known today was first published in 1849 and consists of 22,795 verses, divided into fifty folk stories. Elias Lönnrot was a physician, botanist and poet. During the time he was compiling the Kalevala he was the district health officer based in Kajaani responsible for the whole Kainuu region in the eastern part of what was the Grand Duchy of Finland, he was the son of a tailor and Ulrika Lönnrot. At the age of 21, he entered the Imperial Academy of Turku and obtained a master's degree in 1826.
His thesis was entitled De Vainamoine priscorum fennorum numine. The monograph's second volume was destroyed in the Great Fire of Turku the same year. In the spring of 1828, he set out with the aim of poetry. Rather than continue this work, though, he decided to complete his studies and entered Imperial Alexander University in Helsinki to study medicine, he earned a master's degree in 1832. In January 1833, he started as the district health officer of Kainuu and began his work on collecting poetry and compiling the Kalevala. Throughout his career Lönnrot made a total of eleven field trips within a period of fifteen years. Prior to the publication of the Kalevala, Elias Lönnrot compiled several related works, including the three-part Kantele, the Old Kalevala and the Kanteletar. Lönnrot's field trips and endeavours not only helped him to compile the Kalevala, but brought considerable enjoyment to the people he visited. Before the 18th century the Kalevala poetry was common throughout Finland and Karelia, but in the 18th century it began to disappear in Finland, first in western Finland, because European rhymed poetry became more common in Finland.
Finnish folk poetry was first written down in the 17th century and collected by hobbyists and scholars through the following centuries. Despite this, the majority of Finnish poetry remained only in the oral tradition. Finnish born nationalist and linguist Kaarle Akseli Gottlund expressed his desire for a Finnish epic in a similar vein to The Iliad and the Nibelungenlied compiled from the various poems and songs spread over most of Finland, he hoped that such an endeavour would incite a sense of nationality and independence in the native Finnish people. In 1820, Reinhold von Becker founded the journal Turun Wiikko-Sanomat and published three articles entitled Väinämöisestä; these works were an inspiration for Elias Lönnrot in creating his masters thesis at Turku University. In the 19th century, collecting became more extensive and organised. Altogether half a million pages of verse have been collected and archived by the Finnish Literature Society and other collectors in what are now Estonia and the Republic of Karelia.
The publication Suomen Kansan Vanhat Runot published 33 volumes containing 85,000 items of poetry over a period of 40 years. They have archived 65,000 items of poetry that remain unpublished. By the end of the 19th century this pastime of collecting material relating to Karelia and the developing orientation towards eastern lands had become a fashion called Karelianism, a form of national romanticism; the chronology of this oral tradition is uncertain. The oldest themes have been interpreted to have their roots in distant, unrecorded history and could be as old as 3,000 years; the newest events seem to be from the Iron Age. Finnish folklorist Kaarle Krohn proposes that 20 of the 45 poems of The Kalevala are of possible Ancient Estonian origin or at least deal with a motif of Estonian origin, it is understood that during the Finnish reformation in the 16th century the clergy forbade all telling and singing of pagan rites and stories. In conjunction with the arrival of European poetry and music this caused a significant reduction in the number of traditional folk songs and their singers.
Thus the tradition faded somewhat but was never eradicated. In total, Lönnrot made eleven field trips in search of poetry, his first trip was made in 1828 after his graduation from Turku University, but it was not until 1831 and his second field trip that the real work began. By that time he had published three articles entitled Kantele and had significant notes to build upon; this second trip was not successful and he was called back to Helsinki to attend to victims of the Second cholera pandemic. The third field trip was much more successful and led Elias Lönnrot to Viena in east Karelia where he visited the town of Akonlahti, which proved most successful; this trip yielded over copious notes. In 1833, Lönnrot moved to Kajaani where he was to spend the next 20 years as the district health officer for the region, his fourth field trip was undertaken in conjunction with his work as a doctor. This trip resulted in 49 poem
Stress Test: Reflections on Financial Crises is a 2014 memoir by former United States Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner, written as an account of the effort to save the United States economy from collapsing in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. Journalist Michael Grunwald is credited as Geithner's collaborator for the writing, it was listed for five consecutive weeks on The New York Times Non-Fiction Bestseller list upon its release in May 2014. Stress Test details how “The financial crisis exposed our system of consumer protection as a dysfunctional mess, leaving ordinary Americans way too vulnerable to fraud and other malfeasance", notes that "Many borrowers in subprime markets, bit off more than they could chew because they didn’t understand the absurdly complex and opaque terms of their financial arrangements, or were channeled into the riskiest deals.” Stress Test: Reflections on Financial Crises, by Timothy F. Geithner. ISBN 9780804138611
In logic, finite model theory, computability theory, Trakhtenbrot's theorem states that the problem of validity in first-order logic on the class of all finite models is undecidable. In fact, the class of valid sentences over finite models is not recursively enumerable. Trakhtenbrot's theorem implies, it seems counter-intuitive that being valid over all structures is'easier' than over just the finite ones. The theorem was first published in 1950: "The Impossibility of an Algorithm for the Decidability Problem on Finite Classes". We follow; that is, the set is undecidable. Let σ be a relational vocabulary with one at least binary relation symbol; the set of σ-sentences valid in all finite structures is not recursively enumerable. Remarks This implies that Gödel's completeness theorem fails in the finite since completeness implies recursive enumerability, it follows that there is no recursive function f such that: if φ has a finite model it has a model of size at most f. In other words, there is no effective analogue to the Löwenheim–Skolem theorem in the finite.
This proof is taken from Chapter 10, section 4, 5 of Mathematical Logic by H.-D. Ebbinghaus; as in the most common proof of Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem through using the undecidability of the halting problem, for each Turing machine M there is a corresponding arithmetical sentence ϕ M derivable from M, such that it is true if and only if M halts on the empty tape. Intuitively, ϕ M asserts "there exists a natural number, the Gödel code for the computation record of M on the empty tape that ends with halting". If the machine M does halt in finite steps the complete computation record is finite there is a finite initial segment of the natural numbers such that the arithmetical sentence ϕ M is true on this initial segment. Intuitively, this is because in this case, proving ϕ M requires the arithmetic properties of only finitely many numbers. If the machine M does not halt in finite steps ϕ M is false in any finite model, since there's no finite computation record of M that ends with halting.
Thus, if M halts, ϕ M is true in some finite models. If M does not halt, ϕ M is false in all finite models. So, M does not halt if and only; the set of machines that does not halt is not recursively enumerable, so the set of valid sentences over finite models is not recursively enumerable. In this section we exhibit a more rigorous proof from Libkin. Note in the above statement that the corollary entails the theorem, this is the direction we prove here. Theorem For every relational vocabulary τ with at least one binary relation symbol, it is undecidable whether a sentence φ of vocabulary τ is finitely satisfiable. Proof According to the previous lemma, we can in fact use finitely many binary relation symbols; the idea of the proof is similar to the proof of Fagin's theorem, we encode Turing machines in first-order logic. What we want to prove is that for every Turing machine M we construct a sentence φM of vocabulary τ such that φM is finitely satisfiable if and only if M halts on the empty input, equivalent to the halting problem and therefore undecidable.
Let M= ⟨Q, Σ, δ, q0, Qa, Qr⟩ be a deterministic Turing machine with a single infinite tape. Q is the set of states, Σ is the input alphabet, Δ is the tape alphabet, δ is the transition function, q0 is the initial state, Qa and Qr are the sets of accepting and rejecting states. Since we are dealing with the problem of halting on an empty input we may assume w.l.o.g. that Δ= and that 0 represents a blank, while 1 represents some tape symbol. We define τ so that we can represent computations: τ:= Where: < is a linear order and min is a constant symbol for the minimal element with respect to <. T0 and T1 are tape predicates. Ti indicates that position s at time t contains i, where i ∈. Hq's are head predicates. Hq indicates that at time t the machine is in state q, its head is in position s; the sentence φM states that <, min, Ti's and Hq's are interpreted as above and that the machine halts. The halting condition is equivalent to saying that Hq∗ holds for some s, t and q∗ ∈ Qa ∪ Qr and after that state, the configuration of the machine does not change.
Configurations of a halting machine can be represented as a τ sentence. The sentence φM is: φ ≡ α ∧ β ∧ γ ∧ η ∧ ζ ∧ θ. We break it down by components: α states that < is a linear order and that min is its minima
This is a list of squares in Malta. It includes the main square in every locality of Republic of Malta situated on the islands of Malta and Comino. Bay Square Church Square - The main square of Attard. John Paul II Square St. Anne Square Robert Fenech Square - The main and only square in Balzan. Profs. Aquilina Square Mattia Preti Square St. Philip Square Victory Square - The main square of Birgu 28th February Square Chickens Square Carmelo Rizzo Square Joseph Briffa Square Railway Square St. Alyosius Square St. Frances Square St. Helen Square - The main square of Birkirkara. Hero Square - The main square of Swatar, hamlet in Birkirkara. Carmelo Caruana Square Church Square - The main square of Birżebbuġa. Hamilkar Barka Square Republic Square Sacred Heart's Square Summit Square Ta' Pajtier Square Ramon Perellos Square - The main square of Qajjenza, not official hamlet in Birżebbuġa. Bonnici Square Church of Nativity Square Cospicua Square Gavino Gulia Square - The main square of Bormla. Paolino Vassallo Square St. Margret Square St. Theresa Square Frances Abela Square - The main square of Dingli.
Ġużè Abela Square Monument Square Psaigon Square Bro. R. Gauci Square Council of Europe Square Joseph Gauci Square Reggie Miller Square - The main square of Fgura. E. S. Tonna Square Filippo Sceberras Square Graneries Square - This known as the Small Graneries Square, to not confuse it with St. Publius Square. Pope John XXIII Square Robert Samut Square Sir Luigi Preziosi Square St. Anne Square St. Calcidonio Square St. Publius Square - The main square of Floriana and the largest square in Malta; this square is known as Fuq il-Fosos. Angelo Dalli Square Church's Square - the main square of Gudja. De La Salle Square Memè Scicluna Square - The main square of Gżira. Turo Colombo Square Church Square - The main and only square in Għargħur. Bir id-Deheb Square - The main square of Bir id-Deheb, not official hamlet between Żejtun and Għaxaq. St. George Square St. Mary Square - The main square of Għaxaq. St. Philip Square St. Roque Square - The largest square in Għaxaq. 7th June, 1919 Square Hamrun Victims Square Parish Priest Muscat - The main square of Ħamrun's Immaculate Conception Parish.
St. Paul Square - The main square of Ħamrun, it is known as Fra Diego Square. L. J. B. Scicluna Square Cremona Square - the main square of Iklin Archbishop Gonzi Square - The main square of Kalkara. Holy Family Square Kirkop Square St. Leonard Square - The main square of Kirkop. Sunrise Square Transfiguration Square - The main and only square in Lija. Church Square Rev. Joe M. Camilleri Square St. Andrews' Square - The main square of Luqa. War Victims Square - The largest square in Luqa. Youths Square Bro. Magri Square G. F. Abela Square Lorry Sant Square Mifsud Bonnici Square - the main playground and park of Marsaskala Rev. Tarcisio Agius Square - the main square of Marsaskala Our Lady of Pompeii Square - the main square of Marsaxlokk Rev. Joseph Caruana Square Bastion's Square Blessed Maria Adeodata Pisani Square Council Square Greek's Gate Square Mesquita Square St. Agatha's Square St. Paul's Square - the main square of Mdina. St. Publius Square Cross Square - The main square of Tas-Salib area.
Narcis Square Parish Square - The main square of Mellieħa. Pope Visit Square Thomas Spratt Square Bay Square - The main square of Għajn Tuffieħa area, part of the non official hamlet of Manikata. Jubilee Square - The main square of Mgarr. 16th September Square Brittany Square Flower Square Għonoq Square Marco Montebello
Elections to Brighton and Hove Borough Council on the south coast of England were held on 9 May 1996. The whole council was up for election and all 78 councillors were elected from 26 wards. With Councillors taking office only a year after a transitional year Labour won control of the council after controlling Brighton Borough Council since 1986 and Hove Borough Council since 1995. Following the election, the composition of the council was as follows: Candidates who were councillors in the Brighton Borough Council or Hove Borough Council are indicated with a vote share Keilty G.* Lab 1,421 50.8 Newland D. Lab 1,309 - Walshe B. Ms.* Lab 1,300 - Willows P. Con 1,090 39.0 Jackson M. Con 1,066 - Jackson G. Ms. Con 1,055 - Walls M. Ms. LD 185 6.6 Bates E. LD 167 - Bickle P. Ms. LD 164 - McHenry J. Ms. Green 99 3.5 Turnout 43.1 11.8 vote share Smith J. Ms.* Lab 2,100 61.0 Schaffer S. Ms.* Lab 1,990 - Morley C. Lab 1,789 - Chapman K. Ms. Green 665 19.3 Dudeney R. Ms. Con 380 11.0 Smith P. Ms. Con 338 - Radford-Kirby E.
Ms. Con 323 - Cornelius C. LD 296 8.6 Turnout 34.7 41.7 vote share Lepper D.* Lab 1,891 67.1 Lepper J. Ms. Lab 1,798 - Finch B.* Lab 1,742 - Franklin C. Ms. Con 384 13.6 McGrath M. Con 377 - Norman K. Con 359 - Gardner P. Green 276 9.8 Lamb D. LD 266 9.4 Powell D. LD 194 - Turnout 32.1 53.5 vote share Duncan I.* Lab 1,577 59.2 Burgess S.* Lab 1,567 - Mitchell G. Ms.* Lab 1,529 - Radford D. Ms. Con 634 23.8 Sampson S. Con 593 - Amin J. Con 589 - Hodd J. Ms. Green 235 8.8 Jones M. LD 217 8.1 Turnout 35.4 35.4 vote share Marsh M. Ms.* Lab 1,347 48.4 Turner D.* Lab 1,309 - Johnston M. Lab 1,275 - Mears M. Ms.* Con 1,003 36.0 Smith D. Con 916 - Fairs B. Ms. Con 906 - Dale K. Milt Lab 162 5.8 Clements I. LD 140 5.0 Coyne B. Ms. Green 133 4.8 Howard P. Ms. LD 126 - Howard A. LD 114 - Turnout 29.2 12.4 vote share Meadows A. Ms.* Lab 1,097 53.9 Hazelgrove J. Lab 1,079 - Tonks F.* Lab 1,019 - Gunn K. Ms.* Con 407 20.0 Amiet J. Ms. Con 399 - Stevens J. Con 375 - Avey C. Res 227 11.1 Lovatt J. LD 179 8.8 Mills A. Ms. Green 127 6.2 Turnout 27.1 33.9 vote share Lewis P.
Con 1,406 47.4 Worgan M. Con 1,398 - Wade S. Con 1,325 - James H. Ms. Lab 1,250 42.1 Anthony D. Lab 1,242 - Spillman H. Lab 1,133 - Alldred E. LD 187 6.3 Phillips J. Ms. Green 123 4.1 Turnout 45.3 5.3 vote share Carden B.* Lab 1,720 68.5 Steer H. Lab 1,686 - Turner D. Lab 1,638 - Saunders D. Ms. Con 634 25.2 Braybrook B. Con 608 - Hess M. Con 533 - Gray K. Green 157 6.3 Turnout 35.1 43.2 vote share Theobald C. Ms.* Con 2,156 56.2 Theobald G.* Con 2,153 - Sheldon J. Con 2,076 - Blackwood R. Lab 1,115 29.0 Blackwood M. Ms. Lab 1,114 - Miller H. Lab 1,005 - De Souza J. Ms. LD 469 12.2 Latimer D. LD 359 - Latimer D. Ms. LD 356 - Haase A. Green 99 2.6 Turnout 52.5 27.1 vote share Caplin I.* Lab 1,611 59.3 Collier S.* Lab 1,552 - John S. Ms.* Lab 1,434 - Kemble E. Con 709 26.1 Greenwood C. Ms. Con 704 - Veale M. Con 681 - Donovan N. LD 300 11.0 James I. LD 295 - MyltonThorley M. Ms. Green 95 3.5 Turnout 38.4 33.2 vote share McCaffery J. Ms. Lab 1,803 49.3 Austin L. Ms. Lab 1,792 - Spray J. Ms.* Lab 1,756 - Mallender G. Con 1,264 34.6 Marchant V.* Con 1,262 - Nilchiber K.
Con 1,185 - Hunter T. LD 334 9.1 Potts S. LD 294 - Schelwald E. LD 255 - Littman L. Green 254 6.9 Turnout 44.9 14.7 vote share Lythell J.* Lab 1,623 59.8 Bodfish K. Lab 1,566 - Townsend J.* Lab 1,540 - Allaway H. Con 621 22.9 Vivian S. Ms. Con 601 - Wells S. Ms. Con 562 - Chadwick S. Ms. Green 275 10.1 Blease J. Ms. LD 195 7.2 Blease J. LD 192 7.2 Turnout 38.0 36.9 vote share Ping N.* Lab 1,553 52.9 Pennington R.* Lab 1,430 - Warmington J. Lab 1,404 - Cameron J. Con 776 26.5 Boggon M.* Con 758 - Cockman D. Con 741 - Hyde Parker A. Green 347 11.8 Freeman T. LD 257 8.8 Guild J. LD 241 - Cotton E. LD 203 - Turnout 36.3 26.5 vote share Wrigley S. Ms.* Con 1,745 52.7 Hunt B. Con 1,738 - Radford-Kirby S.* Con 1,697 - Bunting M. Lab 783 23.6 Moriarty J. Lab 732 - Gray A. Ms. Lab 715 - Davidson D. Ms. LD 470 14.2 De Souza H. LD 470 - Edwards P. LD 437 - Grant M. Ind Con 201 6.1 Wright N.* Ind Con 193 - Wright A. Ms. Ind Con 181 - Berrington J. Green 113 3.4 Turnout 41.7 29.0 vote share Austin R. Lab 1,784 62.6 Middleton M.* Lab 1,684 - Robinson N.* Lab 1,680 - Bowes P.
Con 437 - Gowans J. Con 437 15.3 Larkin R. Ms. Con 414 - Needham I. Green 358 12.6 Heale R. LD 269 9.4 Oldfield E. Ms. LD 233 - Huggins B. LD 231 - Turnout 31.8 47.3 vote share West P. Green 1,576 43.7 Charleton S. Lab 1,517 42.1 Gwyn-Jones L. Ms.* Lab 1,451 - Simpson C. Ms.* Lab 1,408 - Whale R. Ms. Green 973 - Young F. Ms. Green 845 - Brimmell C. Con 311 8.6 Maclean E. Ms. Con 259 - Maclean I. Con 237 - Fairweather M. LD 199 5.5 Harden W. LD 162 - Parker W. LD 135 - Turnout 50.1 1.6 vote share Adams M. Ms.* Con 1,572 63.3 Kapp J.* Con 1,525 - Rowe B.* Con 1,525 - Jones A. Lab 478 19.2 Montague S. Lab 461 - Lord S. Lab 459 - Latham B. LD 342 13.8 Innes D. Ms. LD 331 - Walls P. LD 274 - Jester M. Green 92 3.7 Turnout 36.5 44.0 vote share Framroze T.* Lab 1,597 53.1 Hawkes P. Ms.* Lab 1,589 - Beishon G. Ms. Lab 1,551 - Careless D. Con 922 30.7 Fairhall D. Con 886 - Pacifico M. Con 854 - Bailey P. LD 258 8.6 Tofts P. Green 231 7.7 Imms D. Ms. LD 207 - Garrett P. LD 207 - Turnout 40.2 22.4 vote share Bassam S.* Lab 1,709 60.3 Ballance J. Lab 1,581 - Durr A.* Lab 1,579 - Dudeney D.
Con 623 22.0 Toner M.* Con 580 - Plater L. Con 549 - Santamaria L. Green 260 9.2 Weller P. LD 241 8.5 Turnout 33.6 38.3 vote share Battle S. Lab 1,235 43.8 WarmanBrown F. Ms.* Lab 1,217 - Gibbling M.* Lab 1,198 - Martin P. Con 973 34.5 Peltzer Dunn G. Con 968 - Bennett J. Ms. Con 941 - Bates K. Ms. LD 234 8.3 Denyer P. LD 210 - Hogan V. Ind Con 208 7.4 Da Costa J. Ms. Green 168 6.0 Elgood P. LD 167 - Turnout 35.6 9.3 vote share Buttimer A. Ms.* Con 1,221 31.1 Brown V. Ms.* Con 1,186 - Oxley B.* Ind 1,041 26.5 Cooper R. Lab 1,008 25.7 Benians G. Lab 994 - Gill P. Lab 965 - Bull R. Ms. LD 305 7
In the elections for the seventh Majlis, systematically rigged by the military and Interior ministry, handpicked representatives of Reza Shah were chosen to the parliament to ensure the exclusion of recalcitrants and "unsuitable candidates who insisted on running found themselves either in jail or banished from their localities". During the campaign, all public speeches were prohibited by police. Hassan Modarres, Tehran's most voted deputy in the previous election, was expelled without a single vote in his favor, he objected the results, famously asking "What about the vote that I had cast for myself?". Other candidates such as Mohammad Mossadegh, Hassan Taghizadeh and Hossein Ala' were not elected despite the demand for them; the royalist supporters of Reza Shah flourishing in Progress Party, were the majority of the parliament, dominating about 90% of the seats. The opposition was a minority with only two-seats held by Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi representing Yazd and Mahmoud Reza Tolou of Lahijan