Kalki called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga, one of the four periods in the endless cycle of existence in Vaishnavism cosmology. He is described in the Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword; the description and details of Kalki are inconsistent among the Puranic texts. He is, for example, only an invisible force destroying evil and chaos in some texts, while an actual person who kills those who persecute others, portrayed as someone leading an army of Brahmin warriors in some, his mythology has been compared to the concepts of Messiah, Apocalypse and Maitreya in other religions. Kalki is found in Buddhist texts. In Tibetan Buddhism, the Kalachakra-Tantra' The name Kalki is derived based Kal, which means "time"; the literal meaning of Kalki is "dirty, sinful", which Brockington states does not make sense in the avatara context.
This has led scholars such as Otto Schrader to suggest that the original term may have been karki which morphed into Kalki. This proposal is supported by two versions of Mahabharata manuscripts that have been found, where the Sanskrit verses name the avatar to be "karki", rather than "kalki". Kalki is an avatara of Vishnu. Avatara means "descent" and refers to a descent of the divine into the material realm of human existence; the Garuda Purana lists ten avatars, with Kalki being the tenth. He is described as the avatar, he ends the darkest and chaotic stage of the Kali Yuga to remove adharma and ushers in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword. He restarts a new cycle of time, he is described as a Brahmin warrior in the Puranas. In the Buddhist text Kalachakra Tantra, the righteous kings are called Kalki living in Sambhala. There are many Kalki in this text, each fighting barbarism and chaos; the last Kalki is called "Cakrin" and is predicted to end the chaos and degeneration by assembling a large army to eradicate the "forces of Islam".
A great war and Armageddon will destroy states the text. According to Donald Lopez – a professor of Buddhist Studies, Kalki is predicted to start the new cycle of perfect era where "Buddhism will flourish, people will live long, happy lives and righteousness will reign supreme"; the text is significant in establishing the chronology of the Kalki idea to be from post-7th century the 9th or 10th century. Lopez states that the Buddhist text borrowed it from Hindu mythology. Other scholars, such as Yijiu Jin, state that the text originated in Central Asia in the 10th-century, Tibetan literature picked up a version of it in India around 1027 CE. There is no mention of Kalki in the Vedic literature; the epithet "Kalmallkinam", meaning "brilliant remover of darkness", is found in the Vedic literature for Rudra, interpreted to be "forerunner of Kalki". Kalki appears for the first time in the great war epic Mahabharata; the mention of Kalki in the Mahabharata occurs only once, over the verses 3.188.85–3.189.6.
The Kalki avatar is found in the Maha-Puranas such as Vishnu Purana, Matsya Purana, Bhagavata Purana. However, the details relating the Kalki mythologies are divergent between the Epic and the Puranas, as well as within the Puranas. In the Mahabharata, according to Hiltebeitel, Kalki is an extension of the Parasurama avatar legend where a Brahmin warrior destroys Kshatriyas who were abusing their power to spread chaos and persecution of the powerless; the Epic character of Kalki restores dharma, restores justice in the world, but does not end the cycle of existence. The Kalkin section in the Mahabharata occurs in the Markandeya section. There, states Luis Reimann, can "hardly be any doubt that the Markandeya section is a late addition to the Epic. Making Yudhisthira ask a question about conditions at the end of Kali and the beginning of Krta — something far removed from his own situation — is a device for justifying the inclusion of this subject matter in the Epic."According to Cornelia Dimmitt, the "clear and tidy" systematization of Kalki and the remaining nine avatars of Vishnu is not found in any of the Maha-Puranas.
The coverage of Kalki in these Hindu texts is scant, in contrast to the legends of Matsya, Varaha, Vamana and Krishna, all of which are and extensively described. According to Dimmitt, this was because just like the concept of the Buddha as a Vishnu avatar, the concept of Kalki was "somewhat in flux" when the major Puranas were being compiled; this myth may have developed in the Hindu texts both as a reaction to the invasions of the Indian subcontinent by various armies over the centuries from its northwest, the mythologies these invaders brought with them. According to John Mitchiner, the Kalki concept was borrowed "in some measure from similar Jewish, Christian and other religions". Mitchiner states that some Puranas such as the Yuga Purana do not mention Kalki and offer a different cosmology than the other Puranas; the Yuga Purana mythologizes in greater details the post-Maurya era Indo-Greek and Saka era, while the Manvantara theme containing the Kalki idea is mythologized greater in other Puranas.
Luis Gonzales-Reimann concurs with Mitchiner. In other texts such as the sections 2.36 and 2.37 of the Vayu Purana, states Reimann, it is not Kalkin who ends the Kali Yuga, but a different character named Pramiti. Most historians, states Arvind Sharma, link the development of Kalki mythology in Hinduism to
The Asramam Maidanam or Ashramam Maithanam is an urban park, or maidhanam, in the city of Kollam, in Kerala, India. At 72 acres, it is the largest open space within Kerala Municipal Corporation limits; the maidan is considered as one of the green lungs of the city and hosts the city's main cultural and sports events. It holds an adventure park children's park, picnic village, British Residency and mangrove forests making it an important tourism spot in the city; the Asramam maidan is the major training hub of all the driving school operators in Kollam city. Asramam Maidan was used as an aerodrome during the British Raj. At that time there were no civil aerodromes either in Thiruvananthapuram or anywhere else in the erstwhile kingdoms of Travancore and Kochi nor in the British-ruled Malabar area of the Madras Presidency. Chartered flights using Avro aircraft, would land and take off from Quilon Aerodrome; the aerodrome was used by VIPs from Madras en route to Thiruvananthapuram, who after landing at Quilon, would proceed to Thiruvananthapuram by car.
Quilon Aerodrome was used for flying training. During one such training exercise, an aircraft hit a tree on the boundary of the aerodrome, killing the pilot and the trainee. Training operations were stopped after the accident, but civilian aircraft continued to use the aerodrome; because of the loose soil in the Asramam area, the landing and take-off areas were prepared by bringing huge quantities of red laterite soil from the hilly areas. The aerodrome had strong barbed wire fencing round it, with two entry points, one at the south and the other at the north. There were no buildings in the aerodrome, not a shed, although there was a concreted area in the shape of a ring where the planes stopped after landing, it was here that the passengers boarded the plane. Planes used to land sometimes once in two months; the airport came under the control of Kerala Public Works Department. Residents of Asramam knew in advance about the arrival of planes, because the PWD authorities, on getting information about a coming arrival, hoisted a windsock on a tall wooden mast.
After the commissioning of Thiruvananthapuram airport and its development, Quilon Aerodrome went into decline, planes stopped arriving there. The aerodrome remained fenced off for a long time; the fence was destroyed and its granite stumps pilfered. The only reason the maidan was not encroached upon was. Now there are two large helipads at the maidan. Asramam Maidan is the regular venue for many events including recruitment rallies for the Indian Army, Kollam Pooram, Kollam Fest, cricket tournaments, large weddings and various events of a political or non-political nature. Kollam FestKollam Fest is an international event with focus on art, culture and tourism; the event, organised by the Kollam City Corporation, was aimed at presenting the history and culture of Kollam to the world. Kollam PooramKollam Pooram is one of the most colorful festivals of Kerala, attracting a large number of people from all parts of the state; the Kollam Pooram, organised in connection with the annual festival of the Asramam Sri Krishnaswamy Temple, is held annually at the Asramam Maidan in the month of April.
The festival has now assumed the status of a national festival, gets the biggest government allocation for such an event after Thrissur Pooram. Cricket matchesAsramam Maidan is a regular ground for the Kerala Cricket Association's matches, which are held all year round. Following a preliminary inspection by a team of experts, in 2009 plans were drawn up for the construction of an airstrip and an aviation school at Asramam Maidan. Supporters of the project said. However, after an inspection, the team reported that the maidan was not suitable for the project because of the presence of several high-rise structures in the vicinity and local protests against the project; the government of Kerala has decided to preserve the Asramam Maidan and the adjacent guest house complex in Kollam city as a heritage complex. The Corporation of Kollam has been sanctioned Rs. 52 lakhs in the 2017-18 financial year's budget for constructing cycle track around the Asramam maidan. ESIC Model & Super Speciality Hospital Traffic control room, Kerala Police International Astro Turf Hockey Stadium Dr. Nair's Hospital KTDC Tamarind Hotel Kerala Cricket Association, Kollam branch Kadappakada Sports Club Office of the Deputy Superintendent of Police, Kollam Kollam Airport Kadappakada Chinnakada List of cricket grounds in India
Margarita Piel McCoy was an American urban planner and educator. McCoy was among the first women in the United States to achieve academic tenure as a professor of urban planning, the first to chair an urban planning department. Born to Rudolf Alfred Piel and Margarita Schiele, both from brewing families, McCoy is a descendant of the originators of Piels Beer. After finishing high school in Garden City, New York, in 1940, she attended Wells College and Northwestern University. However, McCoy transferred to Boston University, where she received in Bachelor of Arts in 1944. In 1959, she began her career by serving as the planning commissioner for Massachusetts. In 1970, McCoy received her Master of Urban Planning from the University of Southern California Sol Price School of Public Policy. McCoy taught at California State Polytechnic University, where she served as Chair of the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, as well as at the University of Southern California, she retired in 1989. McCoy was an active member of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, the American Planning Association, the Planning Accreditation Board, the American Institute of Certified Planners of which she was president from 1981-1982 and was named fellow.
In 1998, the ACSP established the Margarita McCoy Award, which biannually recognizes individuals who have made an outstanding contribution toward the advancement of women in planning at institutions of higher education through service, and/or research. Notable winners have included Eugenie L. Birch, Karen R. Polenske, Dolores Hayden, Daphne Spain. 2006 - American Planning Association National Women in Planning Award 2008 - University of Southern California Sol Price School of Public Policy Alumni Guardian Award 2018 - American Planning Association National Planning Excellence Planning Pioneers Award McCoy married Alfred Mudge McCoy, Jr. on June 10, 1941 in Concord, Massachusetts. APA profile