Dead Sea Works
The Dead Sea Works is an Israeli potash plant in Sdom, on the Dead Sea coast of Israel. The company was established in 1930 by Moshe Novomeysky, it was known as the Palestine Potash Company. From 1936, it was a profitable enterprise despite attempts by the German potash cartel to strangle the business by dumping potash at below-cost prices. In the Israel War of Independence in 1948, the northern half of the production facilities was occupied by the Jordanian Legion, destroyed in the ensuing fighting. In 1951, the company was nationalized by the Israeli government under the Ministry of Development. In 1953, it was renamed the Dead Sea Works. Dead Sea Works is the world's fourth-largest supplier of potash products; the company produces magnesium chloride, industrial salts, de-icers, bath salts, table salt, raw materials for the cosmetic industry. It has customers in over 60 countries. Dead Sea Works is part of the Fertilizers Division of Israel Chemicals Ltd, it is located in the southern basin of the Dead Sea and the extracted chemicals are exported around the world.
Rather than extracting potash and other minerals from the Dead Sea by mining them directly, the company makes use of solar evaporation with 2-meter deep evaporation ponds. Dead Sea Works has been blamed by conservationists for polluting the environment and contributing to the Dead Sea's slow evaporation. Arab Potash Economy of Israel Ahava Company website 19th century boat of British explorer displayed at Dead Sea Works "Wealth from the Dead Sea" Popular Mechanics, November 1930, pp 794-798
A rest area is a public facility, located next to a large thoroughfare such as a highway, expressway, or freeway, at which drivers and passengers can rest, eat, or refuel without exiting onto secondary roads. Other names include: motorway service area, travel plaza, rest stop, service area, service station and service area, service plaza, lay-by, service centre. Facilities may include park-like areas, fuel stations, public toilets, water fountains and dump and fill stations for recreational vehicles. A rest area with limited to no public facilities is scenic area, or scenic overlook. Along some highways and roads are rest stops known as wayside parks, roadside parks, or picnic areas; the most basic rest areas have no facilities: they consist of an exit from the highway that leads to a roadway with paved shoulders, where drivers can rest, look at their maps or nearby scenery, or use cell phones. The standards and upkeep of rest areas facilities vary by jurisdiction. Rest areas have parking areas allotted for cars, buses, tractor-trailer trucks, recreational vehicles.
Many government-run rest areas tend to be located in remote and rural areas where there are no fast food nor full-service restaurants, gas stations, motels, or other traveler services nearby. The locations of these remote rest areas are marked by signs on the highway. Driving information is available at these locations, such as posted maps and other local information, along with restrooms; some rest areas have visitor information centers or highway patrol or state trooper stations with staff on duty. There might be drinking fountains, vending machines, pay telephones, a gas station, a restaurant, or a convenience store at a rest area; some rest areas provide free coffee for travelers, paid for by donations from travelers and/or donations from local businesses, civic groups, churches. Some states provide Wi-Fi access at their state-owned rest areas or are considering doing so, including California, Florida Oregon and Washington, among others. Many rest areas have picnic areas. Rest areas tend to have traveler information in the form of so-called "exit guides", which contain basic maps and advertisements for local motels and nearby tourist attractions.
Privatized commercial rest areas may take a form of a truck stop complete with a filling station, arcade video games, recreation center and laundry facilities, fast food restaurant, cafeteria, or food court all under one roof adjacent to the freeway. Some offer business services, such as ATMs, fax machines, office cubicles, Internet access; some rest areas have the reputations of being unsafe with regard to crime at night, since they are situated in remote or rural areas. California's current policy is to maintain existing public rest areas but no longer build new ones, due to the cost and difficulty of keeping them safe, although many California rest stops now feature highway patrol quarters; some of this reputation may be exaggerated, since the advent in recent years of improved lighting and security cameras in many rest stops. Rest stops continue to warn visitors of possible theft and advise those who park to keep vehicle doors locked. In Malaysia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, rest areas have prayer rooms for Muslims travelling more than 90 kilometres.
In Iran it is called Esterāhatgāh meaning the rest rest place. In Malaysia, an overhead bridge restaurant, or overhead restaurant, is a special rest area with restaurants above the expressway. Unlike typical laybys and RSAs, which are only accessible in one-way direction only, an overhead restaurant is accessible from both directions of the expressway. In Japan, there are two grades of rest areas on Japan's tollways; these are part of the tollway system, allowing a person to stop without exiting the tollway, as exiting and reentering the tollway would lead to a higher overall toll for the trip. They are named after the "Motorway Services" offered in Britain; the larger rest area is called a "Service Area", or an SA. SAs are very large facilities with parking for hundreds of cars and many busses - offering toilets, smoking areas, convenience stores, pet relief areas, regional souvenir shops, a gas station, sometimes tourist attractions, such as a ferris wheel or a view of a famous location, they are spaced about one hour apart on the system, a planned stop for tour buses.
Two Service Areas have a motel. The other grade of rest stop is a "Parking Area", or a PA. PAs are much smaller, spaced 20 minutes apart on the system. Besides a small parking lot and drink vending machines are the only consistent amenities offered, while some larger parking areas have small shops, local goods, a gas station - but are much smaller than their larger Service Area counterparts; the precursor to the tollway rest areas were public and private "Road stations" along any trunk road - places to rest and shop for local goods on the traditional road system. Popular rural roads that lead to remote tourist locations still have popular road stations, but with the rise of the tollway system popular routes have been bypassed, leading to the decline or closure to once popular road stations all over Japan. In South Korea, a rest area includes a park and sells regional specialties. Korean rest areas are big and clean. Cellphone charging is free and WiFi is available in
1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike; the revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic" comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism; the general strike lasted from April to October 1936. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.
The first phase was directed by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee and was focused on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy and the threat of martial law; the second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units.
According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred; the Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
In 1930 Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam organized and established the Black Hand, an anti-Zionist and anti-British militant organization. He recruited and arranged military training for peasants and by 1935 he had enlisted between 200 and 800 men, they were engaged in a campaign of vandalizing trees planted by farmers and British-constructed rail lines. In November 1935, two of his men engaged in a firefight with the Palestine Police patrol hunting fruit thieves and a policeman was killed. Following the incident, the police launched a manhunt and surrounded al-Qassam in a cave near Ya'bad. In the ensuing battle, al-Qassam was killed; the death of al-Qassam generated widespread outrage among Palestinian Arabs. Huge crowds accompanied Qassam's body to his grave in Haifa; the dissent in Palestine was influenced by the discovery in October 1935 at the port of Jaffa of a large arms shipment destined for the Haganah, sparking Arab fears of a Jewish military takeover of Palestine, Jewish immigration peaked in 1935, just months before Palestinian Arabs began a full-scale, nationwide revolt.
In the four years between 1933 and 1936 more than 164,000 Jewish immigrants arrived in Palestine, between 1931 and 1936 the Jewish population more than doubled from 175,000 to 370,000 people, increasing the Jewish population share from 17% to 27%, bringing about a significant deterioration in relations between Palestinian Arabs and Jews. The uprising began with the 1936 Anabta shooting, a 15 April 1936 roadblock that stopped a convoy of trucks on the Nablus to Tulkarm road during which the assailants shot two Jewish drivers, Israel Khazan, killed and Zvi Dannenberg, who died five days later; the next day members of the militant Jewish faction, the Irgun and killed two Arab workers sleeping in a hut near Petah Tikva in a revenge attack. The funeral for Khazan in Tel Aviv on 17 April attracted a huge crowd, some Jews beat up Arab bystanders and destroyed property; this was followed by the Bloody Day in Jaffa, in which an Arab mob rampaged through a residential area killing Jews and destroying property.
An Arab general strike and revolt ensued that lasted until October 1936. During the summer of that year, thousands of Jewish-farmed acres and orchards were destroyed, Jewish civilians were attacked and murdered, some Jewish communities, such as those in Beisan and Acre, fled to safer areas. Economic factors played a major role in the outbreak of the Arab revolt. Palestine's fellahin, the country's peasant farmers, comprised over two-thirds of the indigenous Arab population
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
1948 Arab–Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the newly declared State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of former British Palestine, forming the second and final stage of the 1947–49 Palestine war. The first deaths of the 1947–49 Palestine war occurred on November 30, 1947, during an ambush of two buses carrying Jews. There had been tension and conflict between the Arabs and the Jews, between each of them and the British forces since the 1917 Balfour Declaration and the 1920 creation of the British Mandate of Palestine. British policies dissatisfied both Jews; the opposition by the Arabs developed into the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, while the Jewish resistance developed into the Jewish insurgency in Palestine. In 1947, these ongoing tensions erupted into civil war, following the 29 November 1947 adoption of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, which planned to divide Palestine into three areas: an Arab state, a Jewish state, the Special International Regime encompassing the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
On 15 May 1948, the ongoing civil war transformed into an inter-state conflict between Israel and the Arab states, following the Israeli Declaration of Independence the previous day. A combined invasion by Egypt and Syria, together with expeditionary forces from Iraq, entered Palestine – Jordan having declared to Yishuv emissaries on 2 May that it would abide by a decision not to attack the Jewish state; the invading forces took control of the Arab areas and attacked Israeli forces and several Jewish settlements. The 10 months of fighting, interrupted by several truce periods, took place on the former territory of the British Mandate and for a short time in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Lebanon; as a result of the war, the State of Israel controlled both the area that the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 had recommended for the proposed Jewish state as well as 60% of the area of Arab state proposed by the 1948 Partition Plan, including the Jaffa and Ramle area, some parts of the Negev, a wide strip along the Tel Aviv–Jerusalem road, West Jerusalem and some territories in the West Bank.
Transjordan took control of the remainder of the former British mandate, which it annexed, the Egyptian military took control of the Gaza Strip. At the Jericho Conference on 1 December 1948, 2,000 Palestinian delegates called for unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity. No state was created for the Palestinian Arabs; the conflict triggered significant demographic change throughout the Middle East. Around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes in the area that became Israel, they became Palestinian refugees in what they refer to as Al-Nakba. In the three years following the war, about 700,000 Jews immigrated to Israel, with many of them having been expelled from their previous countries of residence in the Middle East. Following World War II, the surrounding Arab nations were emerging from mandatory rule. Transjordan, under the Hashemite ruler Abdullah I, gained independence from Britain in 1946 and was called Jordan in 1949, but it remained under heavy British influence.
Egypt gained nominal independence in 1922, but Britain continued to exert a strong influence on the country until the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 which limited Britain's presence to a garrison of troops on the Suez Canal until 1945. Lebanon became an independent state in 1943, but French troops would not withdraw until 1946, the same year that Syria won its independence from France. In 1945, at British prompting, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen formed the Arab League to coordinate policy between the Arab states. Iraq and Transjordan coordinated policies signing a mutual defence treaty, while Egypt and Saudi Arabia feared that Transjordan would annex part or all of Palestine, use it as a steppingstone to attack or undermine Syria and the Hijaz. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of a plan to partition the British Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish, the City of Jerusalem; the General Assembly resolution on Partition was greeted with overwhelming joy in Jewish communities and widespread outrage in the Arab world.
In Palestine, violence erupted immediately, feeding into a spiral of reprisals and counter-reprisals. The British refrained from intervening as tensions boiled over into a low-level conflict that escalated into a full-scale civil war. From January onwards, operations became militarized, with the intervention of a number of Arab Liberation Army regiments inside Palestine, each active in a variety of distinct sectors around the different coastal towns, they consolidated their presence in Samaria. Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni came from Egypt with several hundred men of the Army of the Holy War. Having recruited a few thousand volunteers, al-Husayni organized the blockade of the 100,000 Jewish residents of Jerusalem. To counter this, the Yishuv authorities tried to supply the city with convoys of up to 100 armoured vehicles, but the operation became more and more impractical as the number of casualties in the relief convoys surged. By March, Al-Hussayni's tactic had paid off. All of Haganah's armoured vehicles had been destroyed, the blockade was in full operation, hundreds of Haganah members who had tried to bring supplies into the city were killed.
The situation for those who dwelt in the Jewish settlements in the isolated Negev and North of Galilee was more critical. While the Jewish population had received strict orders r
Qumran Caves are a series of caves, some natural, some artificial, found around the archaeological site of Qumran in the Judaean Desert of the West Bank. It is in these caves; the caves are recognized in Israel as a National Heritage Site, despite the caves being in occupied Palestinian territories. The limestone cliffs above Qumran contain numerous caves that have been used over the millennia: the first traces of occupation are from the Chalcolithic period onward to the Arab period; the artificial caves relate to the period of the settlement at Qumran and were cut into the marl bluffs of the terrace on which Qumran sits. In late 1946 or early 1947, a Bedouin boy of the Ta'amireh tribe, Muhammid Ahmed el-Hamed called edh-Dhib, found a cave after searching for a lost animal, he stumbled onto the first cave containing scrolls from two thousand years ago. More Ta'amireh visited scrolls were taken back to their encampment, they were shown to Mar Samuel of the Monastery of Saint Mark in April 1947 and the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls was made known.
The location of the cave was not revealed for another 18 months, but a joint investigation of the cave site was led by Roland de Vaux and Gerald Lankester Harding from 15 February to 5 March 1949. The interest in the scrolls with the hope of money from their sale initiated a long area-wide search by the Ta'amireh to find more such scrolls, the first result of, the discovery of four caves in Wadi Murabba'at about 15 kilometers south of Qumran in 1951. In the Qumran area another cave was discovered, now referred to as Cave 2Q, in February 1952. However, only a few fragments were found in the cave. Fear of the destruction of archaeological evidence with the discovery of caves by the Bedouin led to a campaign by the French and American Schools to explore all other caves to find any remaining scrolls. Although 230 natural caves and other possible hiding places were examined in an 8-kilometer area along the cliffs near Qumran, only 40 contained any artifacts and one alone, 3Q, produced texts, the most unusual being the Copper Scroll.
4Q was discovered in September 1952 by the Ta'amireh. De Vaux, on being offered a vast amount of fragments, contacted Harding who drove the Qumran site to find that the Bedouin had discovered caves near the Qumran ruins; these were Caves 4Q, 5Q, 6Q, the most important of, 4Q which contained around three-quarters of all the scrolls found in the immediate Qumran area. The first two of these caves had been cut into the marl terrace; the third was at the entrance to the Qumran Gorge just below the aqueduct. In 1955 a survey of the terrace brought to light a staircase leading down to the remains of three more artificial caves, 7Q, 8Q and 9Q at the end of the Qumran esplanade, all of which had collapsed and had been eroded, a fourth cave, 10Q, on the outcrop which housed Caves 4Q & 5Q; the last cave containing scrolls to be found, once again by the Ta'amireh, was 11Q. Among its contents was the Temple Scroll, though it had been spirited away and its recovery was to prove long and complex. In February 2017, the discovery of cave 12Q was announced, the contents of which included storage jars and scroll fragments, but no scrolls themselves.
Iron pickaxe heads from the 1950s were found, which indicate looting had occurred. In addition, archaeologists discovered pottery, flint blades, a carnelian seal that date to the Chalcolithic and Neolithic periods. In all there are ten marl cut caves in the near vicinity of Qumran: 4Qa, 4Qb, 5Q, 7Q, 8Q, 9Q, 10Q, an oval cave west of 5Q, two caves to the north in a separate ravine, their location necessitates a direct connection with the Qumran settlement. The three caves at the end of the esplanade could only be accessed via the settlement; these caves are thought to have been cut for habitation. Marl is a soft stone and makes excavation easy, but as seen with Caves 7Q–9Q they have not survived well.4Q, now visible from the Qumran esplanade, is two caves, one adjacent to the other. De Vaux referred to them as 4b; when the Ta'amireh removed all the fragments they could before Harding's arrival, there was no way to tell which scrolls belonged to which cave, so they were all catalogued as from 4Q.
In excavating the caves hundreds of fragments were still to be found in 4a while only two or three fragments in 4b. 4a was 3.25 m wide with tapering walls reaching 3m in height. In 1984–1985 Joseph Patrich and Yigael Yadin carried out a systematic survey of over 57 caves north of Qumran and two to the south. In 1985–1991 Patrich excavated five caves, including Caves 3Q and 11Q. One of Patrich's conclusions was that the caves "did not serve as habitations for the members of the Dead Sea Sect, but rather as stores and hiding places". Patrich took a jack hammer into 3Q to break up and remove large fallen rocks in order to discover that under the rocks there were only a few Chalcolithic sherds, showing that the ceiling had collapsed before any Qumran era occupation could have happened; the cave was used only to store the scrolls left there. In 1988 in the cave Patrich designated as Cave 13, just north of 3Q, a small juglet was found from the Herodian era, wrapped in palm fibres and contained a viscous liquid which Patrich presumed was aromatic balsam residue.
In 1991 he discovered several jar stoppers and a complete jar along with date stones and dry dates suggesting occupation, but as the area in front of the cave showed no attempt to convert it into a terrace, he concluded that occupation was not of any length.11Q was examined and no traces of Qumran era occupation was fo
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and Jordan in the early part of the 20th century. In October 1920, after taking over the Transjordan region, the United Kingdom formed a unit of 150 men called the "Mobile Force", under the command of Captain Frederick Gerard Peake, to defend the territory against both internal and external threats; the Mobile Force was based in Zarqa. 80% of its men were drawn from the local Chechen community. It was expanded to 1,000 men, recruiting Arabs who had served in the Ottoman Army. On 22 October 1923, the police were merged with the Reserve Mobile Force, still under Peake, now an employee of the Emirate of Transjordan; the new force was named Al Jeish al Arabi but was always known in English as the Arab Legion. The Arab Legion was commanded by British officers; the Legion was formed as a police force to keep order among the tribes of Transjordan and to guard the important Jerusalem–Amman road. On 1 April 1926, the Transjordan Frontier Force was formed from cadre drawn from the Arab Legion.
It consisted of only 150 men and most of them were stationed along Transjordan's roads. During this time the Arab Legion was reduced to 900 men and was stripped of its machine guns and communications troops. In 1939, John Bagot Glubb, better known as "Glubb Pasha", became the Legion's commander, with Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi as his deputy commander. Together they transformed it into the best-trained Arab army. During World War II, the Arab Legion took part in the British war effort against pro-Axis forces in the Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre. By the force had grown to 1,600 men; the Legion, part of Iraqforce, contributed in the Anglo-Iraqi War and in the Syria-Lebanon campaign, two decisive early victories for the Allies. The top three officers representing the Legion who participated in the Victory March were Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha el Jundi, O. B. E. Colonel Bahjat Bey Tabbara, Lieutenant Colonel Ahmed Sudqui Bey, M. B. E; the Arab Legion participated in the 1948 Arab–Israeli war.
With a total strength of just over 6,000, the Arab Legion's military contingent consisted of 4,500 men in four single battalion-sized regiments, each with their own armored car squadrons, seven independent companies plus support troops. The regiments were organized into two brigades. 1st Brigade contained 3rd Regiments while 3rd brigade contained 2nd and 4th Regiments. There were two artillery batteries with four 25-pounders each. On 9 February 1948 the Transjordan Frontier Force was disbanded with members being absorbed back into the Arab Legion. Although headed by Glubb, now a Lieutenant General, command in the field was by Brigadier Norman Lash; the Legion was withdrawn from Palestine to Transjordanian territory, under instruction from the United Nations, prior to the end of the British Mandate. With the commencement of hostilities the Legion re-entered Palestine with 1st Brigade heading to Nablus and 2nd Brigade heading to Ramallah; the Arab Legion entered Palestine with other Arab Forces on May 15, 1948 using the Allenby, now King Hussein, bridge as they were advancing to cover the approaches from Jenin, in the north to Alaffoula and from Al-Majame'a bridge on the Jordan River to Bissan Alaffoula.
There was considerable embarrassment from the UK government that British officers were employed in the Legion during the conflict and all of them, including a brigade commander, were ordered to return to Transjordan. This led to the bizarre spectacle of British officers leaving their units to return to Transjordan, only to sneak back across the border and rejoin the Arab Legion. Without exception all of the British officers returned to their units. One British MP called for Glubb Pasha to be imprisoned for serving in a foreign army without the King's permission. Units of the Arab Legion were engaged in several battles with the Jewish forces, including the following: Attacking Ben Shemen convoy at Beit Nabala – 14 December 1947 Battle of Neve Yaakov settlement – 18 April 1948 Attacking kibutz Gesher on 27–28 April 1948 Occupation of Latrun Tegart fort on 17 May 1948, the Battles of Latrun from 20 May to 18 July 1948. Battle for Jerusalem and Siege of Jerusalem from 17 May to 18 July 1948, Attacking and capturing Gezer on 10 June 1948, Tarqumiya on 24 October 1948.
By the end of the war in 1949, the Arab Legion consisted of over 10,000 men manning a 100-mile front, which expanded to a 400-mile front following the withdrawal of Iraqi forces. On September 11, 1956, an Israeli force in what the IDF termed one of its retribution operations, Operation Jehonathan, raided Jordanian territory at Al-Rahwa, Hebron Sector, attacking the police station and clashing with a unit from the Legion's Desert Force. Over twenty soldiers and policemen were killed; the Legion stayed out of the 1956 Suez Crisis. On 1 March 1956, the Legion was renamed as the Arab Army. In Israel, the Hebrew term "Ligioner", i.e. "Legionary" was still informally used for Jordanian soldiers for many years afterwards at the time of the 1967 war and its aftermath. Colonel Frederick Peake – 22 October 1923 – 21 March 1939 Lieutenant Colonel Ernest Stafford 2nd IC—1924–1931. Lieutenant General John Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC – 21 March 1939 – 1 March 1956 Major General Abdul Qadir Pasha Al Jundi, O.
B. E. - 1-25 March 1956Note: "Pasha" is a Turkish honorary title, one of various ranks, is equivalent to the British title of "Lord". Bey is equivalent to a knighthood or "Sir". Dupuy, Trevor N, Elusive Victory, The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947–1974, Hero Farndale, Sir Martin