Kamloops

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Kamloops
City
City of Kamloops
City view of Kamloops
City view of Kamloops
Coat of arms of Kamloops
Coat of arms
Official logo of Kamloops
Logo
Motto(s): Salus et Opes (Health and Wealth)
Kamloops is located in British Columbia
Kamloops
Kamloops
Location of Kamloops in British Columbia
Coordinates: 50°40′34″N 120°20′27″W / 50.67611°N 120.34083°W / 50.67611; -120.34083Coordinates: 50°40′34″N 120°20′27″W / 50.67611°N 120.34083°W / 50.67611; -120.34083
Country  Canada
Province  British Columbia
Regions Thompson Country
District Thompson-Nicola District
Founded 1811 (fur trading post)
Incorporated 1893
Government
 • Type Elected city council
 • Mayor Ken Christian
 • Governing body Kamloops City Council
 • MP Cathy McLeod
 • MLAs Peter Milobar
Todd Stone
Area[1][2]
 • Land 299.23 km2 (115.53 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,668.64 km2 (2,188.67 sq mi)
Elevation[3][4] 345 m (1,132 ft)
Population (2016)[5][6]
 • City 90,280
 • Density 286.3/km2 (742/sq mi)
 • Metro 103,811
 • Metro density 17.4/km2 (45/sq mi)
Time zone UTC−8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
Forward sortation area V1S, V2B - V2E, V2H
Area code(s) 250 / 778 / 236
Highways Hwy 1 (TCH)
Hwy 5
Hwy 97
GNBC Code JAFNW[7]
NTS Map 092I09[7]
Website www.kamloops.ca

Kamloops (/ˈkæmlps/) is a city in south-central British Columbia in Canada at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River near Kamloops Lake. It is the largest community in the Thompson-Nicola Regional District and the location of the regional district's offices. The surrounding region is more commonly referred to as the Thompson Country. It is ranked 37th on the list of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada and represents the 44th largest census agglomeration nationwide, with 90,280 residents in 2016.[8] Kamloops has a regional district population of 132,663.[9]

History[edit]

Kamloops and the Thompson River, 1886

The first European explorers arrived in 1811, in the person of David Stuart, sent out from Fort Astoria, then still a Pacific Fur Company post, and who spent a winter there with the Secwepemc people, with Alexander Ross establishing a post there in May 1812 - "Fort Cumcloups".

The rival North West Company established another post - Fort Shuswap - nearby in the same year. The two operations were merged in 1813 when the North West Company officials in the region bought the operations of the Pacific Fur Company. After the North West Company's forced merger with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the post became known commonly as Thompson's River Post, or Fort Thompson, which over time became known as Fort Kamloops.[10] The post's journals, kept by its Chief Traders, document a series of inter-Indian wars and personalities for the period and also give much insight to the goings-on of the fur companies and their personnel throughout the entire Pacific slope.

Soon after the forts were founded, the main local village of the Secwepemc, then headed by a chief named Kwa'lila, was moved closer to the trading post in order to control access to its trade, and for prestige and security. With Kwalila's death, the local chieftaincy was passed to his nephew and foster-son Chief Nicola, who led an alliance of Okanagan and Nlaka'pamux people in the plateau country to the south around Stump, Nicola and Douglas Lakes.

Relations between Nicola and the fur traders were often tense, but in the end Nicola was recognised as a great help to the influx of whites during the gold rush, though admonishing those who had been in parties waging violence and looting on the Okanagan Trail, which led from American territory to the Fraser goldfields.[11][12] Throughout, Kamloops was an important way station on the route of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail, which connected Fort Astoria with Fort Alexandria and the other forts in New Caledonia to the north (today's Omineca Country, roughly), and which continued in heavy use through the onset of the Cariboo Gold Rush as the main route to the new goldfields around what was to become Barkerville.

The gold rush of the 1860s and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which reached Kamloops from the West in 1883,[13] brought further growth, resulting in the City of Kamloops being incorporated in 1893 with a population of about 500. The logging industry of the 1970s brought many Indo-Canadians into the Kamloops area, mostly from the Punjab region of India. In 1973, Kamloops annexed Barnhartvale and other nearby communities.

Etymology[edit]

Paddle steamer at Kamloops in 1887

"Kamloops" is the anglicised version of the Shuswap word "Tk'əmlúps", meaning "meeting of the waters". Shuswap is still spoken in the area by members of the Tk'emlúps Indian Band.[14]

An alternate origin sometimes given for the name may have come from the native name's accidental similarity to the French "Camp des loups", meaning "Camp of Wolves"; many early fur traders spoke French.[10] One story perhaps connected with this version of the name concerns an attack by a pack of wolves, much built up in story to one huge white wolf, or a pack of wolves and other animals, traveling overland from the Nicola Country being repelled by a single shot by John Tod, then Chief Trader, thus preventing the fort from attack and granting Tod a great degree of respect locally.[15]

Industry[edit]

KPMG building in Kamloops.

Industries in the Kamloops area include primary resource processing such as Domtar Kamloops Pulp Mill, Tolko-Heffley Creek Plywood and Veneer, Highland Valley Copper Mine (in Logan Lake) RIH (Royal Inland Hospital) is the city's largest employer. TRU (Thompson Rivers University) serves a student body of 25,754 including a diverse international contingent mainly from Asian countries.[16]Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning (TRU-OL) is the biggest distance education provider in British Columbia and one of the biggest in Canada.

There are tertiary industrial sector entities such as

Culture[edit]

Kamloops is home to many galleries including nationally recognized Kamloops Art Gallery,[17] The Kamloops Museum and Archives, the Kamloops Symphony Orchestra,[18] Western Canada Theatre, the British Columbia Wildlife Park,[19] the Kamloops Heritage Railway,[20] Kenna Cartwright Park and Riverside Park.[21] Kamloops is also well known for its public art including numerous pole carvings and murals.[22]

Transportation[edit]

Kamloops is a transportation hub for the region due to its connections to highways 5 and 97, the Trans-Canada and Yellowhead highways.

Kamloops is also a rail transportation hub. The Canadian Pacific (CPR) and Canadian National (CNR) mainline routes connect Vancouver in the west with Kamloops. The two railways diverge to the north and east where they connect with the rest of Canada. Kamloops North railway station is served three times per week (in each direction) by Via Rail's Canadian.

Kamloops is home to Kamloops Airport (Fulton Field), a small regional airport expanded in 2010. Airlines flying to Kamloops are Air Canada Express, WestJet Encore, Canadian North, and Central Mountain Air, as well as three cargo airlines.

Greyhound Canada previously connected Kamloops with Vancouver, Edmonton and Calgary, with service ending at the end of October 2018.

Local bus service is provided by BC Transit.

Geography and location[edit]

Kamloops is in the Thompson Valley and the Montane Cordillera Ecozone. The city's centre is in the valley near the confluence of the Thompson River's north and south branches. Suburbs stretch for more than a dozen kilometres along the north and south branches, as well as to the steep hillsides along the south portion of the city and lower northeast hillsides.

Robert W. Service in 1904 described Kamloops as his delightful life and wrote "Life was pleasant, and the work was light. At four o'clock we were on our horses, riding over the rolling ridges, or into spectral gulches that rose to ghostlier mountains. It was like the scenery of Mexico, weirdly desolate and aridly morose. A discouraging land, forbidding in its weariness and resigned to ruin."

Kamloops Indian Band areas begin just to the northeast of the downtown core but are not within the city limits. As a result of this placement, it is necessary to leave Kamloops' city limits and pass through the band lands before re-entering the city limits to access the communities of Rayleigh and Heffley Creek. Kamloops is surrounded by the smaller communities of Cherry Creek, Pritchard, Savona, Scotch Creek, Adams Lake, Chase, Paul Lake, Pinantan and various others.

The Thompson River.

Climate[edit]

Canadian National trains pull through North Kamloops then cross this rail bridge over the North Thompson River to the Kamloops Indian Reserve, and CN's large rail yards.

The climate of Kamloops is semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSk) due to its rain shadow location. Because of milder winters and aridity, the area west of Kamloops in the lower Thompson River valley falls within Köppen climate classification BWk climate. Kamloops gets short cold snaps where temperatures can drop to around −20 °C (−4 °F) when Arctic air manages to cross the Rockies and Columbia Mountains into the Interior.

Kamloops in the Fraser River watershed

The January mean temperature is −2.8 °C (27 °F).[23] That average sharply increases with an average maximum temperature of 4.3 °C (40 °F) in February. The average number of days where temperatures drop below −10 °C (14 °F) per year is 19.9 as recorded by Environment Canada.[23]

Although Kamloops is above 50° north latitude, summers are warmer than in many places at lower latitudes, with prevailing dry and sunny weather. Daytime humidity is generally under 40% in the summer, sometimes dropping below 20% after a dry spell, which allows for substantial nighttime cooling. Occasional summer thunderstorms can create dry-lightning conditions, sometimes igniting forest fires which the area is prone to.

Kamloops lies in the rain shadow leeward of the Coast Mountains and is biogeographically connected to similar semi-desert areas in the Okanagan region, and a much larger area covering the central/eastern portions of Washington, Oregon and intermontane areas of Nevada, Utah and Idaho in the US.

These areas of relatively similar climate have many distinctive native plants and animals in common, such as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fragilis in this case), rattlesnakes, black widow spiders and Lewis's woodpecker.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Kamloops was 41.7 °C (107 °F) on 27 July 1939 and 16 July 1941.[24][25] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −38.3 °C (−37 °F) on 16 & 18 January 1950.[26]

Climate data for Kamloops Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1890–present[a]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 15.8 17.0 23.3 31.9 36.8 39.0 47.4 40.3 38.4 31.2 22.8 15.0 47.4
Record high °C (°F) 16.1
(61)
17.8
(64)
23.3
(73.9)
33.3
(91.9)
37.8
(100)
39.1
(102.4)
41.7
(107.1)
40.8
(105.4)
35.0
(95)
31.3
(88.3)
22.8
(73)
16.1
(61)
41.7
(107.1)
Average high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
4.3
(39.7)
11.0
(51.8)
16.6
(61.9)
21.5
(70.7)
25.1
(77.2)
28.9
(84)
28.3
(82.9)
22.3
(72.1)
13.7
(56.7)
5.6
(42.1)
0.3
(32.5)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.8
(27)
0.1
(32.2)
5.2
(41.4)
9.9
(49.8)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
21.5
(70.7)
20.9
(69.6)
15.6
(60.1)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.7
(27.1)
9.3
(48.7)
Average low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.2
(37.8)
7.7
(45.9)
11.6
(52.9)
14.2
(57.6)
13.4
(56.1)
8.8
(47.8)
3.3
(37.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
−5.8
(21.6)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F) −38.3
(−36.9)
−32.8
(−27)
−26.1
(−15)
−10.6
(12.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
0.6
(33.1)
3.3
(37.9)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.9
(25)
−17.1
(1.2)
−30.0
(−22)
−36.1
(−33)
−38.3
(−36.9)
Record low wind chill −42.0 −36.7 −33.9 −13.0 −5.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 −6.5 −23.2 −39.1 −45.1 −45.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.1
(0.831)
12.4
(0.488)
12.8
(0.504)
14.2
(0.559)
27.3
(1.075)
37.4
(1.472)
31.4
(1.236)
23.7
(0.933)
29.4
(1.157)
19.4
(0.764)
23.3
(0.917)
25.4
(1)
277.6
(10.929)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 5.3
(0.209)
5.9
(0.232)
9.7
(0.382)
14.0
(0.551)
27.3
(1.075)
37.4
(1.472)
31.4
(1.236)
23.7
(0.933)
29.4
(1.157)
19.0
(0.748)
14.2
(0.559)
7.1
(0.28)
224.3
(8.831)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 18.7
(7.36)
8.0
(3.15)
3.5
(1.38)
0.2
(0.08)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.12)
10.9
(4.29)
21.9
(8.62)
63.5
(25)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.7 7.2 6.8 6.2 10.2 10.7 8.4 8.0 7.6 9.0 10.0 11.7 105.6
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 3.6 3.8 5.5 6.1 10.2 10.7 8.3 8.0 7.6 8.8 7.1 3.4 83.3
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.6 4.1 1.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.9 9.3 27.4
Average relative humidity (%) 72.6 60.0 43.0 35.6 36.2 36.4 33.5 34.4 41.4 52.9 65.9 70.9 48.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.2 95.6 165.3 202.8 251.6 252.0 303.4 289.5 223.3 130.9 63.7 46.6 2,079.8
Percent possible sunshine 20.9 33.9 45.0 49.0 52.4 51.2 61.2 64.3 58.7 39.2 23.5 18.6 43.2
Source: Environment Canada[23][27]

Hottest summer Most days above 30 °C (86 °F) Driest Warmest spring Fewest fog days Most sunny days in warm months Most growing degree days Most days without precipitation
Rank among 100 largest Canadian cities 1st 1st 2nd
(next to Whitehorse)
2nd
(next to Chilliwack)
2nd
(next to Penticton)
2nd
(next to Portage la Prairie)
3rd
(next to Windsor and St. Catharines-Niagara)
3rd
(next to Medicine Hat and Lethbridge)
Value 27.43 °C (81.4 °F) 32.8 277.63 mm (10.93 in) 9.65 °C (49.4 °F) 7.28 148.93 2308.61 258.12
Data[29] is for Kamloops Airport (YKA), in the city of Kamloops, 5 NM (9.3 km; 5.8 mi) west northwest of the town.[4]

Sports[edit]

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Kamloops Blazers WHL Ice hockey Sandman Centre 1981
9
Kamloops Rattlers TOJLL Box lacrosse Kamloops Memorial Arena 2001
5
Kamloops Storm KIJHL Ice hockey Kamloops Memorial Arena 2006
0
Kamloops Broncos CJFL Football Hillside Stadium 2000
0
Kamloops Excel PCSL Soccer Hillside Stadium 2007
0
Sun Rivers golf course in Kamloops.

Kamloops hosted the 1993 Canada Summer Games. It co-hosted (with Vancouver and Kelowna) the 2006 IIHF World U20 Championship from 26 December 2005, to 5 January 2006. It hosted the 2006 BC Summer Games. In the summer of 2008, Kamloops, and its modern facility the Tournament Capital Centre, played host to the U15 boys and girls Basketball National Championship. The city is known as, and holds a Canadian trademark as, Canada's Tournament Capital.[30]

Sun Peaks Resort is a nearby ski and snowboard hill. Olympic medallist skier Nancy Greene is director of skiing at Sun Peaks and the former chancellor of Thompson Rivers University. The Overlander Ski Club runs the Stake Lake cross country ski area with 50 km (31 mi) of trails. Kamloops is home to world-famous mountain bikers such as freeride pioneers and Mountain Bike Hall of Fame members Wade Simmons, Brett Tippie, (also a former Canadian National Team member for snowboard cross and giant slalom), Richie Schley. Also home to freeriders Matt Hunter, and Graham Agassiz.[31] Kamloops was featured in the first mountain bike film by Greg Stump, "Pulp Traction", and later the first three "Kranked" films, which starred the original Froriders, Tippie, Simmons and Schley. In 2007, the Kamloops Bike Ranch opened in Juniper Ridge along Highland Drive. The Kamloops Rotary Skatepark at McArthur Island Park is one of Canada's largest skateboard parks.[32] Also located at McArthur Island Park is NorBrock Stadium.

Kamloops is home to the Western Hockey League's Kamloops Blazers who play at the Sandman Centre. Alumni of the Kamloops Blazers include Mark Recchi, Jarome Iginla, Darryl Sydor, Nolan Baumgartner, Shane Doan, Scott Niedermayer, Rudy Poeschek and Darcy Tucker (Recchi, Doan, Iginla, and Sydor are now part-owners of the club). Two-time champion coach Ken Hitchcock would later win the Stanley Cup with the Dallas Stars. Lacrosse teams include the Thompson Okanagan Junior Lacrosse League's Kamloops Junior B Rattlers, as well as the Kamloops Storm. Also calling Kamloops home is the Canadian Junior Football League's Kamloops Broncos, and Pacific Coast Soccer League's Kamloops Excel, both of whom play at Hillside Stadium.

Soccer for the city includes: Kamloops Youth Soccer Association, Kamloops Blaze rep team and the Kamloops Excel (see above). TRU hosts the Thompson Rivers WolfPack, and has sports teams that include men's and women's volleyball, basketball, soccer and badminton. Also the WolfPack have hockey, rugby, badminton, golf and baseball teams.

Kamloops hosted the World Masters Indoor Championships 2010 on 1–6 March 2010.[33]

Kamloops hosted the 2011 Western Canada Summer Games.

On February 6, 2016, Kamloops hosted Hockey Day in Canada with Ron MacLean and Don Cherry.[34]

Kamloops is home to the Kamloops Sports Hall of Fame, which includes Bronze Medalist Dylan Armstrong and the National Finalist Roma's soccer team.[35]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1881200—    
18911,500+650.0%
19011,359−9.4%
19113,772+177.6%
19214,501+19.3%
19316,167+37.0%
19415,959−3.4%
19518,099+35.9%
19569,096+12.3%
196110,076+10.8%
196610,759+6.8%
197126,168+143.2%
197658,311+122.8%
198164,048+9.8%
198661,773−3.6%
199167,057+8.6%
199676,394+13.9%
200177,281+1.2%
200680,376+4.0%
201185,678+6.6%
201690,280+5.4%
Sources: Statistics Canada[36][37]
Canada 2016 Census Population % of Total Population
Visible minority group
Source:[38]
South Asian 2,455 2.8%
Chinese 1,220 1.4%
Japanese 820 0.9%
Filipino 675 0.8%
Arab 175 0.2%
Black 550 0.6%
Korean 230 0.3%
Southeast Asian 235 0.3%
Latin American 310 0.4%
West Asian 75 0.1%
Other visible minority 55 0.1%
Mixed visible minority 175 0.2%
Total visible minority population 6,975 8%
Aboriginal group
Source:[39]
First Nations 4,830 5.5%
Métis 3,495 4%
Inuit 15 0%
Total Aboriginal population 8,600 9.8%
European 71,765 82.2%
Total population 87,340 100%

Demographics of the City of Kamloops according to Statistics Canada 2016 census.[40]

Religious groups[edit]

Data is from the 2001 census.[41]

Ethnic Chinese[edit]

Kamloops historically had a Chinatown on Victoria Street where most ethnic Chinese lived. John Stewart of the Kamloops Museum & Archives stated it was not a "true Chinatown".[42] It was established by Chinese immigrants by 1887, and by 1890 the community had up to 400 Chinese. Stewart said this was an "amazingly large" population for the rural area.[43] By the 1890s, about 33% of Kamloops were ethnic Chinese; they worked primarily on construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.[44]

Economic changes in Kamloops resulted in many Chinese seeking work elsewhere. In addition, there were two fires in 1892 and 1893, and a 1911-1914 demolition that dismantled the Chinatown.[45] Peter Wing, the first ethnic Chinese mayor in North America, was elected in 1966 and served three terms as the Mayor of Kamloops.[44]

A Chinese cemetery was founded in Kamloops, the only one in the province dedicated to Chinese pioneers.[44] It is one of the largest cemeteries in the province,[44] but the last interment was made there in the 1960s.[46]

In 2013 the provincial government announced it would begin a consultation process to discuss wording of a formal apology to Chinese in B.C. for past wrongs. Joe Leong, president of the Kamloops Chinese Cultural Association, said he believed that the province should build a museum to honor Chinese history in the province, as a way to recognize the contributions of the people. As Kamloops had the only cemetery dedicated to the Chinese pioneers, he felt this city would be an appropriate site for the museum.[44]

Media[edit]

Education[edit]

K-12[edit]

Public schools in Kamloops and adjacent communities are run by School District 73 Kamloops/Thompson.

Private schools include Kamloops Christian School, Our Lady of Perpetual Help School (Catholic), and St. Ann's Academy (Catholic).

The Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britannique operates one Francophone school: école Collines-d’or primary school.[47]

Post-secondary[edit]

Thompson Rivers University[48] offers a range of undergraduate and graduate degrees as well as certificate and diploma programs. It has satellite campuses in

Thompson Rivers University also has an open-learning division. Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning (TRU-OL) is the biggest distance and online education provider in British Columbia and one of the biggest in Canada.

Thompson Career College and Sprott Shaw College are private post-secondary institutions with campuses in Kamloops.

Neighbourhoods[edit]

Officially recognised neighbourhoods within the city of Kamloops.[49]

Unofficially recognized areas are listed beneath the neighbourhoods to which they belong:

Notable people[edit]

Below is a list of people who are from Kamloops, or who lived there for an extended period.

Historical figures[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Arts, culture and media[edit]

Other notable people[edit]

Politics[edit]

Elections into the municipality in Kamloops are held with the rest of the province every four years.

Provincially, Kamloops is considered to be bellwether, having voted for the governing party in every provincial election since the introduction of parties to British Columbian elections, until 2017. By contrast, Kamloops has regularly voted against the party in power federally until the 2006 Federal election. Kamloops is represented in two provincial ridingsKamloops and Kamloops-North Thompson – and one federal riding – Kamloops—Thompson—Cariboo.

  • Mayor – Ken Christian
  • Members of the Legislative Assembly:
Kamloops crater on Mars

Federal Members of Parliament:

Planetary nomenclature[edit]

The city's name has been given to a crater on the surface of Mars. Crater Kamloops was officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN) in 1991. The crater lies at 53.8° south latitude and 32.6° west longitude, with a diameter of 65 km (40 mi).[75][76]

Sister cities[edit]

In media[edit]

In "Cementhead," a 1989 episode of the television series Booker, the titular detective (played by Richard Grieco) tracks a capricious professional hockey player (Stephen Shellen) back to his hometown of Kamloops.

Kamloops and surrounding areas have been used for various Hollywood films such as An Unfinished Life, The A Team, 2012, The Pledge, Shooter, Firewall, The Sisterhood of the Travelling Pants, Monster Trucks (film), and various others.[78]

"The Eye of Jupiter", the eleventh episode of the third season of Battlestar Galactica was filmed in Kamloops in 2006.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamloops Community Profile - Statistics Canada. 2006 Community Profiles.
  2. ^ Kamloops, British Columbia (Census agglomeration)
  3. ^ Elevation at the airport
  4. ^ a b Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 19 July 2018 to 0901Z 13 September 2018.
  5. ^ Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census – Census subdivisions
  6. ^ Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census – Census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations
  7. ^ a b Natural Resources Canada Mapping Services
  8. ^ Canada. Statistics Canada. "Census Profile 2016". Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  9. ^ http://www.venturekamloops.com/why-kamloops/community-profile/demographics
  10. ^ a b "Kamloops". BC Geographical Names. 
  11. ^ Fort Kamloops Journals, various authors (traders), primary source.
  12. ^ History of the Okanagan Chiefs in James Teit, The Shuswap People, vol XII of the Papers of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition
  13. ^ City of Kamloops - History of Kamloops
  14. ^ Tk'emlúps Indian Band, Tk'emlúps History, 2011. Accessed 2011-06-01.
  15. ^ Fur and Gold: Stories, Tales and Legends of British Columbia, John Pearson, undated S.K. Press Holdings, undated., White Rock, B.C.
  16. ^ https://www.tru.ca/about/facts.html
  17. ^ Kamloops Art Gallery
  18. ^ Kamloops Symphony Orchestra
  19. ^ BC Wildlife Park
  20. ^ Kamloops Heritage Railway
  21. ^ Lee, Phil; Tim Jepson (2013). The Rough Guide to Canada. Rough Guides. p. 682. ISBN 1409332152. 
  22. ^ "Public Art - PictureKamloops Provides A Comprehensive Visual Tour Of Kamloops". Picturekamloops.com. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  23. ^ a b c "Kamloops A" (CSV (8222 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 1163780. Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  24. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 1939". Environment Canada. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "Daily Data Report for July 1941". Environment Canada. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  26. ^ "Daily Data Report for January 1950". Environment Canada. Retrieved 23 April 2016. 
  27. ^ "Kamloops". Environment Canada. Retrieved 23 April 2016. 
  28. ^ "Daily Data Report for August 2018". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 16 August 2018. 
  29. ^ [1] - from
  30. ^ Kamloops Municipal Home Page
  31. ^ Santa Cruz Sentinel
  32. ^ Kamloops Rotary Skatepark
  33. ^ Kamloops World Masters Athletics 2010 - Canadian Athlete Entries
  34. ^ http://www.sportsnet.ca/kamloops-bc-to-host-2016-scotiabank-hockey-day-in-canada/
  35. ^ "Kamloops Sports Council - Recipients" (PDF). 
  36. ^ Belshaw, John (2009). Becoming British Columbia: A Population History. ISBN 9780774815451. 
  37. ^ "British Columbia – Municipal Census Populations (1921–2011)". BC Stats. Retrieved 9 May 2013. 
  38. ^ "Community Profiles from the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.gc.ca. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  39. ^ "Aboriginal Peoples - Data table". 2.statcan.ca. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  40. ^ [2] - Statistics Canada. 2016 Community Profiles.
  41. ^ Kamloops Community Profile - Statistics Canada. 2001 Community Profiles.
  42. ^ Stewart, John (Kamloops Museum & Archives). "Chinatown in Kamloops" (Archive). City of Kamloops. p. 1. Retrieved on 26 January 2015.
  43. ^ Stewart, John (Kamloops Museum & Archives). "Chinatown in Kamloops" (Archive). City of Kamloops. p. 4. Retrieved on 26 January 2015.
  44. ^ a b c d e Hewlett, Jason. "Chinese museum would right historical wrongs, Kamloops group says" (Archive). Times Colonist. 31 October 2013. Retrieved on 26 January 2015.
  45. ^ Stewart, John (Kamloops Museum & Archives). "Chinatown in Kamloops" (Archive). City of Kamloops. p. 5. Retrieved on 26 January 2015.
  46. ^ Stewart, John (Kamloops Museum & Archives). "Chinatown in Kamloops" (Archive). City of Kamloops. p. 3. Retrieved on 26 January 2015.
  47. ^ "Carte des écoles." Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britanique. Retrieved on 22 January 2015.
  48. ^ Thompson Rivers University
  49. ^ Maps By Neighbourhood
  50. ^ PARLINFO - Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience - FRAZER, John L. (Jack), O.M.M., M.S.C., C.D
  51. ^ PARLINFO - Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience - FULTON, The Hon. Edmund Davie, P.C., O.C., Q.C.LL.B., LL.D
  52. ^ Leonard Marchand: The first Status Indian elected to Canada's Parliament Archived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  53. ^ Federal Political Biography from the Library of Parliament
  54. ^ "Former Kamloops mayor dies at 93". Times-Colonist. 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  55. ^ [3]
  56. ^ Don Ashby hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  57. ^ [4]
  58. ^ Mitch Berger
  59. ^ Rick Boh hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  60. ^ Craig Endean hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  61. ^ http://www.peaksmedia.com. "Official Web Site of Nancy Greene Canadian Olympic Champion Skier". Nancy Greene. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  62. ^ "NHL Player Search - Player - Stu Grimson". Legends of Hockey. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  63. ^ Don Hay hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  64. ^ Murray Kennett hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  65. ^ Doug Lidster hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  66. ^ Steve Marr hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  67. ^ Bert Marshall hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  68. ^ Bob Mowat hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  69. ^ "Mark Recchi Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved 2017-08-03. 
  70. ^ Peter Soberlak hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  71. ^ Tim Watters hockey statistics & profile at hockeydb.com
  72. ^ http://robertwservice.blogspot.fr/2014/02/kamloops-july-december-1904.html//
  73. ^ Internet Movie Database
  74. ^ Holness Law Group
  75. ^ IAU/USGS/WGPSN Planetary Feature Nomenclature Database, USGS Branch of Astrogeology, Flagstaff, Arizona
  76. ^ USGS Martian Quadrangle Map MC-26 showing crater KAMLOOPS, just beneath crater GALLE, and on the Eastern edge of ARGYRE Planitia.
  77. ^ Uji, Japan ~ Sister City - City of Kamloops
  78. ^ Past Productions

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Climate data was recorded in the city of Kamloops from January 1890 to December 1950, and at Kamloops Airport from January 1951 to present.

External links[edit]