Kampen is a city and municipality in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. A member of the former Hanseatic League, it is located at the lower reaches of the river IJssel; the municipality of Kampen had a population of 53,779 in 2019 and covers an area of 161.79 square kilometres. Kampen is the largest city in this region; the city of Kampen itself has around 37,000 inhabitants. Kampen has one of the best preserved old town centres of the Netherlands, including remains of the ancient city wall and numerous churches. Notable are the three bridges over the IJssel which connect Kampen with IJsselmuiden and Kampereiland, the agricultural area between the branches which form the IJssel delta, a windmill. Since november 2018, the town and some communes are on a riverisland. Between the 14th and 16th century it was the biggest town in the Northern Netherlands; the town is about 90km northeast of Amsterdam. Traditionally people in Kampen speak a variation of the Sallands dialect, known as Kampers. By 1150, there were wooden buildings on the site where Kampen is located.
The name Kampen, however, is not mentioned until 1277. The city has had city rights since 1236; as a result of its convenient location on the busy trade route between the Zuiderzee and the Rhine, Kampen developed from simple settlements into a prosperous trading town, to become one of the most powerful and leading cities of northwestern Europe. In the 14th century, Kampen exchanged with the bishop of Utrecht, Jan van Arkel, the Mastenbroek polder against the right to increase the IJsseldelta; the silting up of the IJssel brought a gradual end to the prosperity of Kampen from 1430 on. For a long time Kampen did not want to sign a union and make economic and political concessions to other cities, as was usual in the Hanseatic League; when the County of Holland went to war with the Hanseatic League this situation came to an end: the city was forced to choose a side in the war. Kampen was more oriented toward the Baltic trade and commerce with the hinterland of the Rhine, therefore in 1441 formally joined the Hanseatic League.
The city had much influence in the League. This project was accomplished in just five months. With this bridge Kampen hoped to be able to develop closer relationships with the hinterland. On 11 August 1572 Kampen was conquered from the Spaniards by Willem van den Bergh, a brother of William of Orange. After the massacre of Zutphen on 15 November, the city voluntarily surrendered to the Spanish. In 1578, the city changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George van Lalaing. Due to its right to increase the IJsseldelta, Kampen was owner of the growing Kampereiland. From 1500 the islands were leased; the rents were so large. The Franco-Dutch War, fought by the Republic of the United Netherlands against the Kingdom of France, the Bishopric of Münster, the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Kingdom of England, marked a definitive end to the enormous power of the city. Kampen only became well known again in the 19th century; the city was difficult to reach from the sea, because the surrounding wetlands became silted up and shallow.
During the preceding centuries, the watercourse of the river IJssel was dredged several times, but the costs were high and within a few years, the river silted up again. As the IJssel had several delta-like mouths here, the main route of the river shifted several times. In the 19th century, a new strategy was put in place to counter this problem: some watercourses were dammed to allow for more water at a higher speed through one or two main routes; this had the advantage that less sand and silt were deposited and resulted in a river course that "swept itself clean". A key figure in this story is city architect Nicolaas Plomp, besides his work for the current IJssel front of the city of Kampen, was involved in hydraulic engineering. Due to the emerging industry in the 19th century and the importance of roads and railways for the economy and paved roads were constructed to replace transportation over sand and mud roads. Kampen is part of the province of Overijssel in the Eastern part of The Netherlands, situated between the provinces of Gelderland, Flevoland and Friesland.
The city of Kampen is situated at the mouth of the river IJssel. Opposite Kampen, along the IJssel, lies IJsselmuiden, the second largest residential nucleus of the municipality Kampen; the municipality of Kampen has five other population centers: Grafhorst,'s-Heerenbroek, Kamperveen and Zalk. Kampen has a large number of old to old buildings, including remains of the ancient city wall and the Church of St Nicholas; the structure of the walled fortress city is still visible in the streets. Significant structures include: The Koornmarktpoort: a city gate located near the river IJssel which dates from the 14th century. In the 15th century two squat towers were added at the outer corners; the Broederpoort: a rectangular city gate with four slender towers from 1465, rebuilt in Renaissance style in 1615 The Cellebroederspoort: a rectangular city gate, flanked by two heavy round towers from 1465, rebuilt in 1617 in Renaissance style The
Peter Dunsmore Howard was a British journalist, captain of the England national rugby union team, the head of the Moral Re-Armament movement from 1961 to 1965. He won a World Championship bobsleigh medal in 1939. Born in Maidenhead, Howard was educated at Mill Hill School. A graduate of the University of Oxford and journalist, Howard captained the England national rugby union team while working with Oswald Mosley during his New Party period, he represented Oxford University RFC in The Varsity Match in 1929 and 1930 and made his England debut against Wales in January 1930 while still at Oxford. He played eight times for England, playing in all four matches in the Five Nations Championship in both 1930 and 1931, he captained England against Ireland at Twickenham in 1931, Ireland winning 6-5. In 1939 he won the silver medal in the four-man event at the FIBT World Championships in St. Moritz. After a flirtation with Mosley's Blackshirts, he joined the Conservative Party and became a political correspondent and investigative reporter for the Daily Express.
In 1940, with Michael Foot and Frank Owen Beaverbrook journalists, he wrote the political polemic,Guilty Men, concerned with the UK’s appeasement policy and the politicians responsible for it. Meanwhile, Howard had been assigned by Lord Beaverbrook to investigate the 1930s English evangelical movement of American religious leader Frank Buchman. Howard interviewed Buchman leaving the Daily Express and joining the inner circle of Moral Re-Armament. In 1941, he published a book entitled Innocent men, in which he took a different view of the politicians he had lambasted in Guilty Men a year earlier, still questioning the relationship between press and government in wartime Britain, but expressing his views about the role Moral Re-Armament could play. MRA made the fight against Communism a high priority during and after World War II, considering it a threat to peace and religious freedom. Howard wrote seventeen plays perceived as both didactic and anti-communist, on the themes of cooperation and dialogue in industrial relations and personal life.
After Buchman died in 1961, Howard was his chosen successor as leader of the worldwide MRA movement. In this work Howard himself travelled extensively, he died of viral pneumonia in Lima, Peru, in February 1965. Howard married 1932 Wimbledon ladies doubles champion Doris Metaxa and they had three children: Anne and The Times journalist Philip Howard. Doë Metaxa Howard was born in Greece on 12 June 1911, but she was raised in Marseilles and represented France at Wimbledon.
Boston City Council elections were held on November 2, 1999. Eleven seats were contested in the general election, as the incumbents for districts 1 and 2 ran unopposed. Ten seats had been contested in the preliminary election held on September 21, 1999. Councillors Francis Roache, Stephen J. Murphy, Peggy Davis-Mullen were re-elected. Councillor Dapper O'Neil, a member of the council since 1971, lost his seat to Michael F. Flaherty. Councillor Paul Scapicchio was re-elected. Councillor James M. Kelly was re-elected. Councillor Maureen Feeney was re-elected. Councillor Charles Yancey was re-elected. Councillor Daniel F. Conley was re-elected. Councillor Maura Hennigan was re-elected. Councillor Gareth R. Saunders had announced in June 1999. Councillor Thomas M. Keane Jr. had announced in March 1999. Councillor Brian Honan was re-elected. List of members of Boston City Council "For Boston City Council"; the Boston Globe. September 17, 1999. P. A.26. Retrieved March 7, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com. "FOR BOSTON CITY COUNCIL\ AT LARGE".
The Boston Globe. October 25, 1999. P. A.18. Retrieved March 7, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com