The Kanem–Bornu Empire existed in areas which are now part of Chad and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 8th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900; the Kanem Empire was located in the present countries of Chad and Libya. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but parts of southern Libya and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon; the Bornu Empire was a state in what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger and Cameroon. The early history of the Empire is known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth. Kanem was located at the southern end of the trans-Saharan trade route between Tripoli and the region of Lake Chad. Besides its urban elite, it included a confederation of nomadic peoples who spoke languages of the Teda–Daza group. In the 8th century, Wahb ibn Munabbih used Zaghawa to describe the Teda-Tubu group, in the earliest use of the ethnic name.
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi mentions the Zaghawa in the 9th century, as did Ibn al-Nadim in his Kitāb al-Fihrist in the 10th-century. Kanem comes from anem, meaning south in the Teda and Kanuri languages, hence a geographic term. During the first millennium, as the Sahara underwent desiccation, people speaking the Kanembu language migrated to Kanem in the south; this group contributed to the formation of the Kanuri people. Kanuri traditions state; this desiccation of the Sahara resulted in two settlements, those speaking Teda-Daza northeast of Lake Chad, those speaking Chadic west of the lake in Bornu and Hausa-land. The origins of Kanem are unclear; the first historical sources tend to show that the kingdom of Kanem began forming around 700 AD under the nomadic Tebu-speaking Kanembu. The Kanembu were forced southwest towards the fertile lands around Lake Chad by political pressure and desiccation in their former range; the area possessed independent, walled city-states belonging to the Sao culture.
Under the leadership of the Duguwa dynasty, the Kanembu would dominate the Sao, but not before adopting many of their customs. War between the two continued up to the late 16th century. One scholar, Dierk Lange, has proposed another theory based on a diffusionist ideology; this theory was much criticised by the scientific community, as it lacks of direct and clear evidences. Lange connects the creation of Kanem-Bornu with exodus from the collapsed Assyrian Empire c. 600 BC to the northeast of Lake Chad. He proposes that the lost state of Agisymba was the antecedent of the Kanem Empire. Kanem was connected via a trans-Saharan trade route with Tripoli via Bilma in the Kawar. Slaves were imported from the south along this route. Kanuri tradition states Sayf b. Dhi Yazan established dynastic rule over the nomadic Magumi around the 9th or 10th century, through divine kingship. For the next millennium, the Mais ruled the Kanuri, which included the Ngalaga, Kayi, Kaguwa and Tubu. Kanem is mentioned as one of three great empires in Bilad el-Sudan, by Al Yaqubi in 872.
He describes the kingdom of "the Zaghāwa who live in a place called Kānim," which included several vassal kingdoms, "Their dwellings are huts made of reeds and they have no towns." Living as nomads, their cavalry gave them military superiority. In the 10th century, al-Muhallabi mentions two towns in the kingdom, one of, Mānān, their king was considered divine, believing he could "bring life and death and health." Wealth was measured in livestock, cattle and horses. From Al-Bakri in the 11th century onwards, the kingdom is referred to as Kanem. In the 12th century Muhammad al-Idrisi described Mānān as "a small town without industry of any sort and little commerce." Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi describes Mānān as the capital of the Kanem kings in the 13th century and Kanem as a powerful Muslim kingdom. The Kanuri-speaking Muslim Saifawas gained control of Kanem from the Zaghawa nomads in the 9th century; this included control of the Zaghawa trade links in the central Sahara with Bilma and other salt mines.
Yet, the principal trade commodity was slaves. Tribes to the south of Lake Chad were raided as kafirun, transported to Zawila in the Fezzan, where the slaves were traded for horses and weapons; the annual number of slaves traded increased from 1,000 in the 7th century to 5,000 in the 15th. Mai Hummay began his reign in 1075, formed alliances with the Kay, Tubu and Magumi. Mai Humai was the first Muslim king of Kanem, was converted by his Muslim tutor Muhammad b. Mānī; this dynasty replaced the earlier Zaghawa dynasty. They remained nomadic until the 11th century. According to Richmond Palmer, it was customary to have "the Mai sitting in a curtained cage called fanadir, dagil, or tatatuna...a large cage for a wild animal, with vertical wooden bars."Humai's successor, performed the Hajj three times, before drowning at Aidab. His wealth included 120,000 soldiers. Kanem's expansion peaked during the energetic reign of Mai Dunama Dabbalemi. Dabbalemi initiated diplomatic exchanges with sultans in North Africa, sending a giraffe to the Hafsid monarch, arranged for the establishment of a madrasa of al-Rashíq in Cairo to facilitate pilgrimages to Mecca.
During his reign, he declared jihad against the surrounding tribes and initiated an extended period of conquest with his cavalry of 4
The People's Commissariat of the Shipbuilding Industry of the USSR was one of the central offices in the Soviet Union, the equivalent of a ministry, which oversaw the production of shipbuilding. On January 11, 1939 the current People's Commissariat of Defence Industry of the USSR was divided into several departments, including II Main Board responsibility for shipbuilding, transformed into the People's Commissariat of the Shipbuilding Industry. Resort oversaw the work of 41 shipyards and manufacturing plants 10 design offices. In 1939 it employed 173,284 workers. March 15, 1946 the office was renamed the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry of the USSR. Commissariat of the shipbuilding industry he was building of ex-Institute of Foreign Languages in the Petroverigsky lane 10. Three boards were placed in a five-storey building at the end of the Rozhdestvenka St.. The phone book does not indicate the address of the Ministry. Source: Ivan Tervosyan Ivan Nosenko Aleksei Goreglyad Vjatsheslav Malyshev Ivan Nosenko Andrei Redkin Boris Butoma Mikhail Yegorov Igor Belousov Igor Koksanov OKB – experimental design bureau Наркомат судостроительной промышленности
Tsunagi Station is a train station in Ashikita District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. It is served by the third sector Hisatsu Orange Railway that follows the former coastal route of the JR Kyushu Kagoshima Main Line connecting Yatsushiro and Sendai; the station consists of two platforms at street level. Platform 1 services trains bound for platform 2 for trains to Sendai. List of railway stations in Japan Media related to Tsunagi Station at Wikimedia Commons Official Hisatsu Orange Railway site Yahoo! Japan Transit station guide
The Very Group is a multi-brand online retailer and financial services provider in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is based in the Speke area of the city of England. Established in November 2005 as a result of the merger of the former Littlewoods and Shop Direct companies, the retailer was known as Littlewoods Shop Direct Group until a corporate rebranding to Shop Direct Group in May 2008. In 2013, the company rebranded to Shop Direct. Shop Direct rebranded themselves to The Very Group in 2019. A business group trading via several digital department stores, Shop Direct traces its roots to a variety of mail order companies in northern England, the football pools and mail order business founded by John Moores, as well as the Manchester-based home shopping business of Great Universal Stores; these companies were purchased by Sir David and Frederick Barclay in 2003, a major business restructuring took place leading to a merger of two companies that had "been arch rivals for the best part of 100 years".
Since the merger of what had been struggling businesses in 2005, ongoing restructuring and modernisation of the company has resulted in Shop Direct emerging as one of the largest online retailers in the UK. Its traditional paper-based and phone-in orders system has been superseded by electronic commerce technology; the group is now amongst the largest online retailers in the UK, with annual sales of £1.86bn in 2016 and 62% of online sales coming from mobile devices. The group's brands are Littlewoods.com, Very Exclusive and Littlewoods Ireland. The former Shop Direct brands are Additions Direct, Choice, Great Universal, Isme, K&Co, Marshall Ward and Woolworths. In 2009, The Very Group acquired the brand name of the failed Woolworths group and re-established it as an online-only operation; the Very Group traces its roots to a variety of independent mail order and retail companies in northern England Littlewoods, the pools and mail order business founded by John Moores, as well as the Manchester-based home shopping business of Great Universal Stores.
Other businesses from this time that became part of Shop Direct included K&Co. Founded by John Moores and his brother Cecil in 1923, Littlewoods was a football pools company, which used its network of pools agents and printing company to establish itself as a catalogue retailer from 1932 onwards; the success of the catalogue shopping business led to the opening of a Littlewoods high street department store in Blackpool in 1937. In October 2001, Littlewoods became the owner of Swan electronics. In November 2002, the Moores family sold Littlewoods to the Barclay brothers for £750 million. Littlewoods owned the Index chain of stores; the home shopping/catalogues business of Argos and Homebase owner, GUS plc, ARG Equation was de-merged and bought by the Barclay brothers in 2003, where it became Shop Direct. In March 2005, following a 20-year history in which it had never made a profit, it was announced that part of the Index chain of catalogue shops was to be sold to Argos, the remainder was to be closed.
In July 2005, Associated British Foods purchased the 120-branch Littlewoods retail chain on behalf of its retail subsidiary Primark for £409 million. Some of the stores were converted into branches of Primark, the remainder were sold on to other retailers; the Littlewoods name disappeared from the British high street in March 2006. Following these disposals, clearance from the Competition Commission, the Littlewoods home shopping business was formally merged with that of Shop Direct in October 2005, to form the United Kingdom's largest home shopping business; the merger was in reality effected in early 2004 when work started on a business optimisation programme, consolidating various business functions. Following the merger, Littlewoods Shop Direct Group moved its headquarters from Manchester city centre to Skyways House in Speke, south Liverpool; the newly appointed Chief Executive Mark Newton-Jones said the merger had "been the biggest challenge of all – taking two companies that been arch rivals for the best part of 100 years and bringing them together.
Not just from an operational point of view, but two different business cultures". In May 2008, Littlewoods Shop Direct Group announced it would change its corporate brand name to Shop Direct Group, to reflect the multi-branded nature of the business. In July 2008, Shop Direct completed its purchase of the Empire Stores brand name and customer base from mail order competitor Redcats. In May 2008, Home Delivery Network Shop Direct Group's logistics division, was separated from the group and subsequently renamed Yodel. With the demise of the Woolworths Group in January 2009, Shop Direct purchased rights to children's clothing brand Ladybird along with the Woolworths trade name from the administrators; the takeover of the Woolworths brand by Shop Direct was announced on 2 February 2009, the new online retailer began trading on 25 June that year. At the start of 2009, Shop Direct predicted growth in online sales, with a spokesperson saying: "We anticipate that 70 per cent of our sales will be online by 2010/11 and, the future of our business is online-led."
It was confirmed in late 2009 that it was on track to achieve 70% of its sales via the internet by 2011. By the end of the 2012/13 financial year, this figure had reached 78%. In 2013, the company rebranded to Shop Direct. On October 27, 2017, Shop Direct placed its debut bond. In 2019, Shop Direct rebranded to The Very Group The Very Group's brands are Very.co.uk, Littlewoods.com, Very Exclusive and Littlew
De Pernas pro Ar 2 is a 2012 Brazilian comedy film, directed by Roberto Santucci and written by Mariza Leão. It is a sequel of the 2010 film De Pernas pro Ar, starring Ingrid Guimarães, Bruno Garcia, Maria Paula, Eriberto Leão, Denise Weinberg, Cristina Pereira and Christine Fernandes, it was the first film broadcast via satellite to movie theaters in Brazil. On December 20, 2012 the film was broadcast in two special sessions for special guests: one at the Cine Carioca in Rio de Janeiro, another at the Cine Roxy, in Santos. Alice becomes a successful businesswoman, without leaving aside the sexual pleasure, she continues to work much more. She's quite busy due to the opening of the first branch of her sex shop in New York City, alongside partner Marcela, her big goal is to bring to America an unreleased erotic product, which causes her to be quite stressed. During the celebration for the 100th SexDelícia store in Brazil, Alice has an outbreak due to overwork, she is hospitalized at a spa operated by the rigid Regina, where she meets several people who seek to control their obsessions and anxieties.
De Pernas pro Ar 2 on IMDb
Lhasa Newar refers to the expatriate Newar traders and artisans who traveled between the Kathmandu Valley and Tibet from centuries ago. The Nepalese merchants conducted trade between Nepal and Bengal, India over the Silk Road, acted as a bridge for economic and cultural exchanges between South Asia and Central Asia. Along with the merchants, there were colonies of artisans in various parts of Tibet who were engaged in creating Buddhist art, they were major players in the exchange of art styles across the Himalaya. The thousand-year-old Lhasa Newar tradition came to an end after the caravan route linking India and Tibet through Sikkim was shut down by the Sino-Indian War in 1962. Subsequently, the merchants and craftsmen based in Tibet closed up shop and returned home to Nepal for the last time. According to folklore, Singha Sartha Aju was the first merchant to travel to Tibet; the history of the Lhasa Newars dates from the seventh century with the marriage of Nepalese Princess Bhrikuti with Tibetan King Songtsän Gampo.
The traders and artisans who accompanied Bhrikuti to Lhasa as part of her retinue established commercial and cultural ties between Nepal and Tibet. In the 1640s, a treaty was negotiated under which Newar merchants were allowed to establish 32 business houses in Lhasa, it was agreed that Nepal would mint coins for Tibet. By this time, the number of traders had risen considerably. Eighteenth-century traveller Ippolito Desideri noted that merchants of Nepal were "numerous" in Lhasá; the Newars were organized into "pala" societies which arranged the celebration of festivals and provided a place for get-togethers. The merchants celebrated other feasts like they did in Kathmandu. There were 10 "palas" in Lhasa, seven remained active until recent times—Chyatangya, Ghorasyar, Lhakam and Tarunsyar; the Newars in Shigatse and other places in Tibet had their own "palas". Returning merchants and craftsmen were called "Lhasa Newars". Most of them were Buddhist Newars like the Uray, Bajracharya and Dhakhwa. There were many Shresthas and Maharjans among them.
Newar traders exported finished products from Nepal and India to Tibet and brought back goods from Tibet and other parts of Central Asia. Metal utensils, sacred statues and rice from Nepal, textiles and other factory products from India were the main exports to Tibet; the Lhasa Newars brought back gold dust, musk pods and yak tails which were forwarded to Kolkata. Mule and yak caravans transported the trade goods over the Himalaya and across the Tibetan Plateau. In Nepal, porters carried the loads over the mountains on their backs; the trade route connecting India and Tibet goes over the Himalaya. The Lhasa Newars used the Kuti passes to the north of Kathmandu to travel to Lhasa. From the 1930s, a new caravan route over the lower Nathu La and Jelep La passes on the border between Sikkim and Tibet became more popular; these passes were approached through Gangtok in Sikkim and Kalimpong in India. The Lhasa Newars lived in Lhasa and Gyantse in Tibet and in Kolkata and Kalimpong in India for years at a time.
Lhasa, as a center on the Silk Road, attracted merchant caravans from across Central Asia with whom the Lhasa Newars engaged in trade. A few business houses maintained shops in Leh, Ladakh which lies on the caravan route to Kashgar in Chinese Central Asia. Kolkata was a center of wholesale trade. Lhasa Newar artisans created statues, painted paubhas and frescoes and built temples in Tibet and other parts of Central Asia, were instrumental in the spread and development of Buddhist art throughout the region; the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa and the Kumbum Stupa in Gyantse are examples of their artistic legacy in Tibet. The White Dagoba in Beijing, built by Arniko in the 13th century, is another specimen of the artistry of the Lhasa Newars. Newar artists were the most sought after among the foreign artists living in Tibet. French missionary traveller Évariste Régis Huc has written that it is they who construct for the Buddhist temples those fine roofs of gilt plates, which resist all the inclemencies of the seasons and always retain a marvellous freshness and glitter.
They are so skilful at this class of work that they are sent to the interior of Tartary to decorate the Lamaseries. Newar artists gained importance after the destruction of Indian Buddhism in 1203 as they were the only remaining experts in traditional Buddhist art. Tibetan artists thus turned to them for inspiration and learned the Newar style, or Beri as it is now known; the style prevailed for more than four centuries, reached its peak from 1360-1460 when it was adopted as Tibet's universal painting style. The period from the 14th to the 16th centuries is considered a golden age of Nepalese art. During this time, Newar artists travelled and left their mark on the artistic styles of Tibet, Bhutan and Mongolia. Lhasa Newars have been the subject of ballads, epic poetry and novels in Nepal Bhasa and other languages on the theme of loneliness and couples forced to endure long periods of separation; the best known epic is Ji Waya La Lachhi Maduni, written in the late 18th century, about a trader who leaves for Tibet despite the pleas of his newly wedded wife.
One day, a false message arrives that he has died in Tibet, the wife burns herself on the funeral pyre in grief. Years the husband returns. Upon being told of her death, he becomes an ascetic; this poem was the source of "Muna Madan", a short epic story in the Nepali language composed by Laxmi Prasad Devkota in 1936. In the s