History of the Jews in Turkey
The history of the Jews in Turkey covers the 2,400 years that Jews have lived in what is now Turkey. Today, the majority of Turkish Jews live in Israel, while modern-day Turkey continues to host a modest Jewish population, the ancient Israelites were known to have imported honeybees from Anatolia, the Asian part of present-day Turkey. According to some evidence, the bees were probably imported from the region because they were easier to handle than the bees of the Israelites, which had proved to be extremely aggressive. According to Jewish scripture, Noahs Ark landed on the top of Mount Ararat, a mountain in the Taurus range in Eastern Anatolia, near the borders of Turkey, Armenia. Flavius Josephus, Jewish historian of the first century, notes Jewish origins for many of the cities in Asia Minor, the Epistle to the Galatians is likewise directed at an area of Anatolia which once held an established Jewish population. Based on physical evidence, there has been a Jewish community in Asia Minor since the 4th century BCE, the exact picture of the status of the Jews in Asia Minor under Byzantine rule is still being researched by historians.
The first Jewish synagogue linked to Ottoman rule is Etz ha-Hayyim in Bursa which passed to Ottoman authority in 1324, the synagogue is still in use, although the modern Jewish population of Bursa has shrunk to about 140 people. The status of Jewry in the Ottoman Empire often hinged on the whims of the Sultan, the first major event in Jewish history under Turkish rule took place after the Empire gained control over Constantinople. After Sultan Mehmed IIs Conquest of Constantinople he found the city in a state of disarray, after suffering many sieges, a devastating conquest by Catholic Crusaders in 1204 and even a case of the Black Death in 1347, the city was a shade of its former glory. As Mehmed wanted the city as his new capital, he decreed the rebuilding of the city, and in order to revivify Constantinople he ordered that Muslims and Jews from all over his empire be resettled in the new capital. Within months most of the Empires Romaniote Jews, from the Balkans and Anatolia, were concentrated in Constantinople, but at the same time the forced resettlement, though not intended as an anti-Jewish measure, was perceived as an expulsion by the Jews.
The number of native Jews was soon bolstered by small groups of Ashkenazi Jews that immigrated to the Ottoman Empire between 1421 and 1453, the Sultan issued a formal invitation to Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal and they started arriving in the empire in great numbers. A key moment in Judeo-Turkic relations occurred in 1492, when more than 150,000 Spanish Jews fled the Spanish Inquisition and these Sephardic Jews settled in Constantinople as well as Salonika. The Sephardi Jews were allowed to settle in the cities of the empire, especially in the European provinces and Northern Anatolia. Izmir was not settled by Spanish Jews until later, the Jewish population at Jerusalem increased from 70 families in 1488 to 1,500 at the beginning of the 16th century. That of Safed increased from 300 to 2,000 families, damascus had a Sephardic congregation of 500 families. Constantinople had a Jewish community of 30,000 individuals with 44 synagogues, bayezid allowed the Jews to live on the banks of the Golden Horn.
Egypt, especially Cairo, received a number of the exiles
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a high, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbuls historic peninsula and its environs. The nine-story tower is 66.90 m, and was the citys tallest structure when it was built, the elevation at ground level is 35 m above sea-level. The tower has an diameter of 16.45 m at the base, an inside diameter of 8.95 m. There is a restaurant and café on its upper floors which command a magnificent view of Istanbul, located on the upper floors is a night club which hosts a Turkish show. There are two operating elevators that carry visitors from the level to the upper levels. The Romanesque style tower was built as Christea Turris in 1348 during an expansion of the Genoese colony in Constantinople, Galata Tower was the tallest building in Istanbul at 219.5 ft when it was built in 1348. That tower was on a different site and was destroyed in 1203. The upper section of the tower with the cap was slightly modified in several restorations during the Ottoman period when it was used as an observation tower for spotting fires.
Evliyâ Çelebi tells of Hezarfens brother, Lagari Hasan Çelebi, starting from 1717, the Ottomans began to use the tower for spotting fires in the city. In 1794, during the reign of Sultan Selim III, the roof of the tower was made of lead and wood, another fire damaged the building in 1831, upon which a new restoration work took place. In 1875, during a storm, the roof on the top of the building was destroyed. The tower remained without this conical roof for the rest of the Ottoman period, many years later, during the restoration works between 1965 and 1967, the conical roof was reconstructed. During this final restoration in the 1960s, the interior of the tower was replaced by a concrete structure. From the top of the tower, the first French panorama painter, Pierre Prévost, drew his Panorama de Constantinople in 1818, which was exhibited in Paris in 1825. The panorama image shown below is composed of ten photos taken from the Galata Tower by the firm of Sébah & Joaillier. Old Galata Tower Genoese colonies List of towers Romanesque architecture List of Romanesque buildings
Tophane is a neighborhood in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey. It has a coastline with the Bosporus, in the Ottoman era it was the citys oldest industrial zone. The name of the place was derived from the known as Tophane-i Amire. Its main purpose was the manufacturing cannons and cannonballs, which could be seen in Mellings engraving, has not been able to survive to this day. In 1823, during the Firuz Agha fire, the barracks were burned down only to be rebuilt later, in addition to this, during the reconstruction effort, the Nusretiye Mosque was constructed. The oldest remaining buildings within Tophane were the old General Staff Headquarters. Both were taken due to construction to widen the road in 1958. In the place of the barracks, all that is remaining now is the clock tower. The Tophane Fountain, situated between Nusretiye Mosque and Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex, was commissioned by Mahmud I and built in 1732, due to this influx of migrant workers Turkish population became the majority in Tophane.
Arab migrants from Siirt as well as migrants from provinces such as Bitlis, the people of Tophane have a generally conservative attitude to politics and to life, which is ironic as they are either living or squatting in the homes of former Greek and Armenian minorities. Tophane building is currently being used by Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts, every year the first week of March, a traditional dress ball is held to commemorate the founding of the school. Currently there are many houses as well as American bazaars which help bring many people to Tophane. The Istanbul Modern, an art museum established in 2004, is located in Tophane
The Galata Bridge is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature, poetry, in the years 1502–1503, there were plans to construct the first bridge at the current location. However, the design was not approved by the Sultan. The Wall Street Journal referred to the Project as a. logo for the nations, another Italian artist, was invited to design a bridge for Istanbul. Michelangelo rejected the proposal, and the idea of building a bridge across the Golden Horn was shelved until the 19th century, in the early 19th century, Mahmud II had a bridge built a bit further up the waterway, between Azapkapı and Unkapanı. This bridge, known as the Hayratiye, was opened on September 3,1836, the project was carried out by Deputy Lord High Admiral Fevzi Ahmet Paşa using the workers and facilities of the naval arsenal. According to the History of Lutfi, this bridge was built on linked pontoons and was around 500 to 540 m long, the first Galata Bridge at the mouth of the waterway was constructed in 1845 by Valide Sultan, the mother of Sultan Abdülmecid and used for 18 years.
It was known as the Cisr-i Cedid or New Bridge to distinguish it from the bridge further up the Golden Horn. This bridge was built of wood, baedekers called it Sultan Valideh Bridge during this time. On the Karaköy side of the bridge, a couplet by poet İbrahim Şinasi was inscribed and stated that the New Bridge was built by Sultan Abdülmecid I. First to pass over the bridge was Sultan Abdülmecid, and the first to pass below it was the French captain Magnan in his ship the Cygne, for the first three days, crossing the bridge was free. After that, a known as mürüriye was paid to the Naval Ministry. This bridge, completed in 1875, was 480 m long and 14 m wide and it was built at a cost of 105,000 gold liras. It was used until 1912, when it was pulled upstream to replace the old Cisr-i Atik Bridge, the fourth Galata Bridge was built in 1912 by the German firm Hüttenwerk Oberhausen AG for 350,000 gold liras. This floating bridge was 466 m long and 25 m wide and it is the bridge, still familiar to many people today, that was badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the current bridge.
The fifth Galata bridge was built by the Turkish construction company STFA just a few meters away from the previous bridge and it was designed and supervised by GAMB. It is a bridge, which is 490 m long with a main span of 80 m. The deck of the bridge is 42 m wide and has three lanes and one walkway in each direction
The Golden Horn, known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey. Its Greek and English names mean the same, while its Turkish name, Haliç, simply means estuary, throughout its storied past, the Golden Horn has witnessed many tumultuous historical incidents, and its dramatic vistas have been the subject of countless works of art. The Golden Horn is the estuary of the Alibeyköy and Kağıthane Rivers and it is 7.5 kilometers long, and 750 meters across at its widest. Its maximum depth, where it flows into the Bosphorus, is about 35 meters, at present, the Golden Horn is spanned by five bridges. Moving from upstream to downstream, these are as follows, The first crossing is the Haliç Bridge, completed in 1974, which connects the neighborhoods of Sütlüce and Defterdar. Originally dating back to 1912, the structure is no longer used for vehicular or pedestrian traffic. The third is the Atatürk Bridge, aka Unkapanı Bridge, completed in 1940, the fourth is the Golden Horn Metro Bridge — a pedestrianized railway crossing, completed in 2014, that extends subway line M2 of the Istanbul Metro across the Golden Horn.
The fifth bridge is the fifth and most current incarnation of Galata Bridge, completed in 1994, the Byzantine Empire had its naval headquarters there, and walls were built along the shoreline to protect the city of Constantinople from naval attacks. At the entrance to the Horn on the side, a large chain was pulled across from Constantinople to the old Tower of Galata to prevent unwanted ships from entering. Known among the Byzantines as the Megàlos Pyrgos, this tower was destroyed by the Latin Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. In 1348, the Genoese built a new tower nearby which they called Christea Turris, there were three notable times when the chain across the Horn was either broken or circumvented. In the 10th century the Kievan Rus dragged their longships out of the Bosphorus, around Galata, and relaunched them in the Horn, in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade, Venetian ships were able to break the chain with a ram. After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II resettled ethnic Greeks along the Horn in the Phanar, Balat continued to be inhabited by Jews, as during the Byzantine age, though many Jews decided to leave following the takeover of the city.
This area was repopulated when Bayezid II invited the Jews who were expelled from Spain to resettle in Balat, in 1502, Leonardo da Vinci produced a drawing of a single-span 240-metre bridge over the Golden Horn as part of a civil engineering project for Sultan Bayezid II. Leonardos drawings and notes regarding this bridge are displayed at the Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia in Milan. Until the 1980s, the Horn was polluted with waste from the factories, warehouses. It has since been cleaned, and the fish, wildlife. Nowadays, the Golden Horn is settled on both sides, and there are parks along each shore, the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce is located along the shore, as are several Muslim and Christian cemeteries
They established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity. Spoken by Sephardim in the Eastern Mediterranean, Haketia, an Arabic influenced Judaeo-Spanish variety derived from Old Spanish, with numerous Hebrew and Aramaic terms. Taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492, Early Modern Spanish and Early Modern Portuguese, including in a mixture of the two. Traditionally spoken or used liturgically by the ex-converso Western Sephardim, taken with them during their migration out of Iberia in the 16th to 18th centuries as conversos, after which they reverted to Judaism. In most cases these varieties have incorporated loanwords from the languages of the Americas introduced following the Spanish conquest. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition, the name Sephardi means Spanish or Hispanic, derived from Sepharad, a Biblical location.
The location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by Jews as Hispania, that is, Sepharad still means Spain in modern Hebrew. In its most basic form, this broad definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background. The term Sephardi in the sense, thus describes the nusach used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur. A nusach is defined by a liturgical traditions choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers, Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad. Additionally, Ethiopian Jews, whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot, have come under the umbrella of Israels already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate. The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today is largely a result of the consequences of the Royal edicts of expulsion. In the case of the Alhambra Decree of 1492, the purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spains large converso population. Indeed, a number of those Jews who had not yet joined the converso community finally chose to convert.
While the stipulations were similar in the Portuguese decree, King Manuel largely prevented Portugals Jews from leaving, by blocking Portugals ports of exit. This failure to leave Portugal was reasoned by the king to signify a default acceptance of Catholicism by the Jews, actual physical forced conversions, were experienced throughout Portugal. Sephardi Jews, encompass Jews descended from those Jews who left the Iberian Peninsula as Jews by the expiration of the respective decreed deadlines. This group is divided between those who fled south to North Africa, as opposed to those who fled eastwards to the Balkans, West Asia
Galata was a neighbourhood opposite Constantinople, located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople. The Golden Horn is crossed by bridges, most notably the Galata Bridge. The medieval citadel of Galata was a colony of the Republic of Genoa between 1273 and 1453, the famous Galata Tower was built by the Genoese in 1348 at the northernmost and highest point of the citadel. At present, Galata is a quarter within the borough of Beyoğlu in Istanbul, there are several theories concerning the origin of the name Galata. In historic documents, Galata is often called Pera, which comes from the old Greek name for the place, Peran en Sykais, the quarter first appears in Late Antiquity as Sykai or Sycae. By the time the Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae was compiled in ca.425 AD, according to the Notitia, it featured public baths and a forum built by Emperor Honorius, a theatre, a porticoed street and 435 mansions. It is probable that the settlement was enclosed by walls in the 5th century, Sykai received full city rights under Justinian I, who renamed it Iustinianopolis, but declined and was probably abandoned in the 7th century.
Only the large tower, Megalos Pyrgos which controlled the northern end of the sea chain that blocked the entrance to the Golden Horn remained, in the 11th century, the quarter housed the citys Jewish community, which came to number some 2,500 people. In 1171, a new Genoese settlement in the area was attacked, the kastellion and the Jewish quarter were seized and destroyed in 1203 by the Catholic crusaders during the Fourth Crusade, shortly before the sack of Constantinople. In 1233, during the subsequent Latin Empire, a small Catholic chapel dedicated to St. Paul was built in place of a 6th-century Byzantine church in Galata. In 1407, Pope Gregory XII, in order to ensure the maintenance of the church, in 1261, the quarter was retaken by the Byzantines, but Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos granted it to the Genoese in 1267 in accordance with the Treaty of Nymphaeum. The precise limits of the Genoese colony were stipulated in 1303, the Genoese however disregarded this, and through subsequent expansions of the walls, enlarged the area of their settlement.
At present, only a portion of the Genoese walls are still standing. Bankalar Caddesi has rows of Ottoman-era bank buildings, including the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank, several ornaments that were originally on the facade of the Genoese Palace were used to embellish these 19th-century bank buildings in the late Ottoman period. The seaside mansion of the Camondo family, popularly known as the Camondo Palace, was built between 1865 and 1869 and designed by architect Sarkis Balyan and it is located on the northern shore of the Golden Horn, within the nearby Kasımpaşa quarter to the west of Galata. It became the headquarters of the Ministry of the Navy during the late Ottoman period, Galatasaray S. K. Galatasaray literally means Galata Palace. La Géographie Ecclésiastique de lEmpire Byzantin, part, Le Siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Oecuménique. 3rd Vol. Les Églises et les Monastères, petite Guide a travers les Monuments Byzantins et Turcs
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition and it became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The Inquisition was originally intended primarily to ensure the orthodoxy of those who converted from Judaism, the regulation of the faith of the newly converted was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1502 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave Spain. The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabella II, the Spanish Inquisition is often stated in popular literature and history as an example of Catholic intolerance and repression. Modern historians have tended to question earlier accounts concerning the severity of the Inquisition, Henry Kamen asserts that the myth of the all-powerful, torture-mad inquisition is largely an invention of nineteenth century Protestant authors with an agenda to discredit the Papacy.
Although records are incomplete, about 150,000 persons were charged with crimes by the Inquisition and about 3,000 were executed. The Inquisition was created through papal bull, Ad Abolendam, issued at the end of the century by Pope Lucius III as a way to combat the Albigensian heresy in southern France. There were a number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages. In the Kingdom of Aragon, a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IX, in 1232, during the era of the Albigensian heresy. With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, there was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in Castile. Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful, during the Middle Ages, in Castile, little attention was paid to heresy by the Catholic ruling class. Jews and Muslims were tolerated and generally allowed to follow their traditional laws, however, by law, they were considered inferior to Catholics and were subject to discriminatory legislation.
The Spanish Inquisition can be seen as an answer to the nature of Spanish society following the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim Moors. After invading in 711, large areas of the Iberian Peninsula were ruled by Muslims until 1250, when they were restricted to Granada, which fell in 1492. However, the Reconquista did not result in the expulsion of Muslims from Spain, since they. The Jews, who had previously thrived under Muslim rule, now suffered similar maltreatment, however, as Henry Kamen notes, so-called convivencia was always a relationship between unequals. Despite their legal inequality, there was a tradition of Jewish service to the crown of Aragon and Jews occupied many important posts. Castile itself had an unofficial rabbi, ferdinands father John II named the Jewish Abiathar Crescas to be Court Astronomer
Zeytinburnu was a fortress and settlement known as Kyklobion or Strongylon during the Byzantine period, its name referring to the circular shape of the fortress. The fortress was built in Late Antiquity as part of a series of strongholds that guarded the road leading to Constantinople. It is first attested during the reign of Justinian I, Kyklobion was used as the landing-site of the Arab armies on both of their assaults on Constantinople, in 674 and in 717. In the early 8th century, the iconodule Saint Hilarion was kept prisoner in the monastery on the orders of Emperor Leo V the Armenian. The site is again, and for the last time in Byzantine times, after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the name Kyklobion was transferred to the Yedikule Fortress by the local Greeks, and the original site was abandoned. Ruins of the original circular fortress survived until the 19th century and its name at the time was called in Greek Elaion Akra, Cape of the Olive Trees, the modern Turkish name has the same meaning.
The character of Zeytinburnu changed when a wave of immigrants from Anatolia came. Zeytinburnu is an important lesson for city planning in Turkey, because it was one of the first Gecekondu districts, in other words, most of the buildings were built illegally, without infrastructure, and without any aesthetical concern. In the 1960s legislation was passed to prevent this type of building, at first these were little brick-built single storey cottages. From the 1970s onwards the little houses were replaced by concrete apartment blocks built in rows with no space in between. In most cases the floor was used as a small textile workshop. All this was illegal and unplanned and still lacked the infrastructure. After a heavy rain the streets would run with dirty water for days, the leather industry has largely moved out to Tuzla now but the rows of six-storey blocks of housing and textiles remains. Possibly this is exaggerated nowadays, and steps are being taken to smarten up the area, most residents are working class, recent migrants from Anatolia, typically lacking in education.
However, the generations are more educated thus changing the shape of Zeytinburnu. Moreover, Zeytinburnu has a station on the railway line Sirkeci-Halkalı. Other important projects have improved the transportation, life quality and the economics of the district, the Zeytinburnu-based NASCO NASREDDIN HOLDING A. S. was categorized as an Al-Qaeda ally by the United Nations. It was involved in terrorist finance, the Romanian government legislated this status for Zeytinburnu Nasco Nasreddin Holding A. S. and the Slovakian government
The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to March 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, the French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. While the churches eventually worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Empire be placed under his protection. Britain attempted to mediate and arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to, when the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas refused and prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853.
The war started in the Balkans, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, until under Ottoman suzerainty and now part of modern Romania, led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege. Fearing an Ottoman collapse and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli and they moved north to Varna in June, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a skirmish at Köstence, there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped that there they are, the French doing nothing, after extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and fought their way to a point south of Sevastopol after a series of successful battles. The Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, a second counterattack, ordered personally by Nicholas, was defeated by Omar Pasha. The front settled into a siege and led to conditions for troops on both sides.
Smaller actions were carried out in the Baltic, the Caucasus, Sevastopol fell after eleven months, and neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued and this was welcomed by France and Britain, as their subjects were beginning to turn against their governments as the war dragged on. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, Russia was forbidden from hosting warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became largely independent, Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, and the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute. The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts to use technologies such as explosive naval shells, railways
The Jews, known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as Hebrews. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank. According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and these numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household.
The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure, Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, according to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yhudi, is pronounced, with the stress on the syllable, in Israeli Hebrew. The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio, ג׳ודיוס, Yiddish, ייִד Yid, ייִדן, Yidn. The etymological equivalent is in use in languages, e. g. but derivations of the word Hebrew are in use to describe a Jew, e. g. in Italian. The German word Jude is pronounced, the corresponding adjective jüdisch is the origin of the word Yiddish, in such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility.
Some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities, as archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacobs son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs descendants were enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, traditionally dated to the 13th century BCE, Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the Patriarchs and of the Exodus story, with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites inspiring national myth narrative. The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic group