SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Karate

Karate is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom. It developed from the indigenous Ryukyuan martial arts under the influence of Kung Fu Fujian White Crane. Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands and palm-heel strikes, and in some modern styles, throws, joint locks and vital-point strikes are taught. A karate practitioner is called a karateka, its plural is "karateka" or "karatekas"; the Empire of Japan annexed the Ryukyu Kingdom in 1879. Karate came to the Japanese archipelago in the early 20th century during a time of migration as Ryukyuans from Okinawa, looked for work in Japan, it was systematically taught in Japan after the Taishō era of 1912-1926. In 1922 the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan, by 1932 major Japanese universities had karate clubs.

In this era of escalating Japanese militarism, the name was changed from 唐手 to 空手 – both of which are pronounced karate in Japanese – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style. After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there; the martial-arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, English-speakers began to use the word karate in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Asian martial arts. Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art. Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that "the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques... Movies and television... depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow... the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing."

Shōshin Nagamine said: "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one's own creative efforts."On 28 September 2015 karate featured on a shortlist for consideration for inclusion in the 2020 Summer Olympics. On 1 June 2016 the International Olympic Committee's executive board announced they were supporting the inclusion of all five sports for inclusion in the 2020 Games. Web Japan claims that karate has 50 million practitioners worldwide, while the World Karate Federation claims there are 100 million practitioners around the world. Karate was written as "Chinese hand" in kanji, it was changed to a homophone meaning empty hand in 1935. The original use of the word "karate" in print is attributed to Ankō Itosu; the Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907, but the kanji representing it remains in use in Japanese language referring to China in such words as "唐人街" meaning Chinatown. Thus the word "karate" was a way of expressing "martial art from China."

Since there are no written records it is not known whether the kara in karate was written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty. During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryūkyūs it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality. Influenced by this practice, in recent times karate has begun to be written with the character 唐 to give it a sense of class or elegance; the first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the Chinese character meaning "Tang Dynasty" with the character meaning "empty" took place in Karate Kumite written in August 1905 by Chōmo Hanashiro. Sino-Japanese relations have never been good, at the time of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, referring to the Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. In 1933, the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai".

Until 1935, "karate" was written as "唐手". But in 1935, the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art, they decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空手". Another nominal development is the addition of dō to the end of the word karate. Dō is a suffix having numerous meanings including road, path and way, it is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. In this context dō is translated as "the way of ___". Examples include aikido, judo and kendo, thus karatedō is more than just empty hand techniques. It is "The Way of the Empty Hand". Karate began as a common fighting system known as te among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China in 1372 by King Satto of Chūzan, some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China, pa

TCDD E8000

The TCDD E8000 is a three-car electric multiple unit operated by the Turkish State Railways on the Istanbul suburban service. The units were some of the first electric trains using the newly developed 25 kV 50 Hz AC power system; the trains are equipped with camshaft-controlled step switches. They have a maximum speed of 90 km/h. A total of 28 units were built by French manufacturers Alstom, Jeumont and De Dietrich Ferroviaire, with deliveries beginning in 1955, they were used on the newly electrified European commuter train service in Istanbul. After the Asian side electrification, the trains served there; the trains were lengthened to four cars with locally manufactured intermediate cars. Those intermediate cars were withdrawn; the original livery was in white. On 1 September 2010 the arrival of new trains was cut in 2011 after waiting for 6 months. Trains of Turkey E8000 listing

Sir William Oglander, 6th Baronet

Sir William Oglander, 6th Baronet of Nunwell, Isle of Wight, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1807 to 1812. William Oglander was born at Parnham, near Bridport, the son of Sir William Oglander, 5th Baronet and his wife Sukey Serle, daughter of Peter Serle of Testwood, he was educated at Winchester College and matriculated at New College, Oxford, on 3 March 1787 aged 17 and was awarded a BA in 1790. He succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his father on 5 January 1806. In 1807 he was elected Member of Parliament for Bodmin and sat until 1812, he was High Sheriff of Dorset from 1817 to 1818. He married Maria Anne Fitzroy, daughter of George FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton at St George's, Hanover Square on 24 May 1810 and around 1820 he commissioned a portrait of her by Sir Thomas Lawrence intended to hang in the newly renovated home at Parnham. Oglander died at the age of 82 at Parnham, he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son Henry