Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian poet and novelist of the Romantic era, considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. Pushkin was born into Russian nobility in Moscow, his father, Sergey Lvovich Pushkin, belonged to Pushkin noble families. A maternal great-grandfather was African-born general Abram Petrovich Gannibal, he published his first poem at the age of 15, was recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. Upon graduation from the Lycee, Pushkin recited his controversial poem "Ode to Liberty", one of several that led to his being exiled by Tsar Alexander the First. While under the strict surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish, Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, his novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832. Pushkin was fatally wounded in a duel with his brother-in-law, Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès known as Dantes-Gekkern, a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment, who attempted to seduce the poet's wife, Natalia Pushkina.
Pushkin's father, Sergei Lvovich Pushkin, was descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility that traced its ancestry back to the 12th century. Pushkin's mother, Nadezhda Ossipovna Gannibal, was descended through her paternal grandmother from German and Scandinavian nobility, she was his wife, Maria Alekseyevna Pushkina. Ossip Abramovich Gannibal's father, Pushkin's great-grandfather, was Abram Petrovich Gannibal, an African page kidnapped to Constantinople as a gift to the Ottoman Sultan and transferred to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. Abram wrote in a letter to Empress Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter, that Gannibal was from the town of "Lagon". On the basis of a mythical biography by Gannibal's son-in-law Rotkirkh, some historians concluded from this that Gannibal was born in a part of what was the Abyssinian Empire, located today in Eritrea. Vladimir Nabokov, when researching Eugene Onegin, cast serious doubt on this origin theory. Research by the scholars Dieudonné Gnammankou and Hugh Barnes conclusively established that Gannibal was instead born in Central Africa, in an area bordering Lake Chad in modern-day Cameroon.
After education in France as a military engineer, Gannibal became governor of Reval and Général en Chef in charge of the building of sea forts and canals in Russia. Born in Moscow, Pushkin was entrusted to nursemaids and French tutors, spoke French until the age of ten, he became acquainted with the Russian language through communication with household serfs and his nanny, Arina Rodionovna, whom he loved dearly and was more attached to than to his own mother. He published his first poem at 15; when he finished school, as part of the first graduating class of the prestigious Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, his talent was widely recognized within the Russian literary scene. After school, Pushkin plunged into the vibrant and raucous intellectual youth culture of the capital, Saint Petersburg. In 1820, he published his first long poem and Ludmila, with much controversy about its subject and style. While at the Lyceum, Pushkin was influenced by the Kantian liberal individualist teachings of Alexander Petrovich Kunitsyn, whom Pushkin would commemorate in his poem 19 October.
Pushkin immersed himself in the thought of the French Enlightenment, to which he would remain permanently indebted throughout his life Diderot and Voltaire, whom he described as "the first to follow the new road, to bring the lamp of philosophy into the dark archives of history."Pushkin became committed to social reform and emerged as a spokesman for literary radicals. That angered the government and led to his transfer from the capital in May 1820, he went to the Caucasus and to Crimea and to Kamianka and Chișinău in Moldavia, where he became a Freemason. He joined the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow Ottoman rule in Greece and establish an independent Greek state, he was inspired by the Greek Revolution and when the war against the Ottoman Turks broke out, he kept a diary recording the events of the national uprising. He stayed in Chișinău until 1823 and wrote two Romantic poems, which brought him acclaim: The Captive of the Caucasus and The Fountain of Bakhchisaray.
In 1823, Pushkin moved to Odessa, where he again clashed with the government, which sent him into exile on his mother's rural estate of Mikhailovskoye from 1824 to 1826. In Mikhaylovskoye, Pushkin wrote nostalgic love poems which he dedicated to Elizaveta Vorontsova, wife of Malorossia's General-Governor. Pushkin continued work on his verse-novel Eugene Onegin. In Mikhaylovskoye, in 1825, Pushkin wrote the poem To***, it is believed that he dedicated this poem to Anna Kern, but there are other opinions. Poet Mikhail Dudin believed. Pushkinist Kira Victorova believed. Vadim Nikolayev argued that the idea about the Empress was marginal and refused to discuss it, while trying to prove that poem had been dedicated to Tatyana Larina, the heroine of Eugene Onegin. Authorities summoned Pushkin to Moscow after his poem "Ode to Liberty" was found among the belongings o
The State Russian Museum the Russian Museum of His Imperial Majesty Alexander III, located on Arts Square in Saint Petersburg, is the world's largest depository of Russian fine art. It is one of the largest museums in the country; the museum was established on April 13, 1895, upon enthronement of Nicholas II to commemorate his father, Alexander III. Its original collection was composed of artworks taken from the Hermitage Museum, Alexander Palace, the Imperial Academy of Arts. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, many private collections were nationalized and relocated to the Russian Museum; these included Kazimir Malevich's Black Square. The main building of the museum is the Mikhailovsky Palace, a splendid Neoclassical residence of Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich, erected in 1819-25 to a design by Carlo Rossi on Square of Arts in St Petersburg. Upon the death of the Grand Duke the residence was named after his wife as the Palace of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, became famous for its many theatrical presentations and balls.
Some of the halls of the palace retain the Italianate opulent interiors of the former imperial residence. Other buildings assigned to the Russian museum include the Summer Palace of Peter I, the Marble Palace of Count Orlov, St Michael's Castle of Emperor Paul, the Rastrelliesque Stroganov Palace on the Nevsky Prospekt. Today the collection shows Russian art beginning in the 12th century up to the socialist realism and in the USSR the inofficial art of the 20th century. In 1995 the Ludwig-Museum was funded, a substantial collection of contemporary art; the collection holds important masterpieces since 1945, amongst others Jasper Johns, Pablo Picasso, Jeff Koons, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Andy Warhol, Joseph Beuys, Ilja Kabakow, Jörg Immendorff, Werner Branz and Gottfried Helnwein. The Ethnographic Department was set up in a building specially designed by Vladimir Svinyin in 1902; the museum soon housed gifts received by Emperor's family from representatives of peoples inhabiting various regions of the Russian Empire.
Further exhibits were purchased by Nicholas II and other members of his family as State financing was not enough to purchase new exhibits. In 1934, the Ethnographic Department was given the status of an independent museum: the Russian Museum of Ethnography; the city of Málaga, home to thousands of Russian expats, has signed an agreement to host the first overseas branch of the State Russian Museum. Works displayed in Malaga will range from Byzantine-inspired icons to social realism of the Soviet era, they will be on display in 2,300 square metres yards) of exhibition space in La Tabacalera, a 1920s tobacco factory. The new museum is scheduled to open in early 2015. Collections of the Russian Museum Art Culture Museum Fine Art of Leningrad Russian Museum website Russian State Museum at Encyclopædia Britannica Interiors of the Michael Palace I Interiors of the Michael Palace II Interiors of the Michael Palace III
A plafond, in a broad sense, is a ceiling. A plafond can be a product of monumental sculpture. Picturesque plafonds can be painted directly on plaster, on a canvas attached to a ceiling or a mosaic; as a decorative feature of churches and staterooms, plafonds were popular from the 17th century until the beginning of the 19th century. Designs of this period used the illusion of a break in the ceiling showing the architectural structure behind foreshortened figures, architectural details and/or the open sky
Romantic literature in English
Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Various dates are given for the Romantic period, but here the publishing of William Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads in 1798 is taken as the beginning, the crowning of Queen Victoria in 1837 as its end. Romanticism arrived in other parts of the English-speaking world, such as America; the Romantic period was one of major social change in England, because of the depopulation of the countryside and the rapid development of overcrowded industrial cities, that took place in the period between 1798 and 1832. The movement of so many people in England was the result of two forces: the Agricultural Revolution, that involved the enclosure of the land and drove workers off the land, the Industrial Revolution which provided them employment, "in the factories and mills, operated by machines driven by steam-power". Indeed, Romanticism may be seen in part as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, though it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, as well as a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
The French Revolution was an important influence on the political thinking of many at this time. The Romantic movement in English literature of the early 19th century has its roots in 18th-century poetry, the Gothic novel and the novel of sensibility; this includes the graveyard poets, who were a number of pre-Romantic English poets, writing in the 1740s and whose works are characterised by their gloomy meditations on mortality, "skulls and coffins and worms" in the context of the graveyard. To this was added, by practitioners, a feeling for the'sublime' and uncanny, an interest in ancient English poetic forms and folk poetry, they are considered precursors of the Gothic genre. The poets include Thomas Gray, whose Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is "the best known product of this kind of sensibility". Other precursors of Romanticism are the poets James James Macpherson; the sentimental novel or "novel of sensibility" is a genre which developed during the second half of the 18th century.
It celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment and sensibility. Sentimentalism, to be distinguished from sensibility, was a fashion in both poetry and prose fiction which began in the 18th century in reaction to the rationalism of the Augustan Age. Sentimental novels relied both from their readers and characters, they feature scenes of distress and tenderness, the plot is arranged to advance emotions rather than action. The result is a valorization of "fine feeling", displaying the characters as a model for refined, sensitive emotional effect; the ability to display feelings was thought to show character and experience, to shape social life and relations. Among the most famous sentimental novels in English are Samuel Richardson's Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, Oliver Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy, Sentimental Journey, Henry Brooke's The Fool of Quality, Henry Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling and Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent. Significant foreign influences were the Germans Goethe and August Wilhelm Schlegel and French philosopher and writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is another important influence. The changing landscape, brought about by the industrial and agricultural revolutions, with the expansion of the city and depopulation of the countryside, was another influence on the growth of the Romantic movement in Britain; the poor condition of workers, the new class conflicts and the pollution of the environment led to a reaction against urbanism and industrialization and a new emphasis on the beauty and value of nature. In the late 18th century, Horace Walpole's 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto created the Gothic fiction genre, that combines elements of horror and romance; the pioneering gothic novelist Ann Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of the gothic villain which developed into the Byronic hero. Her most popular and influential work The Mysteries of Udolpho is cited as the archetypal Gothic novel. Vathek by William Beckford, The Monk by Matthew Lewis, were further notable early works in both the gothic and horror literary genres.
The first short stories in the United Kingdom were gothic tales like Richard Cumberland's "remarkable narrative" The Poisoner of Montremos. The physical landscape is prominent in the poetry of this period—the Romantics, Wordsworth, are described as'nature poets'. However, these'nature poems' have wider concerns in that they are meditations on "an emotional problem or personal crisis"; the poet and printmaker William Blake was an early writer of this kind. Disconnected from the major streams of the literature of the time, Blake was unrecognised during his lifetime, but is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. Considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, Blake is held in high regard by critics for his expressiveness and creativity, for the philosophical and mysti
Classicism, in the arts, refers to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are objecting to the classicism of classic art. A violent emphasis or a sudden acceleration of rhythmic movement would have destroyed those qualities of balance and completeness through which it retained until the present century its position of authority in the restricted repertoire of visual images." Classicism, as Clark noted, implies a canon of accepted ideal forms, whether in the Western canon that he was examining in The Nude, or the literary Chinese classics or Chinese art, where the revival of classic styles is a recurring feature. Classicism is a force, present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions. Classicism is a specific genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society.
It was expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment. Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. There was another, more durable revival in the Italian renaissance when the fall of Byzantium and rising trade with the Islamic cultures brought a flood of knowledge about, from, the antiquity of Europe; until that time, the identification with antiquity had been seen as a continuous history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism and depictive realism, formalism, it introduced Polytheism, or "paganism", the juxtaposition of ancient and modern. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, gave way to, a different sense of what was "classical" in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this period, classicism took on more overtly structural overtones of orderliness, the use of geometry and grids, the importance of rigorous discipline and pedagogy, as well as the formation of schools of art and music.
The court of Louis XIV was seen as the center of this form of classicism, with its references to the gods of Olympus as a symbolic prop for absolutism, its adherence to axiomatic and deductive reasoning, its love of order and predictability. This period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek music. Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm. Examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals and divided works into Tragedy and Comedy. Studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts; the Renaissance explicitly returned to architectural models and techniques associated with Greek and Roman antiquity, including the golden rectangle as a key proportion for buildings, the classical orders of columns, as well as a host of ornament and detail associated with Greek and Roman architecture.
They began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, used the classical naturalism as the foundation of drawing and sculpture. The Age of Enlightenment identified itself with a vision of antiquity which, while continuous with the classicism of the previous century, was shaken by the physics of Sir Isaac Newton, the improvements in machinery and measurement, a sense of liberation which they saw as being present in the Greek civilization in its struggles against the Persian Empire; the ornate and complexly integrated forms of the baroque were to give way to a series of movements that regarded themselves expressly as "classical" or "neo-classical", or would be labelled as such. For example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity and vigor in art; the 19th century saw the classical age as being the precursor of academicism, including such movements as uniformitarianism in the sciences, the creation of rigorous categories in artistic fields.
Various movements of the romantic period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity, for example the Pre-Raphaelites. By this point, classicism was old enough; the 19th century continued or extended many classical programs in the sciences, most notably the Newtonian program to account for the movement of energy between bodies by means of exchange of mechanical and thermal energy. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the sciences. Classicism was used both by those who rejected, or saw as temporary, transfigurations in the political and social world and by those who embraced the changes as a means to overthrow the perceived weight of the 19th century. Thus, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled "classical" and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, sparseness of texture, formal coherence. In the present day philosophy classicism is use