Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, city planner, painter who designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings, his most famous buildings are found around Berlin. Schinkel was born in Margraviate of Brandenburg; when he was six, his father died in the disastrous Neuruppin fire of 1787. He became his father, David Gilly, in Berlin. After returning to Berlin from his first trip to Italy in 1805, he started to earn his living as a painter; when he saw Caspar David Friedrich's painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog at the 1810 Berlin art exhibition he decided that he would never reach such mastery of painting and turned to architecture. Working for the stage, in 1816 he created a star-spangled backdrop for the appearance of the "Königin der Nacht" in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera The Magic Flute, quoted in modern productions of this perennial piece. After Napoleon's defeat, Schinkel oversaw the Prussian Building Commission.
In this position, he was not only responsible for reshaping the still unspectacular city of Berlin into a representative capital for Prussia, but oversaw projects in the expanded Prussian territories from the Rhineland in the west to Königsberg in the east, such as New Altstadt Church. From 1808 to 1817 Schinkel renovated and reconstructed Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, in the Gothic Revival style, he rebuilt the ruins of Chorin Abbey. Schinkel's style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style, linked to the recent French occupiers, he believed that in order to avoid sterility and have a soul, a building must contain elements of the poetic and the past, have a discourse with them. His most famous extant buildings are found around Berlin; these include the Neue Wache, the National Monument for the Liberation Wars, the Schauspielhaus at the Gendarmenmarkt, which replaced the earlier theatre, destroyed by fire in 1817, the Altes Museum on Museum Island.
He carried out improvements to the Crown Prince's Palace and to Schloss Charlottenburg. Schinkel was responsible for the interior decoration of a number of private Berlin residences. Although the buildings themselves have long been destroyed portions of a stairwell from the Weydinger House could be rescued and built into the Nicolaihaus on Brüderstr. and its formal dining hall into the Palais am Festungsgraben. Between 1825–1827, he collaborated with Carl Theodor Ottmer on designs for the Berliner Singakademie for Sing-Akademie zu Berlin. Since 1952, it has been known as the Maxim Gorki Theatre. Schinkel moved away from classicism altogether, embracing the Neo-Gothic in his Friedrichswerder Church. Schinkel's Bauakademie, his most innovative building, eschewed historicist conventions and seemed to point the way to a clean-lined "modernist" architecture that would become prominent in Germany only toward the beginning of the 20th century. Schinkel died in Province of Brandenburg. Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and his architectural drafts as for the few buildings that were executed to his designs.
Some of his merits are best shown in his unexecuted plans for the transformation of the Athenian Acropolis into a royal palace for the new Kingdom of Greece and for the erection of the Orianda Palace in the Crimea. These and other designs may be studied in his Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe and his Werke der höheren Baukunst, he designed the famed Iron Cross medal of Prussia, Germany. It has been speculated, that due to the difficult political circumstances – French occupation and the dependency on the Prussian king – and his early death, which prevented him from seeing the explosive German industrialization in the second half of the 19th century, he was not able to live up to the true potential exhibited by his sketches. Karl Friedrich Schinkel's paintings Selection of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's works Schinkelplatz Statue of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Berlin References SourcesKarl Friedrich Schinkel 1781 - 1841: the drama of architecture, ed. by John Zukowsky. With essays by Kurt W. Forster and Wolfgang Pehnt, ISBN 0-86559-105-9.
Jörg Trempler: Schinkels Motive, Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-88221-866-4. Christoph Werner: Schloss am Strom. Die Geschichte vom Leben und Sterben des Baumeisters Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Bertuch-Verlag, Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-937601-11-2. Christoph von Wolzogen: Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Unter dem bestirnten Himmel. Biographie. Edition Fichter, Frankfurt 2016, ISBN 978-3-943856-33-0. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Schinkel, Karl Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Carter, Rand. "Karl Friedrich Schinkel, The Last Great Architect". Prefatory essay from Collection of Architectural Designs including those designs which have been executed and objects whose execution was intended by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Used as a reference
A 6-4-4-6 steam locomotive, in the Whyte notation for describing locomotive wheel arrangements, is one with six leading wheels, two sets of four driving wheels, six trailing wheels. Other equivalent classifications are:UIC classification: 3BB3 French classification: 3223Turkish classification: 2525Swiss classification: 2/5+2/5 up to the early 1920s 4/10 Only one was produced, the Pennsylvania Railroad's sole class S1 of 1939, it was a duplex locomotive, the longest and heaviest rigid frame reciprocating steam locomotive built, is referred to as the Pennsylvania Type. This experimental locomotive was exhibited at the 1939 New York World's Fair, was afterward placed in limited service between Chicago and Crestline, Ohio; the locomotive was too large to work elsewhere in the system. Pennsylvania Railroad executives hoped that the locomotive could haul 1,000 tons at 100 miles per hour, but this goal was not reached, it was capable of high speeds however, although no documentary evidence has so far surfaced to add credence to stories of record-breaking performance
Caithness and Ross is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the first past the post method of election, it is one of eight constituencies in the Highlands and Islands electoral region, which elects seven additional members, in addition to eight constituency MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation for the region as a whole. For the 2011 Scottish Parliament election, Caithness and Ross replaced Caithness and Easter Ross and part of Ross and Inverness West; the Caithness and Ross constituency is part of the Highlands and Islands electoral region. The eight constituencies of the Highlands and Islands electoral region cover most of Argyll and Bute council area, all of the Highland council area, most of the Moray council area, all of the Orkney Islands council area, all of the Shetland Islands council area and all of Na h-Eileanan Siar; the Highland is represented in the Scottish Parliament by three constituencies. These are: Caithness and Ross.
The electoral wards used to create the re-drawn Caithness and Ross are: In full: North and Central Sutherland.