SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Karma

Karma means action, work or deed. Good intent and good deeds contribute to good karma and happier rebirths, while bad intent and bad deeds contribute to bad karma and bad rebirths; the philosophy of karma is associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions as well as Taoism. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra. Karma is the executed "deed", "work", "action", or "act", it is the "object", the "intent". Wilhelm Halbfass explains karma by contrasting it with another Sanskrit word kriya; the word kriya is the activity along with the steps and effort in action, while karma is the executed action as a consequence of that activity, as well as the intention of the actor behind an executed action or a planned action. A good action creates good karma. A bad action creates bad karma. Karma refers to a conceptual principle that originated in India descriptively called the principle of karma, sometimes as the karma theory or the law of karma.

In the context of theory, karma is difficult to define. Different schools of Indologists derive different definitions for the karma concept from ancient Indian texts. Other Indologists include in the definition of karma theory that which explains the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past; these actions may be those in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Indian traditions actions in their past lives. The law of karma operates any process of divine judgment. Difficulty in arriving at a definition of karma arises because of the diversity of views among the schools of Hinduism. Buddhism and Jainism have their own karma precepts, thus karma has not multiple definitions and different meanings. It is a concept whose meaning and scope varies between Hinduism, Buddhism and other traditions that originated in India, various schools in each of these traditions. O'Flaherty claims that, there is an ongoing debate regarding whether karma is a theory, a model, a paradigm, a metaphor, or a metaphysical stance.

Karma theory as a concept, across different Indian religious traditions, shares certain common themes: causality and rebirth. A common theme to theories of karma is its principle of causality. One of the earliest association of karma to causality occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Hinduism. For example, at 4.4.5-6, it states: The relationship of karma to causality is a central motif in all schools of Hindu and Buddhist thought. The theory of karma as causality holds that executed actions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives, the intentions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives. Disinterested actions, or unintentional actions do not have the same positive or negative karmic effect, as interested and intentional actions. In Buddhism, for example, actions that are performed, or arise, or originate without any bad intent such as covetousness, are considered non-existent in karmic impact or neutral in influence to the individual.

Another causality characteristic, shared by Karmic theories, is that like deeds lead to like effects. Thus good karma produces good effect on the actor; this effect may be material, moral or emotional — that is, one's karma affects one's happiness and unhappiness. The effect of karma need not be immediate; the consequence or effects of one's karma can be described in two forms: samskaras. A phala is the visible or invisible effect, immediate or within the current life. In contrast, samskaras are invisible effects, produced inside the actor because of the karma, transforming the agent and affecting his or her ability to be happy or unhappy in this life and future ones; the theory of karma is presented in the context of samskaras. Karmic principle can be understood, suggests Karl Potter, as a principle of psychology and habit. Karma seeds habits, habits create the nature of man. Karma seeds self perception, perception influences how one experiences life events. Both habits and self perception affect the course of one's life.

Breaking bad habits is not easy: it requires conscious karmic effort. Thus psyche and habit, according to Potter and others, link karma to causality in ancient Indian literature; the idea of karma may be compared to the notion of a person's "character", as both are an assessment of the person and determined by that person's habitual thinking and acting. The second theme common to karma theories is ethicization; this begins with the premise that every action has a consequence, which will come to fruition in either this or a future life.

Johnny Bright

John Dee Bright was a professional Canadian football player in the Canadian Football League. He played college football at Drake University, he is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the National Football Foundation's College Football Hall of Fame, the Missouri Valley Conference Hall of Fame, the Edmonton Eskimos Wall of Honour, the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame, the Des Moines Register's Iowa Sports Hall of Fame. In 1951, Bright was named a First Team College Football All-American, was awarded the Nils V. "Swede" Nelson Sportsmanship Award. In 1969, Bright was named Drake University's greatest football player of all time. Bright is the only Drake football player to have his jersey number retired by the school, in June 2006, received honorable mention from ESPN.com senior writer Ivan Maisel, as one of the best college football players to wear No. 43. In February 2006, the football field at Drake Stadium, in Des Moines, was named in his honor. In November 2006, Bright was voted one of the CFL's Top 50 players of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN.

In addition to his professional and college football careers, Bright is best known for his role as the victim of an intentional, racially motivated, on-field assault by an opposing college football player from Oklahoma A&M on October 20, 1951, captured in a disseminated and Pulitzer Prize winning photo sequence, came to be known as the "Johnny Bright incident." Born in Fort Wayne, Indiana on June 11, 1930, Bright was the second oldest of five brothers. Bright lived with his mother and step father Daniel Bates, Homer Bright, the eldest, Alfred and Nate Bates, in a working class, predominantly African-American neighborhood in Fort Wayne. Bright was a three-sport star at Fort Wayne's Central High School. Bright, an accomplished softball pitcher and boxer, led Central High's football team to a City title in 1945, helped the basketball team to two state tournament Final Four appearances. Following his graduation from Central High in 1947, Bright accepted a football scholarship at Michigan State University, but unhappy with the direction of the Spartans football program, transferred to Drake University in Des Moines, where he accepted a track and field scholarship, that allowed him to try out for the football and basketball squads.

Bright lettered in football and basketball, during his collegiate career at Drake. Following a mandatory freshman redshirt year, Bright began his collegiate football career in 1949, rushing for 975 yards and throwing for another 975, to lead the nation in total offense during his sophomore year, as the Drake Bulldogs finished their season at 6–2–1. In Bright's junior year, the halfback/quarterback rushed for 1,232 yards and passed for 1,168 yards, setting an NCAA record for total offense in 1950, again led the Bulldogs to a 6–2–1 record. Bright's senior year began with great promise. Bright was considered a pre-season Heisman Trophy candidate, was leading the nation in both rushing and total offense with 821 and 1,349 yards when the Drake Bulldogs, winners of their previous five games, faced Missouri Valley Conference foe Oklahoma A&M, at Lewis Field in Stillwater, Oklahoma, on October 20, 1951. Bright's participation as a halfback/quarterback in Drake's game against Oklahoma A&M on October 20, 1951, was controversial, as it marked the first time that such a prominent African-American athlete, with national fame and of critical importance to the success of his team, which played against Oklahoma A&M in a home game at Lewis Field, in Stillwater.

During the first seven minutes of the game, Bright had been knocked unconscious three times by blows from Oklahoma A&M defensive tackle Wilbanks Smith. While the final, elbow blow from Smith broke Bright's jaw, Bright was able to complete a 61-yard touchdown pass to halfback Jim Pilkington, a few plays before the injury forced Bright to leave the game. Bright finished the game with 75 yards, the first time he had finished a game, with less than 100 yards in his three-year collegiate career at Drake. Oklahoma A&M won the game 27–14. A photographic sequence by Des Moines Register cameramen Don Ultang and John Robinson showed that Smith's jaw breaking blow to Bright had occurred well after Bright had handed off the ball to fullback Gene Macomber, that the blow was delivered well behind the play. Years Ultang said that he and Robinson were lucky to capture the incident when they did, it had been an open secret before the game. Though A&M had integrated two years earlier, the Jim Crow spirit was still much alive in Stillwater.

Both Oklahoma A&M's student newspaper, The Daily O'Collegian, the local newspaper, The News Press, reported that Bright was a marked man, several A&M students were claiming that Bright "would not be around at the end of the game." Ultang and Robinson had set up their camera after rumors of Bright being targeted became too loud to ignore. When it became apparent that neither Oklahoma A&M nor the MVC would take any disciplinary action against Smith, Drake withdrew from the MVC in protest and stayed out unt

East Gwent League

The East Gwent Association Football League is a football league covering the eastern part of the preserved country of Gwent. It is affiliated to the Gwent County Football Association; the leagues are at the ninth levels of the Welsh football league system. The area of the league is bordered by the River Severn/Bristol Channel on the South and the River Wye on the East to Monmouth; the league area continues West to include Raglan following a line south to, but not including Llanwern on to the River Severn /Bristol Channel. The league is composed of two divisions; the league features other teams of clubs with representation at higher levels of the Welsh football pyramid. Promotion from the First Division is to the Gwent County League Division Two may be possible if a team is eligible. East Gwent AFL