German East Africa Company
The German East Africa Company was a chartered colonial organization which brought about the establishment of German East Africa, a territory which comprised the areas of modern Tanzania and Rwanda. The Company originated in 1884 as the Gesellschaft für deutsche Kolonisation with the aim of trading in Africa; the German protectorate of Wituland originated as a separate German sphere of influence in 1885. In April of the same year, the company leased the coastal strip opposite Zanzibar from Sultan Khalifa bin Said for 50 years, its attempt to take over the administration led to a general revolt along the coast of what is now Tanzania. The company could only hold Bagamoyo with the help of the German navy. In 1889 it had to request the assistance of the German government to put down the rebellion. In 1891, after it became apparent that the company could not handle its dominions, it sold out to the German government, which began to rule German East Africa directly; the company continued to operate its many activities, including mines, railways, minting, etc. before it consented to relinquish them to the German colonial administration and other organizations.
It subsequently operated as a land company within the German territory until Britain occupied German East Africa during World War I. The flag of the German East Africa Company featured a stylised representation of the constellation of the Southern Cross. One of the reasons for the formation of the German East Africa Company was politics occurring inside Germany. According to the “Kolonialpolitischer Führer”, German Imperialism was conceived in the 1850s when the growth of the economy due to industrialization caused German businessmen to look beyond Germany for business prospects. In the century, a newly unified Germany had to take a part in the exploration and expansion overseas if it were to be among the world’s leading imperial powers. Being a large manufacturing country that both bought and sold goods, it had made sure its stake in resources was guarded. Gustav Schmoller, an economist, had a desire for a large naval fleet, linked to this idea of expanding the empire. Twenty million people were estimated to have moved to Germany from other countries in the 1900s, the colonies would be a good place to hold some of the population.
The leaders of the country made an effort to show the German people how the industry and its workers prospered from German imperialism. The wealth that could be gained from Africa sparked interest from Germany; the African colonies were where natural consumers could be found. Hunting wild animals was a popular sport at the turn of the century, Africa had this to offer. Products available from Africa were important imports to Germany, one view of the era was that the most important resource of Africa was the native people. At the end of the 19th century, the Eastern Arc Mountains became important areas of research. Reginald Moreau and Adolf Engler wrote important publications on the area's animal life. Mining took. “From 13,000 to 16,000 were engaged in railway construction, 3000 were in mining.” They were exporting many different types of goods, such as rubber, to Europe. In addition, they were building roads and railways by felling trees to connect the three countries where their company was operating.
Carl Peters was born on September 1856, in Hanover, Germany. Peters was awarded scholarships to attend college, where he studied history and law, became a successful journalist. After some time, Peters became interested in colonization, he changed his focus in life to become one of the principal founders of the German East Africa Company, he made significant contributions towards the company, which made him a recognized explorer. For example, Peters convinced the indigenous peoples of East Africa to give Germany control of their land, allowing Germany to have a colony in East Africa, he was able to do this by impressing the natives by firing guns, wearing impressive clothing, flying flags. After the Germans took control, Peters became the administrator of the region until his dismissal because of his brutal treatment of the natives, he was known by the natives as Mkono wa Damu, meaning “the man with blood on his hands”. He was found guilty, although the decision was criticized by the German press.
His ill treatment of the indigenous people earned him an end to his otherwise successful career, because of the extreme negative response, he lost most of his prestige — there are still streets named after him, but he is neglected by most historians. Hermann von Wissmann was born on September 1853 in Frankfurt, Germany, he joined the Army, after just four years, he became a lieutenant. Wissmann was involved in a duel for which he was sentenced to jail, but this was not all a negative, because he met an African explorer with whom he traveled to Africa. While in Africa with the explorer, Wissmann became associated with the German East Africa Company, he obtained high recognition from the leaders in that region. An uprising of the indigenous people against the German occupation occurred, Wissmann, with his extensive background in the military, became essential to fight the rebellion, he was successful in his military operations, in a little time, he was able to silence the rebels and revive German control.
After the rebellion, Wissmann went on to colonize the rest of the German colony until he returned to Germany. Contrary to Karl Peters, Wissmann treated the indigenous with re
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck
Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, nicknamed affectionately as the Lion of Africa, was a general in the German Army and the commander of its forces in the German East Africa campaign. For four years, with a force that never exceeded about 14,000, he held in check a much larger force of 300,000 British, Indian and Portuguese troops. Undefeated in the field, Lettow-Vorbeck was the only German commander to invade imperial British soil during the First World War, his exploits in the campaign have been described by Edwin Palmer Hoyt "as the greatest single guerrilla operation in history, the most successful." Others have opined that it was "a campaign of supreme ruthlessness where a small, well trained force extorted supplies from civilians to whome it felt no responsibility...it was the climax of Africa's exploitation". Lettow-Vorbeck's tactics led to famine that killed thousands of Africans and weakened the population, leaving it vulnerable to influenza epidemic in 1919. Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck was born into the Pomeranian minor nobility, while his father was stationed as an army officer at Saarlouis in the Prussian Rhine Province.
He was educated in boarding schools in Berlin and joined the corps of cadets at Potsdam and Berlin-Lichterfelde. In 1890, he was commissioned a Lieutenant into the Imperial German Army and was assigned to the Great German General Staff. In 1900, Lettow-Vorbeck was posted to China as a member of the international alliance forces to quell the Boxer Rebellion, he did not like fighting against guerrillas and considered the war detrimental to the discipline of the German Army. He returned to the German General Staff. Beginning in 1904, he was assigned to German South-West Africa, during the Namaqua and Herero insurrection, he did not participate in the subsequent genocide: having suffered injuries to his left eye and chest, he was evacuated to South Africa for treatment and recovery. In 1907, Lettow-Vorbeck was promoted to Major and assigned to the staff of XI Corps at Kassel, Hesse. From March 1909 to January 1913, he was commanding officer of the marines of II. Seebataillon at Wilhelmshaven, Lower Saxony, German Empire.
In October 1913, the Imperial German army promoted him to Lieutenant Colonel and appointed him to command the German colonial forces known as the Schutztruppe in German Kamerun. Before he could assume this command, his orders were changed and he was posted — with effect from 13 April 1914 — to German East Africa. While travelling to his new assignment, Lettow-Vorbeck formed what would prove to be a lifelong friendship with Danish author Karen Blixen, travelling aboard the same liner. Decades she recalled, "He belonged to the olden days, I have never met another German who has given me so strong an impression of what Imperial Germany was and stood for." Lettow-Vorbeck's plan for the war was quite simple: knowing that East Africa would only be a sideshow to the other theatres of war, he was determined to tie down as many British troops as he could. He intended to keep them away from the Western Front, in this way to contribute to Germany's eventual victory. In August 1914, during the early phases of the First World War, Lettow-Vorbeck was the commander of a small military garrison of just 2,600 German nationals and 2,472 African soldiers in fourteen Askari field companies.
Realising the need to seize the initiative, he disregarded orders from Berlin and the colony's Governor, Heinrich Schnee, who had attempted to achieve neutrality for German East Africa. Lettow-Vorbeck ignored the Governor and prepared to repel a major British amphibious assault on the city of Tanga; the attack began on 2 November 1914, for the next four days the German forces fought one of their greatest engagements, the Battle of Tanga. Lettow-Vorbeck assembled his men and their scant supplies to attack the British railways in East Africa, he scored a second victory over the British at Jassin on 19 January 1915. These victories gave him badly needed modern rifles and other supplies, as well as a critical boost to the morale of his men. However, Lettow-Vorbeck lost many experienced men, including the "splendid Captain Tom von Prince", whom he could not replace. Lettow-Vorbeck knew he could count on his motivated officers. Although casualties remained high, Lettow insisted; the British offered few enticing targets, forced him to conduct raids into British East Africa, targeting forts and communications, all with the goal of forcing the Entente to divert manpower from the main theater of war in Europe.
He realised the critical needs of guerrilla warfare, in that he used everything available to him in matters of supply. The Schutztruppe recruited new personnel and expanded to its eventual size of some 14,000 soldiers, most of them Askaris, all well-trained and well-disciplined. Lettow-Vorbeck's fluency in the Swahili language earned the respect and admiration of his African soldiers. In one historian's estimation, "It is probable that no white commander of the era had so keen an appreciation of the African's worth not only as a fighting man but as a man." He gained the men and artillery of the German cruiser SMS Königsberg which had a capable crew under commande
HMS Fifi was an armed screw steamer, captured from the Germans by Royal Navy units during the Battle for Lake Tanganyika, used to support Anglo-Belgian operations on the lake and its surrounding areas. She had been operated by the Germans under the name Kingani named after the river Kingani. After a short career supporting German troop movements in central Africa, she was unexpectedly challenged by two motor boats, named HMS Mimi and HMS Toutou, transported from Britain to the lake by an expedition led by Lieutenant-Commander Geoffrey Spicer-Simson; the faster and more nimble motor boats were able to chase down Kingani, unable to bring her larger weapon to bear on the small vessels without turning to face them. After being hit several times and crippled, with her commanding officer and several men dead, she surrendered and was brought back to the British base. Brought into British service as Fifi, she became the first German warship to be captured and transferred to the Royal Navy. Fifi went on to join the Anglo-Belgian flotilla in attacking and sinking her former consort, Hedwig von Wissmann, after a prolonged engagement which left Fifi with only two shells remaining, before she scored a crucial hit.
She supported further Allied operations on the lake, which involved working with land forces, but the flotilla did not participate in any offensive actions, the last remaining German vessel, Graf von Götzen, was left unmolested. Fifi spent her last days as a government steamer, carrying passengers across the lake, until being scuttled as unseaworthy in 1924. Kingani was one of two screw steamers constructed by Meyer-Werft in Papenburg, Germany in 1893/4 for service as customs cruisers in the German East Africa; the ships displaced 45 t, their overall length was 17.75 m with a 3.65 m beam. An engine delivered 85.5 indicated horsepower for a maximum speed of 9.4 kn. Crewed by one officer and seven men, the boats were armed with a 3.7 cm revolver gun. Kingani served with German customs on Lake Tanganyika until 1913 when she was transferred to the Ostafrikanische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft. On 10 November 1914 she was drafted to guard Lake Tanganyika together with Hedwig von Wissmann. Kingani formed part of the small German naval flotilla on the lake, consisting of Kingani and the 60-ton Hedwig von Wissmann, but joined in June 1915 by the 1,200-ton Graf von Götzen.
These ships had secured control of Lake Tanganyika after destroying the Belgian steamer Alexandre del Commune shortly after the start of the war, were being used by the Germans to support their land forces in the region. German control of the lake was significant for the whole campaign in the central African theatre. While the British could muster troops to the south of the lake, the Belgians had troops to the north, neither could push into German East Africa because of the risk that the Germans would use their boats to transport troops across the lake, use them to cut their supply and communications lines. Sallying out of their homeport of Kigoma on the eastern side of the lake, the German vessels transported troops to carry out raids on Belgian territory, bombarded the Belgian port of Lukuga. In response to these raids, needing to secure control of the lake to prevent German raids and to support their own troops in the field, the Admiralty despatched an expedition, led by Lieutenant-Commander Geoffrey Spicer-Simson, to transport two motor boats named HMS Mimi and HMS Toutou by sea, rail and road to the lake.
Once there he was to sink or disable the German vessels, secure control of the lake. After an arduous journey the two boats were launched on 22 and 23 December; the commander of the German naval forces, Captain Gustav Zimmer, had placed Lieutenant Job Rosenthal, who had served aboard the cruiser SMS Königsberg until her sinking at the Battle of Rufiji Delta, in command of Kingani. Rosenthal was ordered to investigate Belgian preparations for assembling and launching their large steamer Baron Dhanis. Rosenthal took Kingani close to Kalemie, where work was underway to construct a harbour to base Mimi and Toutou, but had to keep clear of two 12-pounder guns that were being used as shore batteries. Rosenthal swam ashore to investigate. In doing so he discovered Mimi and Toutou, but was captured before he could return to make his report. In his absence, Sub-Lieutenant Junge took over command of Kingani. Still lacking detailed information on Belgian plans, Zimmer sent Junge to carry out a reconnaissance mission, on 26 December Kingani again approached Kalemie.
Kingani was spotted from the shore, Spicer-Simson's men took to the water, cutting Kingani off from her base. Taken by surprise Junge ordered Kingani's speed to be increased, but as the six-pounder gun mounted in the forepart of Kingani could only fire forward, he was forced to circle to aim at the lead British boat, Mimi; the Germans opened fire with rifles, as the British boats closed on Kingani. The British scored a direct hit, a three-pounder shell passing through the gunshield and killing Junge, two petty officers and Schwarz. Several more shells hit Kingani, flooding. With Junge dead, the chief engineer waved a white handkerchief. Mimi approached, accidentally ramming Kingani at full speed. Toutou came alongside, took possession of Kingani, sailed back to shore. Junge and four dead crewmembers were buried, after a hole in Kingani's hull had been patched, she was taken into service as HMS Fifi. Spicer-Simson explained that Fifi meant'tweet-tweet' in French, was s
An askari was a local soldier serving in the armies of the European colonial powers in Africa in the African Great Lakes, Northeast Africa and Central Africa. The word is used in this sense in English, as well as in German, Italian and Portuguese. In French, the word is used only in reference to native troops outside the French colonial empire; the designation is still in occasional use today to informally describe police and security guards. During the period of the European colonial empires in Africa, locally recruited soldiers were employed by Italian, Portuguese and Belgian colonial armies, they played a crucial role in the conquest of the various colonial possessions, subsequently served as garrison and internal security forces. During both World Wars, askari units served outside their colonies of origin, in various parts of Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Askari is a loan word from the Arabic عسكري, meaning "soldier"; the Arabic word is a derivation from عسكر. Words for " soldier" derived from these Arabic words are found in Azeri, Malay, Somali, Tajik and Urdu.
In the Belgian Congo, the askaris were organised into the Force Publique. This combined military and police force was commanded by white Belgian officers and non commissioned officers; the Imperial British East Africa Company raised units of askaris from among the Swahili people, the Sudanese and Somalis. There standardised weaponry. Many of the askaris campaigned in their native dress. Officers wore civilian clothes. From 1895 the British askaris were organised into a regular and uniformed force called the East African Rifles forming part of the multi-battalion King's African Rifles; the designation of "askari" was retained for locally recruited troops in the King's African Rifles, smaller military units and police forces in the colonies until the end of British rule in Kenya and Uganda during the period 1961–63. Because of its colonial connotations the term was discarded during the 1960s; the German Colonial Army of the German Empire employed native troops with European officers and NCOs in its colonies.
The main concentration of such locally recruited troops was in German East Africa, formed in 1881 after the transfer of the Wissmanntruppe to German imperial control. The first askaris formed in German East Africa were raised by DOAG in about 1888. Drawn from Sudanese mercenaries, the German askaris were subsequently recruited from the Wahehe and Angoni tribal groups, they were harshly disciplined but well paid, trained by German cadres who were themselves subject to a rigorous selection process. Prior to 1914 the basic Schutztruppe unit in Southeast Africa was the feldkompanie comprising seven or eight German officers and NCOs with between 150 and 200 askaris —including two machine gun teams; such small independent commands were supplemented by tribal irregulars or Ruga-Ruga. They were used in German East Africa where 11,000 askaris and their European officers, commanded by Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, managed to resist numerically superior British and Belgian colonial forces until the end of World War I in 1918.
The Weimar Republic and pre-war Nazi Germany provided pension payments to the German askaris. Due to interruptions during the worldwide depression and World War II, the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany voted in 1964 to fund the back pay of the askaris still alive; the West German embassy at Dar es Salaam identified 350 ex-askaris and set up a temporary cashiers office at Mwanza on Lake Victoria. Only a few claimants could produce the certificates given to them in 1918; the banker who had brought the money came up with an idea: as each claimant stepped forward he was handed a broom and ordered in German to perform the manual of arms. Not one of them failed the test. During World War II, the Germans used the term "askaris" for Red Army, predominantly Russian, deserters and POWs who formed units fighting against the Red Army and in other action on the Eastern front. Western Ukrainian volunteer units like the Nightingale Battalion, Schuma battalions, the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS were called Askari.
These battalions were used in many operations during World War II. Most of them were either Red Army deserters or anti-communist peasants recruited from Western Ukrainian rural areas under German occupation; the Italian army in Italian East Africa recruited Eritrean and subsequently Somali troops to serve with Italian officers and some NCOs. These forces comprised infantry, camel-mounted and light artillery units. Somali personnel were recruited to serve with Royal Italian Navy ships operating in the Indian Ocean; the Italian askaris fought in the Mahdist War, Battle of Coatit, First Italo–Ethiopian War, Italian-Turkish War, Second Italo-Abyssinian War and in the World War II East African Campaign. Many of the Askaris in Eritrea were drawn from local Nilotic populations, including Hamid Idris Awate, who reputedly had some Nara ancestry. Of these troops, the first Eritrean battalions were raised in 1888 from Muslim and Christian volunteers, replacing an earlier Basci-Buruk corps of irregulars.
The four Indigeni battalions in existence by 1891 were incorporated into the Royal Corps of A
Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. It was administered, as were the two earlier protectorates, by the British South Africa Company, a chartered company on behalf of the British Government. From 1924 it was administered by the British Government as a protectorate under similar conditions to other British-administered protectorates, the special provisions required when it was administered by BSAC were terminated. Although under the BSAC charter it had features of a charter colony, the BSAC's treaties with local rulers and British legislation gave it the status of a protectorate; the territory attracted a small number of European settlers, but from the time these first secured political representation, they agitated for white minority rule, either as a separate entity or associated with Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The mineral wealth of Northern Rhodesia made full amalgamation attractive to Southern Rhodesian politicians, but the British Government preferred a looser association to include Nyasaland.
This was intended to protect Africans in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from discriminatory Southern Rhodesian laws. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed in 1953 was intensely unpopular among the vast African majority and its formation hastened calls for majority rule; as a result of this pressure, the country became independent in 1964 as Zambia. The geographical, as opposed to political, term "Rhodesia" referred to a region comprising the areas that are today Zambia and Zimbabwe. From 1964, it only referred to the former Southern Rhodesia; the name "Rhodesia" was derived from Cecil John Rhodes, the British capitalist and empire-builder, a guiding figure in British expansion north of the Limpopo River into south-central Africa. Rhodes pushed British influence into the region by obtaining mineral rights from local chiefs under questionable treaties. After making a vast fortune in mining in South Africa, it was his ambition to extend the British Empire north, all the way to Cairo if possible, although this was far beyond the resources of any commercial company to achieve.
Rhodes' main focus was south of the Zambezi, in Mashonaland and the coastal areas to its east, when the expected wealth of Mashonaland did not materialise, there was little money left for significant development in the area north of the Zambezi, which he wanted to be held as cheaply as possible. Although Rhodes sent European settlers into the territory that became Southern Rhodesia, he limited his involvement north of the Zambezi to encouraging and financing British expeditions to bring it into the British sphere of influence. British missionaries had established themselves in Nyasaland, in 1890 the British government's Colonial Office sent Harry Johnston to this area, where he proclaimed a protectorate named the British Central Africa Protectorate; the charter of BSAC contained only vague limits on the northern extent of the company's sphere of activities, Rhodes sent emissaries Joseph Thomson and Alfred Sharpe to make treaties with chiefs in the area west of Nyasaland. Rhodes considered Barotseland as a suitable area for British South Africa Company operations and as a gateway to the copper deposits of Katanga.
Lewanika, king of the Lozi people of Barotseland sought European protection because of internal unrest and the threat of Ndebele raids. With the help of François Coillard of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society he drafted a petition seeking a British protectorate in 1889, but the Colonial Office took no immediate action on it. However, Rhodes sent Frank Elliott Lochner to Barotseland to obtain a concession, offered to pay the expenses of a protectorate there. Lochner told Lewanika that BSAC represented the British government, on 27 June 1890 Lewanika consented to an exclusive mineral concession; this gave the company mining rights over the whole area in which Lewanika was paramount ruler in exchange for an annual subsidy and the promise of British protection, a promise that Lochner had no authority to give. However, the BSAC advised the Foreign Office; as a result, Barotseland was claimed to be within the British sphere of influence under the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891, although its boundary with Angola was not fixed until 1905.
In 1889, although Britain recognised the rights of the International Association of the Congo to large sections of the Congo basin, which formed the Congo Free State under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium, it did not accept its effective occupation of Katanga, known to have copper and was thought might have gold. Rhodes prompted by Harry Johnston, wanted a mineral concession for the BSAC in Katanga, he sent Alfred Sharpe to obtain a treaty from its ruler, Msiri which would grant the concession and create a British protectorate over his kingdom. King Leopold II of Belgium was interested in Katanga and Rhodes suffered one of his few setbacks when in April 1891 a Belgian expedition led by Paul Le Marinel obtained Msiri's agreement to Congo Free State personnel entering his territory, which they did in force in 1892; this treaty produced the anomaly of the Congo Pedicle. The two stages in acquiring territory in Africa after the Congress of Berlin were, firstly, to enter into treaties with local rulers and, secondly, to make bi-lateral treaties with other European powers.
By one series of agreements made between 1890 and 1910, Lewanika granted concessions covering a poorly defined area of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia, a second series covering a disputed part of North-Eastern Rhodesia was negotiated by Jose
Anton Reichenow was a German ornithologist and herpetologist. Reichenow was the son-in-law of Jean Cabanis, worked at the Natural History Museum of Berlin from 1874 to 1921, he was an expert on African birds, making a collecting expedition to West Africa in 1872 and 1873, writing Die Vögel Afrikas. He was an expert on parrots, describing all species known in his book Vogelbilder aus Fernen Zonen: Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Papageien, he wrote Die Vögel der Bismarckinseln. He was editor of the Journal für Ornithologie from 1894 to 1921. A number of birds are named including Reichenow's woodpecker and Reichenow's firefinch, his son Eduard Reichenow was a famous protozoologist. Reichenow is known for his classification of birds into six groups, described as "shortwings, stiltbirds, skinbills and treebirds"; this system was not adopted by any other ornithologists, but is used in the standard decimal library cataloging system. Reichenow worked in the scientific field of herpetology, he is credited with describing a new genus and two new species of frogs, two new species of lizards.
He is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of Lacertaspis reichenowi. Beolens, Bo. Whose Bird?: Men and women commemorated in the common names of birds. London: Christopher Helm. Walters, Michael. A Concise History of Ornithology. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09073-0; the Birds: Handbook of Systematic Ornithology. Volume 1 The Birds: Handbook of Systematic Ornithology. Volume 2 The Birds of German-East-Africa Die Vögel Afrikas. Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Atlas Conspectus Psittacorum