The Keinawa Expressway is an expressway in the Kinki region of Japan that connects Kyoto Prefecture to Wakayama Prefecture and its capital city Wakayama. It is numbered "E24" as outlined in the "2016 Proposal for Realization of Expressway Numbering." The Keinawa Expressway follows the path of Japan National Route 24 from Kyoto to Wakayama. It begins at an interchange with the Shin-Meishin Expressway near Kyoto. From Kyoto the expressway travels south through Nara Prefecture crosses into Wakayama where it runs along the southern side of the Kisen Alps while travelling southwest towards Wakayama where it comes to an end at a junction with the Hanwa Expressway. There are some gaps in the expressway that are linked by the named national highway; the purpose of this route is to serve as a high-speed route from Kyoto to Wakayama, bypassing Osaka to the west. The name Keinawa is a kanji acronym of three characters; the first character represents the second Nara and the third character represents Wakayama.
These are the names of the three prefectures in the Kinki region. The highway was first proposed in 1973 as bypasses in the Kinki region; the first section of the expressway connecting Jōyō, Kyoto and Kyotanabe, Kyoto was opened in 1988. The most recent section to open as of May 2018 was between the southern terminus with the Hanwa Expressway and Iwade-Negoro in Wakayama. Transport in Greater Osaka West Nippon Expressway Company
Yamatotakada is a city located in Nara Prefecture, Japan. As of April 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 29,713 households; the population density is 4,000 persons per km², the total area is 16.48 km². The city continues to develop as a local business and government center in the center of Nara Prefecture. Inhabited since the Paleolithic age, the city area nurtured paddy field agriculture in the fertile Nara Basin since ancient times. Large keyhole type burial mounds were constructed in the northwestern part of the city around the 5th century. A local samurai family ruled the area in the medieval age, but the lord of Takada perished in 1580 at the hand of a local vassal of the powerful Oda Nobunaga. In the early modern age, the city area developed as a local market town with a big Buddhist temple at its core. With the introduction of Western civilisation into Japan, a modern spinning factory was set up here at the end of the nineteenth century. Since the city became a center of the modern textile industry.
After the Second World War, Takada was designated as a city in 1948. In 1963, the city of Yamatotakada was established, through the arrangement of an Australian Catholic father, a sister-city relationship with Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, it is known as the first such relationship between the two countries. Toshiharu Matsuda, who served as mayor of the city since 1992, resigned in 2003. During his terms of office he executed ambitious construction plans resulting in burdensome borrowings, he was criticized for his connection with a gangster boss in the city of Nara. Masakatsu Yoshida, elected as new major in April, 2003, has had to cope with the deteriorating financial problems combined with a curtailed national subsidy and mounting unpaid city tax. A citizens' group advocates new friendship relation with Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province in central China, though city administrators are still reluctant. Nara Prefecture Kashihara Gose Kashiba Katsuragi Kōryō Lismore, Australia Primary Schools Takada Elementary School Iwasono Elementary School Katashio Elementary School Ukiana Elementary School Ukiananishi Elementary School Junior High Schools Takada Junior High School Takadanishi Junior High School Katashio Junior High School High Schools Takada High School Takadahigashi High School Nara Culture High School Japan Aviation High School Takada Commerce High School Universities Nara Culture Women's Junior College Other Bigei Gakuen Vocational School Apollo Gakuin Fashion Business School West Japan Railway Company Wakayama Line.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
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Cities of Japan
A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947. Article 8 of the Local Autonomy Law sets the following conditions for a municipality to be designated as a city: Population must be 50,000 or greater At least 60% of households must be established in a central urban area At least 60% of households must be employed in commerce, industry or other urban occupations Any other conditions set by prefectural ordinance must be satisfied The designation is approved by the prefectural governor and the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications. A city can theoretically be demoted to a town or village when it fails to meet any of these conditions, but such a demotion has not happened to date; the least populous city, Hokkaido, has a population of six thousand, while a town in the same prefecture, Hokkaido, has nearly forty thousand.
Under the Act on Special Provisions concerning Merger of Municipalities, the standard of 50,000 inhabitants for the city status has been eased to 30,000 if such population is gained as a result of a merger of towns and/or villages, in order to facilitate such mergers to reduce administrative costs. Many municipalities gained city status under this eased standard. On the other hand, the municipalities gained the city status purely as a result of increase of population without expansion of area are limited to those listed in List of former towns or villages gained city status alone in Japan; the Cabinet of Japan can designate cities of at least 200,000 inhabitants to have the status of special city, core city, or designated city. These statuses expand the scope of administrative authority delegated from the prefectural government to the city government. Tokyo, Japan’s capital, existed as a city until 1943, but is now classified as a special type of prefecture called a metropolis; the 23 special wards of Tokyo, which constitute the core of the Tokyo metropolitan area, each have an administrative status analogous to that of cities.
Tokyo has several other incorporated cities and villages within its jurisdiction. Cities were introduced under the "city code" of 1888 during the "Great Meiji mergers" of 1889; the -shi replaced the previous urban districts/"wards/cities" that had existed as primary subdivisions of prefectures besides rural districts since 1878. There were 39 cities in 1889: only one in most prefectures, two in a few, none in some – Miyazaki became the last prefecture to contain its first city in 1924. In Okinawa-ken and Hokkai-dō which were not yet equal prefectures in the Empire, major urban settlements remained organized as urban districts until the 1920s: Naha-ku and Shuri-ku, the two urban districts of Okinawa were only turned into Naha-shi and Shuri-shi in May 1921, six -ku of Hokkaidō were converted into district-independent cities in August 1922. By 1945, the number of cities countrywide had increased to 205. After WWII, their number doubled during the "great Shōwa mergers" of the 1950s and continued to grow so that it surpassed the number of towns in the early 21st century.
As of October 1 2018, there are 792 cities of Japan. Administrative division Urban area List of cities in Japan Directory of current Japanese city leaders and outline of system "Japan's Evolving Nested Municipal Hierarchy: The Race for Local Power in the 2000s," by A. J. Jacobs at Urban Studies Research, Vol. 2011.