Khovrino (Moscow Metro)
Khovrino is a station on the Zamoskvoretskaya line of the Moscow Metro. The station opened on 31 December 2017, it is the northern terminus of the line, the closest subway station to the Sheremetyevo International Airport. The working name of the station was Ulitsa Dybenko for the street on which the station is situated. In 2013, the city changed the official name to Khovrino, to reflect the name of the municipal district, Khovrino Municipal Okrug. Various plans have existed throughout the history of the line to extend it northward; the boring of 2.2 km of tunnels north from the former terminus, Rechnoy Vokzal, was completed in December 2014 by tunnel boring machine. The station was planned to open in December 2016, despite construction being completed in 2016, the opening of Khovrino was postponed a year because of the decision to construct an intermediate station Belomorskaya
Chekhovskaya is a station of the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It was opened on December 31, 1987, served as the northern terminus of the line for the following year, its depth is 62 metres. The vestibule is located in Pushkinskaya Square, while the station is named for the writer Anton Chekhov; the station provides transfers to the Tverskaya station of the Zamoskvoretskaya Line, the Pushkinskaya station of the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line. Chekhovskaya on metro.ru
Okhotny Ryad (Moscow Metro)
Okhotny Ryad is a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It is situated in the centre of Moscow in the Tverskoy District, near the Kremlin, Manezhnaya Square and State Duma, it is named after a nearby street, which name means "hunters' row". Okhotny Ryad station is located under what was the swamplands of the upper Neglinnaya River. Two ancient churches stood on the site, their graveyards were excavated during the construction of the station; the station opened as part of the original Metro line on 15 May 1935. Okhotny Ryad has been renamed more times than any other Metro station. Planned to be called Okhotnoryadskaya, it was opened as Okhotny Ryad instead; the station was renamed Imeni Kaganovicha in honour of Lazar Kaganovich during the brief period between 25 November 1955 and 1957, when its original name was restored. The station's name was changed once more on 30 November 1961, to Prospekt Marksa. On 5 June 1990, the original name was restored once more; the construction of Okhotny Ryad presented a number of engineering challenges.
The task of wedging a metro station into the narrow space between two major buildings, the Hotel Moskva, re-built, what is now the State Duma building, at a depth of only 8 metres without damaging their foundations was further complicated by the difficult soil conditions in the area, including numerous underground water channels. The station was built using a so-called "German" method in which the station walls were constructed above ground and lowered into the construction site; this helped to brace the foundations of the nearby buildings during the subsequent construction of the station vault and pylons. The station was planned to be a bi-vault design similar to many London Underground stations, but Lazar Kaganovich, in charge of the Moscow Metro project at the time, insisted that the station be changed to a tri-vault design after 20 metres of tunnel had been bored. A major setback occurred when accumulated rainwater broke through the vault before it had been sealed and flooded the station.
Though no one was injured in the disaster, construction had to be halted while the damage was repaired. The architects, Yuri Revkovsky, N. Borov, G. Zamskoy, employed a silvery marble from Italy for the finishing of the pylons, the only documented case where imported material was used in the Metro; the walls are faced with ceramic tile. The finishing of the station, which involved the installation of more than 3,000 square metres of marble, 20,000 square metres of plaster, thousands of square metres of tile as well as lighting and decorations, was completed in just two weeks. In 2004, Okhotny Ryad underwent a major renovation which included replacing the lighting elements inside the spheres and repainting the plaster from light beige to white. A further renovation took place in 2007/2008 when the old ceramic tiles were replaced by bright marble, though a small tiled section was retained. An average of 42,110 passengers per day enter the station through its vestibules with an additional 241,000 passengers entering via Teatralnaya.
The station has two subterranean vestibules, each linked with the platform via an escalator. During the construction of the vestibules, orders of the Moscow's party committee prohibited the obstruction of traffic, so American bridges had to be built over the pits of the future vestibules; the eastern vestibule, through a mezzanine level is situated on the ground floor of a building situated on the corner of Bolshaya Dmitrovka street, Teatralny Drive, Teatralnaya Square. The facade of this building was redesigned by Dmitry Chechulin and incorporated sculptures of athletes which were modeled after performers from the Moscow Circus; the original three N-type escalators were replaced by ET-5M units in 1997. The vestibule acts as a transfer point to the Teatralnaya station; the western vestibule's original N-type escalators were replaced in 1990 by the ET-5M series. The vestibule's original entrance was built into the ground floor of Hotel Moskva, on the corner of Manezhnaya Square and Okhotny Ryad street.
In 1959 the original structure was expanded with the first of many underground subway networks, opened on 21 November. Dual descent entrances appeared on both corners of the Tverskaya Street, in front of the original entrance; the tunnel the continued along the facade of the Hotel Moskva, to offer entrance on both sides of the driveway between Manezhnaya Square and Revolution Square. The final addition came in 1997 when a new underground mall was opened under the Manezhnaya Square, a direct access was made possible from the 1959 network; when the original Hotel Moskva was closed for demolition in 2004, the original entrance on its northwest corner was demolished. It is unknown. Okhotny Ryad station is connected to Teatralnaya station of the Zamoskvoretskaya Line; when opened in 1938, transfer was only possible via the eastern vestibule. A direct transfer was under construction, but did not open until 30 December 1944, it features a long inclined tunnel. As the system grew, the original arrangement proved inadequate to handle the large passenger load and on 7 November 1974 a second transfer tunnel was opened.
Access to both transfer routes is done via escalators in the centre of the platform. The original two tandem N-type escalator pairs were replaced in 2001 by ET-5M series. In the mezzanine under the platform the northwards direction carries passenge
The Moskva River is a river of western Russia. It rises about 140 km west of Moscow, flows east through the Smolensk and Moscow Oblasts, passing through central Moscow. About 110 km south east of Moscow, at the city of Kolomna, it flows into the Oka River, itself a tributary of the Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea. Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва; the city is named after the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term, although several theories exist. To distinguish the river and the city, Russians call the river Moskva-reka instead of just Moskva; the river is 503 km long, with a vertical drop of 155 m. The area of its drainage basin is 17,600 km2; the maximum depth is 3 metres above Moscow city limits, up to 6 metres below it. It freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In Moscow, the river freezes occasionally.
The absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120 metres above sea level. The main tributaries are the Ruza, Yauza and Severka rivers. Sources of water are estimated as 12 % rain and 27 % subterranean. Since completion of the Moscow Canal, the Moskva River has collected a share of Upper Volga water; this has enabled reliable commercial shipping, interrupted by summer droughts. The average discharge, including Volga waters, varies from 38 m3/s near Zvenigorod to 250 m3/s at the Oka inlet; the speed of the current, depending on the season, varies from 0.1 m/s to 1.5–2.0 m/s. Moscow, the capital of Russia, is situated on its banks; the river flows through the towns of Mozhaysk, Zhukovsky, Voskresensk, — at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka — Kolomna. As of 2007, there are its canals within Moscow city limits. Within the city, the river is 120–200 metres wide, the narrowest point being under the Kremlin walls. Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on the Moskva River and from the Upper Volga reservoirs.
Canals, built within Moscow city limits, have created a number of islands. Some of them have names in Russian, some have none. Major, permanent islands are: Serebryany Bor. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s. Tatarskaya Poyma known as Mnyovniki. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s Balchug Island known as Bolotny Ostrov, lying just opposite the Kremlin; the island was formed by the construction of the Vodootvodny Canal in the 1780s, has no official name in Russian. Moscow residents informally call it "Bolotny Ostrov" while members of Moscow's English-speaking community refer to it as Balchug. One uninhabited island north of Nagatino. Three uninhabited islands east of Nagatino, connected by the Pererva lock system. There is a fleet of river ice-breaker cruisers which ply routes from moorings at the Hotel Ukraine and Gorky Park to the Novospassky Monastery and back. Duration of trips ranges from 1.5 to 3 hours. "Moskva". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Vodootvodny Canal is a 4 kilometre long, 30-60 metre wide canal in downtown Moscow, Russia. It was built in the 1780s on the old riverbed of the Moskva River to control floods and support shipping. Canal construction created an island, between the Moskva River and the canal; the island acquired its present shape in 1938 with the completion of Moscow Canal megaproject. The canal is spanned by ten bridges. Zamoskvorechye, the land on the flat southern bank of Moskva river, was flooded in spring; the river itself used discouraging construction. Low lands on both sides of the river were only suitable for farming. In dry periods, the old river bed used spreading disease. Residents had to combat inundation levels by digging small dikes, with little result; the memory of these moats remains in the names of Raushskaya embankment and Church of St. George v Yendove; the most notable, permanent moat was that separating St. George from Balchug Street; the first documented flood control project was drawn up in 1775 by Matvey Kazakov.
In addition to separating Balchug Island from Zamoskvorechye, Kazakov proposed cutting two flood control dikes west from Bersenevka. This would separate strips of floodland from the mainland. In the east, Kazakov planned to flood uninhabited farmland permanently, connect the Canal to the Moskva River inside the present-day Garden Ring; the eastern end of an island would become warehouse. The moat east of Balchug had to be widened, too. A notably devastating flood occurred in 1783, razing the suburbs and damaging Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge. In order to repair it, the Moskva River was temporarily drained, its water diverted into the old river bed. Prior to closing the main waterway, the old river bed was widened. Kazakov's plan materialized excluding the grain terminal. An 1807 plan shows only one "additional" island west of Bersenevka. After the Fire of 1812, the western island and the dike separating it from the mainland were reclaimed for development; the Moskva River was reduced to about its present-day width.
The eastern end of the Canal was reduced to its ordinary width of 30 metres. In 1835, the city built Babyegorodskaya Dam west of the island; the dam was disassembled each autumn and set back in place after the spring flood, so it was good for shipping but useless against floods. A new channel extension east was built to bypass the old 90-degree turn. For a while, the island was cut into three parts when Balchug moat was filled, in two; the completion of the Moscow Canal raised the water level in the Moskva River and the canal, enabling reliable shipping throughout summer seasons. Locks on the canal were demolished; the moat parallel to Garden Ring was filled in the 1930s, with the completion of Bolshoy Krasnokholmsky Bridge. The first bridges of the Soviet age, Komissariatsky bridge and the pedestrian Zverev Bridge were built with sufficient clearance. Chugunny Bridge was compatible with new requirements. All other bridges were rebuilt in the 1930s to 6-8 traffic lanes. In the 1960s, Schluzovoy Bridge construction connected the embankments on the eastern tip of the island.
Chugunny Bridge steel deck was replaced with concrete. Sadovnichesky Bridge was completed in 1963. Two more pedestrian bridges, Second Schluzovoy and Luzhkov Bridge, were added in the 1990s. Construction of the Patriarshy Bridge extension over the canal is under way; the city planners entertain plans to build a parking lot under the canal, from across Golutvin sloboda office block, to Tretyakov Gallery. This would require digging the open pit. Russian: Maps of Moscow www.testan.narod.ru Russian: Носарев В.А. Скрябина, Т.А. "Мосты Москвы", М, "Вече", 2004, стр. 23–26 ISBN 5-9533-0183-9
Dinamo (Moscow Metro)
Dinamo is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya line. It opened on 11 September 1938 as part of the second stage of the system, it was named for the home stadium of FC Dynamo Moscow. Passengers may make out-of-station transfers to the Bolshaya Koltsevaya and Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya lines via Petrovsky Park station. Dinamo is under Leningradsky Avenue in the Aeroport District of Moscow near Petrovsky Park and the Petrovsky Palace; the future VTB Arena is being built on the same dinamo stadium adjacent to the station. The station follows a tri-vaulted deep-level pylon design. Designed by Ya. Likhtenberg and Yury Revkovsky, the station features a sport-themed decoration with bas-reliefs designed by Ye. Yason-Manzer depicting sportsmen in various practices in the central hall; the pylons, faced with red tagilian marble and onyx have porcelain medallions showing sportsmen. The walls are faced with onyx and grey marble, neatly tiled together; the floor is revetted with black marble, although the platforms were covered with asphalt.
There are two identical vestibules, each on the northern side of the Leningradsky Avenue, the architect for the vestibules was Dmitry Chechulin. The city is building an underground walkway between Dinamo and Petrovsky Park stations that will ease transfers between the stations; that walkway could open in late of 2019 - the beginning of 2020. In 1940, physicists Georgy Flyorov and Konstantin Petrzhak used the station for their observations of the decay of uranium; the depth of the station reduced the potential effect of cosmic rays in their work. Working at night, the pair discovered spontaneous fission
Varshavskaya (Moscow Metro)
Varshavskaya is a Moscow Metro station in the Nagorny District, Southern Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is between Kakhovskaya and Kashirskaya stations. Varshavskaya opened on 11 August 1969 as part of the Zamoskvoretskaya line and up until 1995 was served by its trains. Today it is the only interim station on the shortest line of the Metro. Varshavskaya is named after Varshavskoye Highway; the highway in turn takes its name from the capital of Poland. The station was designed by architects Nina Alyoshina and Nataliya Samoylova to a typical 1960s Moscow pillar-trispan design - "sorokonozhka" and features two rows of 40 square pillars which flare towards the top faced with pink-yellow marble. A floor laid with grey granite of various shades and asphalt on the platform edges; the walls are covered by blue marble socle. In addition there are several metallic artworks depicting silhouette images of famous landmarks in the city of Warsaw The station is located next to two important southbound arteries – the Varshavskoye Highway and the Kolomenskoye Railway station of the Paveletsky suburban direction of Moscow Railway, but neither are pointed in Warsaw's direction and neither reach the city.
The eastern vestibule has subways leading directly to the rail platforms, whilst the western vestibule is situated under the T-junction of the highway and the Chongarsky Boulevard that comes off it. Behind the station is a branch that leads to the Zamoskvoretskoye depot which serves both the Kakhovskaya and the Zamoskvoretskaya lines; because of this, on occasion there is a direct service from Varshavskaya to all northbound stations on the Zamoskvoretskaya line and vice versa. Trains that do that are singled out by being eight rather than six cars long. Station information on the Moscow Metro site