The Kaskaskia River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 325 miles long, in central and southern Illinois in the United States. The second largest river system within Illinois, it drains an area of farms. The lower reaches of the river have been canalized to allow barge traffic, cascasquia is an alternative, supposedly more French, spelling of Kaskaskia that is sometimes encountered. It was named after a clan of the Illiniwek encountered by the early French Jesuits, Okaw River was an alternative name for the Kaskaskia that persists in place names along the river, including Okawville, and in a major tributary, the West Okaw River. The Kaskaskia rises in east central Illinois in several farm ditches along the west side of Champaign, the headwaters of the river is just north of Interstate 74, where it is marked with a sign. The river flows south across rural Champaign and Douglas counties, southwest across southern Illinois and it joins the Mississippi from the north approximately 10 miles northwest of Chester and 40 miles south-southeast of St.
Louis, Missouri. The watershed of the river encompasses approximately 5,746 square miles, the Kaskaskia is impounded in Shelby County to form Lake Shelbyville. It is impounded in Clinton County southwest of Vandalia to form Carlyle Lake, for most of the 19th century, the river joined the Mississippi at Chester. In the aftermath of a major 1881 flood, the Mississippi changed its channel and moved east to flow along the lower 10 miles of the channel of the Kaskaskia, shifting the confluence 10 miles north. As a result, a portion of Illinois, including the former capital. It is now located on the west side of the Mississippi, the community of Kaskaskia can now only be reached from the Missouri shore. The Kaskaskia River State Fish & Wildlife Area is located along the river in southern Illinois. Fort Kaskaskia was located near the mouth of the river in Randolph County
Vandalia is a city in Fayette County, United States,69 miles northeast of St. Louis, on the Kaskaskia River. It served as the capital of Illinois from 1819 until 1839. Vandalia was for years the terminus of the National Road. Today, Vandalia is the county seat of Fayette County and the home of the Vandalia State House State Historic Site, the population was 7,042 at the 2010 Census. Vandalia was founded in 1819 as a new city for Illinois. The previous capital, was unsuitable because it was under the constant threat of flooding, the townsite was hastily prepared for the 1820 meeting of the Illinois General Assembly. The history of the name Vandalia is uncertain, different theories can be found in almost all of the books written about Vandalia over the years. In her book Vandalia, Wilderness Capital of Lincolns Land, Mary Burtschi tells of a conversation one of the original surveyors of the town and a Vandalia resident. The surveyor, Colonel Greenup, explained that Van was suggested by one of the men and he recommended this as an abbreviation to the word vanguard meaning the forefront of an advancing movement.
Another suggestion was made for the term dalia, derived from the Anglo-Saxon word dale which means a valley between hills, Greenup takes credit in the conversation for connecting the two terms to form the name Vandalia. Another possible source of the name is the Vandalia colony, an attempt to establish a fourteenth colony in part of what is now West Virginia. The Vandalia colony was named in honor of Queen Charlotte, who claimed descent from the Wendish tribe of Obodrites, the law under which Vandalia was founded included a provision that the capital would not be moved for twenty years. Even before the end of period, the population center of the state had shifted far north of Vandalia. In 1837, the General Assembly voted to move the capital to Springfield, in 1900,2,665 people lived in Vandalia, in 1910,2,974, and in 1940,5,288. The population was 6,975 at the 2000 census, Vandalia is home to the Okaw Valley Area Vocational Center, which trains high school students in vocational trades. It serves students from nearby high schools such as those in Greenville.
The building trades class at the each year purchases property in Vandalia, builds a house. They have sold 33 homes constructed by students, Vandalia is located at 38°58′5″N 89°6′7″W
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America. Rising in the Rocky Mountains of western Montana, the Missouri flows east and south for 2,341 miles before entering the Mississippi River north of St. Louis, Missouri. The river takes drainage from a populated, semi-arid watershed of more than half a million square miles. When combined with the lower Mississippi River, it forms the fourth longest river system. For over 12,000 years, people have depended on the Missouri River and its tributaries as a source of sustenance and transportation. More than ten major groups of Native Americans populated the watershed, most leading a nomadic lifestyle, the Missouri River was one of the main routes for the westward expansion of the United States during the 19th century. The growth of the fur trade in the early 1800s laid much of the groundwork as trappers explored the region, pioneers headed west en masse beginning in the 1830s, first by covered wagon, by the growing numbers of steamboats entering service on the river.
Former Native American lands in the watershed were taken over by settlers, leading to some of the most longstanding, during the 20th century, the Missouri River basin was extensively developed for irrigation, flood control and the generation of hydroelectric power. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with more on tributaries. Meanders have been cut and the river channelized to improve navigation, from the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming, three streams rise to form the headwaters of the Missouri River. The longest begins near Browers Spring,9,100 feet above sea level, on the southeastern slopes of Mount Jefferson in the Centennial Mountains. Flowing west north, it runs first in Hell Roaring Creek, west into the Red Rock, swings northeast to become the Beaverhead and these two streams flow north and northwest into Montana. The Missouri River officially starts at the confluence of the Jefferson and Madison in Missouri Headwaters State Park near Three Forks, the Missouri passes through Canyon Ferry Lake, a reservoir west of the Big Belt Mountains.
Issuing from the mountains near Cascade, the flows northeast to the city of Great Falls, where it drops over the Great Falls of the Missouri. Farther on, the passes through the Fort Peck Dam, and immediately downstream. At the confluence, the Yellowstone is actually the larger river, the Missouri meanders east past Williston and into Lake Sakakawea, the reservoir formed by Garrison Dam. Below the dam the Missouri receives the Knife River from the west and flows south to Bismarck, the capital of North Dakota and it slows into the Lake Oahe reservoir just before the Cannonball River confluence. While it continues south, eventually reaching Oahe Dam in South Dakota, the Missouri makes a bend to the southeast as it winds through the Great Plains, receiving the Niobrara River and many smaller tributaries from the southwest
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Santo Domingo, officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population. In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, the city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional, itself bordered on three sides by Santo Domingo Province. Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, castle, the citys Colonial Zone was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo, from 1936 to 1961, after the Dominican Republics dictator, Rafael Trujillo, following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation. Santo Domingo is the cultural, political and industrial center of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo serves as the chief seaport of the country. The citys harbor at the mouth of the Ozama River accommodates the largest vessels, temperatures are high year round, with a cool breeze around winter time. At the time, the territory consisted of five chiefdoms, Marién, Maguá, Jaragua.
These were ruled respectively by caciques Guacanagarix, Caonabo, Bohechío, dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, in 1495 it was renamed Santo Domingo, in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the Gateway to the Caribbean, in June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River. The original layout of the city and a portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy, in 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos, rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.
In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city and held it for ransom, an expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, in 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of Frances dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. From 1795 to 1822 the city changed several times along with the colony it headed. The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation after the Criollo bourgeois within the country, led by José Núñez de Cáceres, the nation was unified with Haiti just two months later
French Canadians are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward. Today, French Canadians constitute the main French-speaking population in Canada, French Canadians live across North America. The province of Quebec has the largest population of French-Canadian descent, though smaller communities exist throughout Canada, between 1840 and 1930, roughly 900,000 French Canadians emigrated to the United States, mostly to the New England region. Other terms for French Canadians who continue to reside in the province of Quebec, are Quebecers or Québécois, the other major group of French Canadians are the Acadians who reside in the Maritime Provinces. In total, those who identify as French Canadian, French, Québécois, the French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th century. The original use of the term Canada referred to the area along the St.
From 1535 to the 1690s, the French word Canadien had referred to the First Nations the French had encountered in the St. Lawrence River valley at Stadacona, at the end of the 17th century, Canadien became an ethnonym distinguishing the inhabitants of Canada from those of France. French Canadians living in Canada express their identity using a number of terms. The Ethnic Diversity Survey of the 2006 Canadian census found that French-speaking Canadians identified their ethnicity most often as French, French Canadians, Québécois, the latter three were grouped together by Jantzen as French New World ancestries because they originate in Canada. Canadien was used to refer to the French-speaking residents of New France beginning in the last half of the 17th century, the English-speaking residents who arrived from Great Britain were called Anglais. This usage continued until Canadian Confederation in 1867 and those reporting French New World ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least four generations in Canada.
Fourth generation Canadiens and Québécois showed considerable attachment to their group, with 70% and 61%, respectively. The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada. As a result, their identification with their ethnicity is weaker, for example, only 50% of third generation Canadians strongly identify as such, bringing down the overall average. The survey report notes that 80% of Canadians whose families had been in Canada for three or more generations reported Canadian and provincial or regional ethnic identities and these identities include French New World ancestries such as Québécois, Acadian. Since the 1960s, French Canadians in Quebec have generally used Québécois or Québécoise to express their cultural and national identity, rather than Canadien français, francophones who self-identify as Québécois and do not have French-Canadian ancestry may not identify as French Canadian.
Those who do have French or French-Canadian ancestry, but who support Quebec sovereignty and this is a reflection of the strong social and political ties that most Quebeckers of French-Canadian origin, who constitute a majority of francophone Quebecers, maintain within Quebec. French Canadians outside Quebec are more likely to self-identify as French Canadian, identification with provincial groupings varies from province to province, with Franco-Ontarians, for example, using their provincial label far more frequently than Franco-Columbians do
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe
The voyageurs were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years. Voyageur is a French word, meaning traveler, the emblematic meaning of the term applies to places and times where transportation of materials was mainly over long distances. This major and challenging task of the fur trading business was done by canoe, the term in its fur trade context applied, at a lesser extent, to other fur trading activities. Being a voyageur included being a part of a licensed, organized effort, they were set apart from engagés, who were much smaller merchants and general laborers. Mostly immigrants, engagés were men who were obliged to go anywhere, until their contract expired, engagés were at the full servitude of their master, which was most often a voyageur. Less than fifty percent of engagés whose contracts ended chose to remain in New France, the voyageurs were regarded as legendary, especially in French Canada. They were heroes celebrated in folklore and music, for reasons of promised celebrity status and wealth, this position was very coveted.
James H. Baker was once told by an unnamed retired voyageur, I could carry, walk, I have been twenty-four years a canoe man, and forty-one years in service, no portage was ever too long for me, fifty songs could I sing. I have saved the lives of ten voyageurs, have had twelve wives, I spent all of my money in pleasure. Were I young again, I would spend my life the way over. There is no life so happy as a voyageurs life, despite the fame surrounding the voyageur, their life was one of toil and not nearly as glorious as folk tales make it out to be. For example, they had to be able to carry two 90-pound bundles of fur over portage, some carried up to four or five, and there is a report of a voyageur carrying seven for half of a mile. Hernias were common and frequently caused death, most voyageurs would start working when they were twenty two and they would continue working until they were in their sixties. They never made enough money to consider an early retirement from what was a physically grueling lifestyle, Europeans mainly traded alongside the coast of North America with Native Americans.
The early fur trade with Native Americans, which developed alongside the coasts of North America, was not limited to the beaver, beavers were not particularly valued and people preferred fancy fur or fur that is used with or on the pelt. The fur trade was viewed as secondary to fishing during this era, coureurs des bois achieved business advantages by travelling deeper into the wilderness and trading there. By 1681, the King of France decided to control the traders by publishing an edict that banned fur, also, as the trading process moved deeper into the wilderness, transportation of the furs became a larger part of the fur trading business process. The authorities began a process of issuing permits and those travellers associated with the canoe transportation part of the licensed endeavour became known as voyageurs, a term which literally means traveler in French
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question.
There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France.
With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the process
Great Flood of 1993
The Great Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Flood of 1993 occurred in the American Midwest, along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their tributaries, from April to October 1993. The flood was among the most costly and devastating to ever occur in the United States, the hydrographic basin affected cover around 745 miles in length and 435 miles in width, totaling about 320,000 square miles. In some categories, the 1993 flood even surpassed the 1927 flood and this weather pattern persisted throughout the following autumn. During the winter of 1992–93, the region experienced heavy snowfall and these conditions were followed by persistent spring weather patterns that produced storms over the same locations. Soils across much of the area were saturated by June 1, with additional rainfall all running off into streams and rivers. These wet-weather conditions contrasted sharply with the droughts and heat waves experienced in the southeastern United States, storms and repetitive in nature during the late spring and summer, bombarded the Upper Midwest with voluminous rainfall.
Portions of east-central Iowa received as much as 48 inches of rain between April 1 and August 31,1993, and many areas across the plains had precipitation 400–750% above normal. In the St. Louis National Weather Service forecast area encompassing eastern Missouri and southwest Illinois,36 forecast points rose above flood stage, the 1993 flood broke record river levels set during the 1973 Mississippi and the 1951 Missouri River floods. Civil Air Patrol crews from 21 states served more than 5,000 meals to victims and volunteers. Over 1,000 flood warnings and statements, five times the normal, were issued to notify the public, in such places as St. Louis, river levels were nearly 20 feet above flood stage, the highest ever recorded there in 228 years. The 52-foot -high St. Louis Floodwall, built to handle the volume of the 1844 flood, was able to keep the 1993 flood out with just over two feet to spare. This floodwall was built in the 1960s, to great controversy, had it been breached, the whole of downtown St.
Louis would have been submerged. Emergency officials estimated that all of the 700 privately built agricultural levees were overtopped or destroyed along the Missouri River. Navigation on the Mississippi and Missouri River had been closed since early July resulting in a loss of $2 million per day in commerce. In an attempt to strand his wife on the side of the river so he could continue partying. The breach flooded 14,000 acres of farmland, destroyed buildings, the Redwood River in Minnesota began experiencing severe flooding in May. On May 22, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, received 7.5 inches of rain in a three-hour period, from May through July, Sioux Falls, South Dakota received 22.55 inches of rain, the wettest three-month period in its history. As noted above, rains in South Dakota contributed to flooding downstream, in June, flooding occurred along the Black River in Wisconsin, with flooding starting to occur along the Mississippi and Kansas rivers
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, was chosen to suggest that the travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly. The basic format consists of five numerical digits, an extended ZIP+4 code, introduced in 1983, includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, a hyphen, and four additional digits that determine a more specific location within a given ZIP Code. The term ZIP Code was originally registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, USPS style for ZIP is all caps and the c in code is capitalized, although style sheets for some publications use sentence case or lowercase. The early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers, the United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example, Mr. John Smith 3256 Epiphenomenal Avenue Minneapolis 16, by the early 1960s a more organized system was needed, and on July 1,1963, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide.
Three months later, on October 1,1963, the U. S, an earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with one exception, according to the historian of the U. S. Robert Moon, an employee of the post office, is considered the father of the ZIP Code, he submitted his proposal in 1944 while working as a postal inspector. The post office gives credit to Moon only for the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or sec center, an SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes, the mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight.
The United States Post Office used a character, which it called Mr. ZIP. He was often depicted with a such as USE ZIP CODE in the selvage of panes of stamps or on labels contained in, or the covers of. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4, often called plus-four codes, add-on codes, or add ons. But initial attempts to promote use of the new format met with public resistance. For Post Office Boxes, the rule is that each box has its own ZIP+4 code. However, there is no rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box. It is common to use add-on code 9998 for mail addressed to the postmaster,9999 for general delivery, for a unique ZIP Code, the add-on code is typically 0001
New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico.
The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico.
New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the state