Kastoria is a city in northern Greece in the region of Western Macedonia. It is the capital of Kastoria regional unit, it is situated on a promontory on the western shore of Lake Orestiada, in a valley surrounded by limestone mountains. The town is known for its many Byzantine churches and Ottoman-era domestic architecture, its lake and its fur clothing industry; the city is first mentioned in 550 AD, by Procopius as follows: "There was a certain city in Thessaly, Diocletianopolis by name, prosperous in ancient times, but with the passage of time and the assaults of the barbarians it had been destroyed, for a long time it had been destitute of inhabitants. There is an island for the most part surrounded by water, and a lofty mountain stands above the island, one half being covered by the lake while the remainder rests upon it." Although Procopius refers to it as "a city of Thessaly", the description is undoubtedly that of Kastoria, a city on a promontory in a lake. There are several theories about the origin of the name Kastoria.
The dominant of these is that the name derives from the Greek word κάστορας. Trade in the animal's fur, sourced from nearby Lake Orestiada, has traditionally been an important element of the city's economy. Other theories propose that the name derives from the Greek word κάστρο or from the mythical hero Κάστωρ, who may have been honoured in the area; the word is sometimes written with a C, Castoria in older works. From Greek, the name was borrowed into Turkish as Kesriye; the Bulgarian and Macedonian name of the city is Kostur. The Albanian name is Kosturi; the municipality Kastoria was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 9 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Agia Triada Agioi Anargyroi Kastoria Kastraki Kleisoura Korestia Makednoi Mesopotamia VitsiThe municipality has an area of 763.330 km2, the municipal unit 57.318 km2. Apózari Doltsó Dailaki Doplitsa Kato Agora Kallithea Lyv Paleologou Street Nikis Avenue Christopoulou Street Kyknon Avenue Orestion Orestiados Megalou Alexandrou Kapodistria Ifestou For Orthodox and Catholic ecclesiastical history, see Metropolis of Kastoria Kastoria is believed to have ancient origins.
Livy mentions a town near a lake in Orestis, called Celetrum, whose inhabitants surrendered to Sulpitius during the Roman war against Philip V of Macedon. The ancient town was located on a hill above the town's current location; the Roman Emperor Diocletian founded the town of Diocletianopolis in the vicinity. Procopius relates that, after Diocletianopolis was destroyed by barbarians, Emperor Justinian relocated it on a promontory projecting into Lake Orestiada, the town's current location, "gave it an appropriate name" indicating that he renamed it Justinianopolis. Th. L. Fr. Tafel, in his study on the Via Egnatia, suggested that Celetrum and Kastoria are three successive names of the same place. Kastoria itself does not appear, until the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars of the late 10th/early 11th century; the town was in Bulgarian hands until 1018, when it was conquered by Basil II. Kastoria was occupied by the Normans under Bohemond I in 1082/83, but was soon recovered by Alexios I Komnenos; the town had a significant Jewish presence, most notably the 11th-century scholar Tobiah ben Eliezer.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, the town became contested between several powers and changed hands often. The Second Bulgarian Empire held the city under Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II, until it was recovered by the Despotate of Epirus; the Nicaean Empire captured. 1252, but lost it again to Epirus in ca. 1257, only for the Nicaeans to recapture it following the Battle of Pelagonia. In the early 14th century, Kastoria was part of the domain of John II Doukas, "doux of Great Vlachia and Kastoria". After his death, the town became part of the semi-autonomous domain of Stephen Gabrielopoulos. After the latter's death in 1332/3, the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos took over the town, but in the next year it was surrendered to the Serbs by the renegade Syrgiannes Palaiologos; the Serbian ruler Stephen Dushan captured Kastoria in 1342/3, taking advantage of the ongoing Byzantine civil war, made it part of his Serbian Empire. After Dushan's death, Kastoria became the seat of Symeon Uroš; the town came under the Epirote ruler Thomas Preljubović, under the Albanian Muzaka family, until it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the mid-1380s.
The Ottoman Turks conquered Kastoria around 1385, but it is unclear whether by force or by an agreement with its Albanian rulers. During the Ottoman period Kastoria acquired a sizeable Muslim population and several mosques and tekkes could be found in the city. According to the findings of Vasil Kanchov, at the turn of the 20th century, the town had 3.000 Greek Christians, 1.600 Turkish Muslims, 750 Jews, 300 Bulgarian Christians, 300 Albanian Christians, 240 Roma, for a total of 6190 inhabitants. According to the findings of Dimitri Mishev, the town had a population of 4.000 Greek Christians, 400 Bulgarian Patriarchist Grecomans and 72 Vlachs in 1905 (
Mark Sutton was a British stuntman who took part in the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony by parachuting from a helicopter above the stadium as James Bond. He died in a wingsuit flying accident near Les Grandes Otanes in Switzerland, he had been travelling at around 125mph. Mark Sutton was the son of Air Marshal Sir John Matthias Dobson Sutton KCB, former Lieutenant-Governor of the Island of Jersey, Lady Angela Sutton, he was educated at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He received an officer's commission in the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles in December 1991, served as an Army Officer until 1995. Upon leaving the Army, he moved into finance in the city of London; when he died, Sutton was working as a consultant for The Royal Bank of Scotland. During a segment of the opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics entitled "Happy and Glorious", Sutton served as a stunt double of on a helicopter in a filmed portion of the segment. Alongside his friend Gary Connery, Sutton skydived out of the helicopter into the Olympic Stadium.
Following the ceremony, the sequence was described as one of its highlights by the media. In August 2013, Mark Sutton and 20 other top wingsuiters were invited to a three-day event in Chamonix, France known as Helibase 74, organised by Epic TV, a web TV channel specialising in extreme sports. In exchange for video footage of their flights, the website provided accommodations and helicopter access. On 14 August 2013, Sutton jumped alongside Tony Uragallo in a short "warm-up" flight near Les Grandes Otanes scheduled to last about a minute. However, tragedy struck only 20 seconds into the flight. A rescue helicopter arrived soon after Sutton hit the ground, but he was pronounced dead at the scene—Sutton's impact was so severe that a DNA test was required to identify his body, a spokesperson stated that he had no chance of surviving the impact. While Sutton was equipped with a parachute during the flight for landing, it was left unused; as part of the investigation, the video footage from Uragallo's cameras were handed over to a Swiss police unit.
An Epic TV spokesperson considered Sutton's death to be an accident, noting that two successful flights with other wingsuiters were held prior, that they had planned to be "conservative" that day due to the large number of flights planned. The remaining participants in the event elected to continue on in honour of Sutton, his death was regarded as a major loss to the community of wingsuit flying, among whom he was considered to be one of the world's best. Among those to pay tribute to Sutton were Sebastian Coe, Gary Connery and Danny Boyle who said that his death was a "huge loss to his profession". Mark Sutton on IMDb
Valley Ford is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in western Sonoma County, United States. It is located on State Route 1 in an area of rolling hills about 75 minutes north of San Francisco by automobile. Like all of Sonoma County, Valley Ford is included in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the Redwood Empire; the village lies just north of about 5 mi from the Pacific Ocean. It is 9 mi east of the town of Bodega Bay and 20 mi southeast of Jenner; the Estero Americano is protected by the Estero Americano State Marine Recreational Management Area. Like an underwater park, this marine protected area helps conserve ocean wildlife and marine ecosystems. Prior to its settlement by Europeans, the indigenous Coast Miwok and Pomo people hunted and gathered in the area. A Miwok village named. Europeans explored the coastline in the early 17th century but did not settle until 1812, when Russian fur traders came south from Alaska and built Fort Ross about 22 mi northwest of Valley Ford.
The Russians remained until 1841. In 1850, the year California became a U. S. state, the area was made part of Sonoma County. Valley Ford had a grain mill in the mid-19th century. Starting in the 1870s, Valley Ford was a stop on the North Pacific Coast Railroad connecting Cazadero to the Sausalito ferry, enabling local ranchers and fishers to export produce to San Francisco. In 1976, Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation art piece Running Fence passed through Valley Ford on its way from Cotati to Bodega Bay. Open from 1856 to 1967, Watson School once served as Valley Ford's school, is located in a Sonoma County Regional Parks Department historic park about 3.5 miles north of Valley Ford. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 2.6 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Valley Ford had a population of 147; the population density was 55.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 71.4% White, 0.7% African American, 22.4% from other races, 5.4% from two or more races.
35.4 % of the population was Latino of any race. The Census reported. There were 57 households, out of which 18 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 26 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 8 had a female householder with no husband present, 1 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 6 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 13 households were made up of individuals and 5 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58. There were 35 families; the population was spread out with 35 people under the age of 18, 12 people aged 18 to 24, 42 people aged 25 to 44, 35 people aged 45 to 64, 23 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.4 males. There were 67 housing units at an average density of 25.4 per square mile, of which 47.4% were owner-occupied and 52.6% were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 39.5% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 60.5% lived in rental housing units. Valley Ford is home to antique stores, art galleries, curio shops and restaurants: Valley Ford Hotel, one of the few remaining buildings dating from the 19th century, now houses Rocker Oysterfeller's Kitchen & Saloon and six guest rooms. West County Design, a gallery for wood tables, polished concrete and other products of Sonoma County artisans; the Valley Ford Market features the regionally well-known Batemon's Meats. Valley Ford Construction Corporation, Valley Ford Construction Corporation, General Engineering; the headquarters of capo manufacturer Shubb is in Valley Ford. Carolyn's Canvas manufactures a variety of canvas goods. County of Sonoma Watson School Restoration Project