Kaunas is the second-largest city in Lithuania after Vilnius and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic and cultural life. Kaunas was the biggest city and the centre of a county in the Duchy of Trakai of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Trakai Palatinate since 1413. In the Russian Empire, it was the capital of the Kaunas Governorate from 1843 to 1915. During the interwar period, it served as the temporary capital of Lithuania, when Vilnius was seized by Poland between 1920 and 1939. During that period Kaunas was celebrated for its rich cultural and academic life, construction of countless Art Deco and Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural-style buildings as well as popular furniture, the interior design of the time, a widespread café culture; the city interwar architecture is regarded as among the finest examples of European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label. It contributed to Kaunas being named as the first city in Central and Eastern Europe to be designated as a UNESCO City of Design.

Kaunas has been selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2022, together with Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. The city is the capital of Kaunas County, the seat of the Kaunas city municipality and the Kaunas District Municipality, it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kaunas. Kaunas is located at the confluence of the two largest Lithuanian rivers, the Nemunas and the Neris, is near the Kaunas Reservoir, the largest body of water in the whole of Lithuania; as defined by Eurostat, the population of Kaunas functional urban area, that stretches beyond the city limits, is estimated at 383,764, while according to statistics of Kaunas territorial health insurance fund, there are 437,283 permanent inhabitants in Kaunas city and Kaunas district municipalities combined. The city's name is of Lithuanian origin and most derives from a personal name. Before Lithuania regained independence, the city was known in English as Kovno, the traditional Slavicized form of its name; the Polish name is Kowno.

An earlier Russian name was Ковно Kovno, although Каунас Kaunas has been used since 1940. The Yiddish name is קאָװנע Kovne, the names in German include Kaunas and Kauen; the city and its elderates have names in other languages. An old legend claims; these Romans were led by a patrician named Palemon, who had three sons: Barcus and Sperus. Palemon fled from Rome. Palemon, his sons and other relatives travelled to Lithuania. After Palemon's death, his sons divided his land. Kunas got the land, he built a fortress near the confluence of the Nemunas and Neris rivers, the city that grew up there was named after him. A suburban region in the vicinity is named "Palemonas". On 30 June 1993, the historical coat of arms of Kaunas city was re-established by a special presidential decree; the coat of arms features a white aurochs with a golden cross between its horns, set against a deep red background. The aurochs was the original heraldic symbol of the city, established in 1400; the heraldic seal of Kaunas, introduced in the early 15th century during the reign of Grand Duke Vytautas, is the oldest city heraldic seal known in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The current emblem was the result of much study and discussion on the part of the Lithuanian Heraldry Commission, realized by the artist Raimondas Miknevičius. An aurochs has replaced a wisent, depicted in the Soviet-era emblem, used since 1969. Blazon: Gules, an aurochs passant guardant argent ensigned with a cross Or between his horns. Kaunas has a greater coat of arms, used for purposes of Kaunas city representation; the sailor, three golden balls, Latin text "Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terram" in the greater coat of arms refers to Saint Nicholas, patron saint of merchants and seafarers, regarded as a heavenly guardian of Kaunas by Queen Bona Sforza. According to the archeological excavations, the richest collections of ceramics and other artifacts found at the confluence of the Nemunas and the Neris rivers are from the second and first millennium BC. During that time, people settled in some territories of the present Kaunas: the confluence of the two longest rivers of Lithuania area, Lampėdžiai, Kaniūkai, Marvelė, Romainiai, Petrašiūnai, Sargėnai, Veršvai sites.

A settlement had been established on the site of the current Kaunas old town, at the confluence of two large rivers, at least by the 10th century AD. Kaunas is first mentioned in written sources in 1361. In 1362, the castle was destroyed by the Teutonic Order. Commander Vaidotas of the Kaunas castle garrison, with 36 men, tried to break through, but was taken prisoner, it was one of the largest and important military victories of the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century against Lithuania. The Kaunas castle was rebuilt at the beginning of the 15th century. In 1408, the town was granted Magdeburg rights by Vytautas the Great and became a centre of Kaunas Powiat in Trakai Voivodeship in 1413. Vytautas ceded Kaunas the right to own the scales used for weighing the goods brought to the city or packed on site, wax processing, woolen cloth-trimming facilities; the power of the self-governing Kaunas was shared by three interrelated major institutions: vaitas, the Magistrate

Tony Blunn

Anthony Stuart "Tony" Blunn is a retired Australian senior public servant. Tony Blunn was born in 1936, he joined the Australian Public Service at the age of 21, after four years with a firm of solicitors in Melbourne. In 1979 Blunn took a position in the Department of Finance, in an area linked with works, mainland Territories and other areas, he moved to the Department of Business and Consumer Affairs in 1980, was appointed to his first permanent Secretary role in 1981 as head of the Department of the Capital Territory. Blunn was appointed Secretary of the Attorney General's Department in 1998, replacing Stephen Skehill who resigned from the role. Blunn retired from the public service in December 1999. In 2000 Blunn was appointed chairman of the company in charge of managing Bruce Stadium. In January 1989 Blunn was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in recognition of service to the public service. Blunn Island, in Antarctica, is named after Blunn, responsible for Australia's Antarctic program between 1987 and 1993

John Sanday

John Sanday is a Fijian former rugby union player who played as a lock and number eight. In his club career he played for Suva in the national championship, his only international caps were in the 1987 Rugby World Cup, where he played two matches against Argentina and New Zealand. He is director of Melanesian Trustee Services Ltd. where he is a merchant banker with 40 years' experience in the industry and has had several ventures in Papua New Guinea and Fiji and runs a business consultancy company, providing consultancy in the resources sector in fisheries and oil and gas fields with landowner groups. He has now 4 children 2 boys and his wife Uda barbra Mea, he is uncle of Kirwan Sanday, an Australian-born rugby player who plays as prop for Australia and for Fiji U20 John has a various of upcoming new products as well as new company's. John is soon to release his new Kava Chews product around the world in early May or late April coming to the world his Kava drink and lollipop, said to relax the body and relieve stress.

This is has been pre ordered. John is busy trying to grow his company, estimated by the end of this year will be around $800 million Kina, converted to $250 million US dollars. John is undergoing his Kava farm with 134 acres planted ready for harvest. John Sanday international statistics