Lithuania the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states; the country is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people; the official language, Lithuanian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family, the other being Latvian. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas and the Kingdom of Lithuania was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and by Nazi Germany; as World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania. Lithuania is a high-income advanced economy with a high Human Development Index, a high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD.
It is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries. The first known record of the name of Lithuania is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle; the Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions. Since Lietuva has a suffix, the original word should have no suffix. A candidate is Lietā; because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym. Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is credited as the source of the name. However, the river is small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation.
On the other hand, such naming is not unprecedented in world history. Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis. From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself; the word leičiai is used in the 14–16th century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians and is still used poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, related to Lithuanian. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda and Narva cultures, they did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, forests developed; the inhabitants of what is now Lithuania travelled less and engaged in local hunting and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade started to form at this time.
Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes. The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, but they did maintain trade contacts. Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were Balts, around the year 97 AD; the Western Balts became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians and Semigallians; the Lithuanian language is considered to be conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most related existing language, around the 7th century. Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology, with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until th
Church of the Holy Mother of God, is a church located in the town of Vagharshapat, Armenia. It was built in 1767, during the reign of Catholicos Simeon I of Yerevan, on the remains of a 16th-century wooden church, it is located at the center of modern-day Vagharshapat, around 200 meters north of the walls of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. Prior to the construction of the church, a 16th-century wooden church used to stand on the same point of the modern-day church. According to a description left on a stone in one of the internal walls of the church, Holy Mother of God was built in 1767 with the initiation of Catholicos Simeon I of Yerevan; the church belongs to the type of single nave basilicas with no dome. Many khachkars composed during the 18th century, were placed in the external walls of the church; the churchyard was home to a religious school. During the Soviet period, the church remained active and witnessed a major renovation in 1986 through the efforts of Catholicos Vazgen I, when a belfry was built at the entrance as it never had a belfry prior to this renovation.
With the establishment of the Diocese of Armavir in 1996, the church has served as the seat of the diocese until 2014, when it was moved to the newly-built Saint Gregory of Narek Church in the town of Armavir
Piotroski F-Score is a number between 0-9, used to assess strength of company’s financial position. The Score is used by financial investors; the Score is named after Joseph Piotroski. The score is calculated based on 9 criteria divided into 3 groups. ProfitabilityReturn on Assets; the score is calculated based on the data from financial statement of a company. A company gets 1 point for each met criteria. Summing up of all achieved points gives Piotroski F-Score. A company that has Piotroski F-Score of 8-9 is considered to be strong. Alternatively, firms achieving the Score of 0-2 are considered to be weak. Average value of Piotroski F-Score can be different in different branches of economy It should be taken into consideration while comparing companies with different specialization; some improvements to the Piotroski F-Score were suggested in AlphaArchitect and American Association of Individual Investors official blogs. Altman Z-score Beneish M-Score Fundamental Analysis Magic Formula investing Value investing