Sylheti Nagari is an endangered script used for writing Sylheti. It is related to Kaithi, has some Bengali influences. Although it has in recent times lost much ground to Bengali, the script is beginning to be reintroduced; the script has been known as Jalalabad Nagari, Fūl Nagari, Muslim Nagari, Muhammad Nagari. All of its names are suffixed with Nagari, which implies the script's connection to the Nāgarī script; the specific origin of Sylheti Nagari is debated. The general hypothesis is the Muslims of Sylhet. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, however, is of the opinion that Shah Jalal brought the script with him when he arrived in the area in the thirteenth or fourteenth century; the bulk of text written in Sylheti Nagari being influenced by Sufism seems to support this hypothesis. On the other hand, according to Ahmad Hasan Dani it was the Afghans living in Sylhet during the Afghan rule who invented the script, since some of Sylheti Nagari's letters resemble the symbols on Afghan coins, there were a large number of Afghans living in Sylhet at that time.
Other less-supported hypotheses are: Since the people of Sylhet were familiar with the Devanagari script, they fashioned Sylheti Nagari after it. During the British colonial period, a Sylheti student by the name of Moulvi Abdul Karim studying in London, after completing his education, spent several years in London and learned the printing trade. After returning home, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagari and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet in about 1870. Other Sylheti presses were established in Sunamganj and Kolkata; these presses fell out of use during the early 1970s during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Sylheti Nagari is characterized with fewer letters than Bengali. In addition, Sylheti Nagari didn't have any ligatures; the total number of letters is 32. The accepted number of vowels is 5, although some texts show additional vowels. For example, the diphthong ôi has sometimes been regarded as an additional vowel, it is to be noted. The vowels have their own respective diacritics known as "horkot".
There are 27 consonants. Sylheti Nagari has its own numerals but uses the Bengali numerals; the Nagri numerals are influenced by Bengali, Eastern Arabic and English numerals. Due to the numerals not being supported by Unicode, the following Sylheti numerals have been compared to other symbols in different languages which match the numbers; as noted before, Sylheti Nagari has been used outside of Sylhet. The script spread to such extents as Calcutta, Shillong, it has been asserted from scholarly writings. But from various sources it has been seen that the script was in use in areas apart from the region of Sylhet such as Barisal, Noakhali etc. From the description of Shreepadmanath Debsharma: The script is thought to have spread to Chittagong and Barisal via river. A large number of immigrants in the United Kingdom from Sylhet have introduced the script there. Born out of a religious need, Sylheti Nagari has been used in the daily lives of the inhabitants of Sylhet apart from using in religious literature.
Letters and official records has been written using this script. Apart from renowned literary works such as Haltunnobi, Mhobbotnama, Noor Noshihot, Talib Huson etc. it has been used to write medicine and magical manuscripts, as well as Poems of the Second World War. The script, never having been a part of any formal education, reached the common people with seeming ease. A reproduction of a traditional ballad written in Sylheti Nagari script is available at this source: https://www.amazon.co.uk/False-Paradise-Tale-King-Shaddad/dp/1512151513. The simplistic nature of the script inspired a lot of poets, the bulk of Nagari literature was born; the Srihatta's Islamia Press, Sarada Press and Calcutta's General Printing Press used to print in Sylheti Nagari. The manuscripts were of prosaic quality, but poetry was abundant; the "New Surma" is a proprietary font. Noto fonts provides an open source font for Sylheti Nagari. There is an android keyboard on google play store. Syloti Nagri Keyboard is the first android keyboard on Nagri letter.
Developed by Sabbir Ahmed and Md Nurul Islam. They are from Sylhet; the following is a sample text in Sylheti, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations: Sylheti in Sylheti Nagari script ꠗꠣꠞꠣ ১: ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘꠜꠣꠛꠦ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ‘ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠁꠘꠔꠣꠁꠘꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠅꠔꠣꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ।Sylheti in phonetic Romanization Dara ex: Hoxol manuṣ ṣadínbábe homan ijjot ar hox loia foeda óe. Taintainor bibex ar axol asé. Otar lagi hoxlor exzone aroxzonor loge biradorir mon loia asoron xora usit. Sylheti in IPA /d̪aɾa ex | ɦɔxɔl manuʃ ʃad̪ínbábɛ ɦɔman id͡ʑd͡ʑɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔx lɔia fɔe̯d̪a ɔ́e̯ ‖ t̪aɪnt̪aɪnɔɾ bibex aɾ axɔl asé ‖ ɔt̪aɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ ɛxzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔgɛ birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔn lɔia asɔɾɔn xɔɾa usit̪ ‖/Gloss Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do, their reason and intelligence exist.
The Laṇḍā scripts, meaning "without a tail", is a Punjabi word used to refer to writing systems used in Punjab and nearby parts of North India. It is distinct from the Lahnda language. There are at least ten ancient scripts, they were used as the mercantile scripts of the Punjab region. Laṇḍā is a script, it was used in the northern and north-western part of India in the area comprising Punjab, Sindh and some parts of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It was used to write Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Kashmiri and various Punjabi dialects like Pahari-Pothwari. In centuries, Gurmukhī evolved from Laṇḍā. Khojkī, an ecclesiastical script of the Isma'ili Khoja community, is within the Sindhi branch of the Landa family of scripts. Mahajani, a script used for the Punjabi and Mārwāṛī, is related to Laṇḍā; the Khudabadi used for Sindhi, is a Laṇḍā-based script
The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts. The script was in widespread use between the 8th and 12th centuries in the northwestern parts of India, for writing Sanskrit and Kashmiri; the Gurmukhī script was developed from Śāradā. More widespread, its use became restricted to Kashmir, it is now used except by the Kashmiri Pandit community for ceremonial purposes, it is a native script of Kashmir and is named after Goddess Śāradā,the main deity of the legendary Sharada Peeth temple. The Bakhshali manuscript uses an early stage of the Sharada script; the Sharda script was used in Afghanistan as well as in the Himachal region in India. In Afghanistan, the Kabul Ganesh has a 6th century Proto-Sharda inscription mentioning king Khingala. At the historic Markula Devi Temple, the goddess Mahishamardini has a Sharada inscription of 1569AD. Sharada script uses its own signs for the positional decimal numeral system. Śāradā script was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1.
The Unicode block for Śāradā script, called Sharada, is U+11180–U+111DF: The chart below will be visible only in computer systems or cell phones that support the Sharada script. Lipi – writing scripts in Buddhist and Jaina texts Sharada Peeth in Kashmir Sharada ancientscripts.com Download Noto Sans Sharada, a Sharada font by Google. Prevalence of the Śāradā Script in Afghanistan Akṣara List of the Manuscript of Abhidharmadīpa, ca. the 11th Century, Collection of Sanskrit Mss. Preserved in the China Ethnic Library Modern Kashmiri Dictionary: Android based electronic Kashmiri Dictionary
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The Tocharian alphabet is a version of Brahmi script used to write the Central Asian Indo-European Tocharian languages from the 8th century that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the dry climate of the Tarim Basin. Samples of the language have been discovered at sites in Kucha and Karasahr, including many mural inscriptions. Tocharian A and B are not mutually intelligible. Properly speaking, based on the tentative interpretation of twqry as related to Tokharoi, only Tocharian A may be referred to as Tocharian, while Tocharian B could be called Kuchean, but since their grammars are treated together in scholarly works, the terms A and B have proven useful. A common Proto-Tocharian language must precede the attested languages by several centuries dating to the 1st millennium BC. Given the small geographical range of and the lack of secular texts in Tocharian A, it might alternatively have been a liturgical language, the relationship between the two being similar to that between Classical Chinese and Mandarin.
However, the lack of a secular corpus in Tocharian A is by no means definite, due to the fragmentary preservation of Tocharian texts in general. The alphabet the Tocharians were using is derived from the Brahmi alphabetic syllabary and is referred to as slanting Brahmi, it soon became apparent that a large proportion of the manuscripts were translations of known Buddhist works in Sanskrit and some of them were bilingual, facilitating decipherment of the new language. Besides the Buddhist and Manichaean religious texts, there were monastery correspondence and accounts, commercial documents, caravan permits, medical and magical texts, one love poem. Many Tocharians embraced Buddhism. In 1998, Chinese linguist Ji Xianlin published a translation and analysis of fragments of a Tocharian Maitreyasamiti-Nataka discovered in 1974 in Yanqi. Tocharian script died out after 840, when the Uyghurs were expelled from Mongolia by the Kyrgyz, retreating to the Tarim Basin; this theory is supported by the discovery of translations of Tocharian texts into Uyghur.
During Uyghur rule, the peoples mixed with the Uyghurs to produce much of the modern population of what is now Xinjiang. The Tocharian script is based on Brahmi, where each consonant has an inherent vowel, which can be altered by adding a vowel mark, or removed with a special nullifying mark, the virama. Like Brahmi, Tocharian uses stacking for conjunct consonants, has irregular conjunct forms of, ra. TITUS: Tocharian alphabets, conjugation tables, manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection'Everything you always wanted to know about Tocharian' by Mark Dickens A Tocharian-to-English dictionary with nearly 200 words with accompanying article Tocharian Online from the University of Texas at Austin Tocharian alphabet at Omniglot.com Proposal to Encode the Tocharian Script in Unicode
The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok; the script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia. Though everyday use of the script has been supplanted by the Latin alphabet, the Balinese script has significant prevalence in many of the island's traditional ceremonies and is associated with the Hindu religion; the script is used today for copying lontar or palm leaf manuscripts containing religious texts. There are 47 letters in the Balinese script, each representing a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /ə/ at the end of a sentence, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter.
Pure Balinese can be written with 18 consonant letters and 9 vowel letters, while Sanskrit transliteration or loan words from Sanskrit and Old Javanese utilizes the full set. A set of modified letters are used for writing the Sasak language; each consonant has a conjunct form called gantungan which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable. Punctuation includes a comma, colon, as well as marks to introduce and end section of a text. Musical notation uses letter-like symbols and diacritical marks in order to indicate pitch information. Text are written left to right without word boundaries. There is a set of "holy letters" called aksara modre which appears in religious texts and protective talismans. Most of them are constructed using diacritic ulu candra with corresponding characters. A number of additional characters, known to be used inline in text, remains under study and those characters are expected to be proposed as Balinese extensions in due course. A basic letter in Balinese is called aksara, each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/.
Consonants are called aksara wianjana. Balinese script has 33 consonants, of which only 18 called wreṣāstra are used for writing basic vocabulary in Balinese language; the other 15, known as sualalita, are used for writing Sanskrit and Kawi loanwords in Balinese language. The consonants can be arranged into Sanskrit hanacaraka traditional order; the consonants can be arranged in hanacaraka traditional order. The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka. However, the hanacaraka sequence only has the 18 consonants of aksara wreṣāstra and exclude aksara sualalita. However, this table below include aksara sualalita as the current romanization have no diacritics for the consonants; as other Brahmic scripts, consonants in Balinese script can be arranged into Tamil / Sanskrit order. Thus, Balinese script had been influenced by Kalvi / Shiksha; the table below uses the order. ^1 Aksara wreṣāstra. They are, in traditional order: ha na ca ra ka / da ta sa wa la / ma ga ba nga / pa ja ya nya. ^2 The consonant ha is sometimes not pronounced.
For example, ᬳᬸᬚᬦ᭄ hujan is pronounced ujan.^3 The exact form of ca laca is unknown because only the appended form is left. However, the independent form is included in Unicode.^4 alpaprana ^5 mahaprana^6 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition^7 The former of the two letter forms is more used. Vowels, called suara or aksara suara, can be written as independent letters when vowels appear in initial position, they are described in the following list: Gantungan and gempelan has to be used to represent consonant cluster as zero vowel sign may not used in middle of sentence in general. Thus, as some Brahmic family, consonant cluster is written in stack; each consonant letter has a corresponding either gantungan or gempelan form, the presence of gantungan and gempelan eliminate the inherent vowel of the letter it is appended to. For example, if the letter na is appended with gantungan da, the pronunciation becomes nda. Gantungan or gempelan can be applied with pangangge to a letter.
However, attaching two or more gantungan to one letter is forbidden. Adeg-adeg may be used in the middle of a sentence to avoid such situation. For example, tamblang with consonant cluster mbl is written as ᬢᬫ᭄ᬩ᭄ᬮᬂ; the forms of gantungan and gempelan are as follows: Diacritics are symbols that cannot stand by themselves. When they are attached to the independent letters, they affect the pronunciation; the three types of diacritics are pangangge tengenan and pangangge aksara. Pangangge suara change the inherited vowel of a consonant letter. For example, the letter ᬦ with ulu becomes ni; the diacritics in this category are summarized in the following list: ^1 As first romanization of Balinese Language was developed during Dutch Colonial Era, letter e represents sound and letter é represents sound and as in Van Ophuijsen Indonesian and Dutch orthography. After 1957, are represented with e as in current Indonesian orthography with exception for ne
Siddhaṃ known in its evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a medieval Brahmic abugida, derived from the Gupta script and ancestral to the Bengali alphabet, Maithili alphabet, the Tibetan alphabet. The word Siddhaṃ means "accomplished" or "perfected" in Sanskrit; the script received its name from the practice of writing Siddhaṃ, or Siddhaṃ astu, at the head of documents. Other names for the script include. "Brahma's characters" and "Sanskrit script" and Chinese: 悉曇文字. "Siddhaṃ script". Siddhaṃ is an abugida rather than an alphabet, as each character indicates a syllable, including a consonant and a vowel. If the vowel sound is not explicitly indicated, the short'a' is assumed. Diacritic marks are used to indicate other vowels, as well as the visarga. A virama can be used to indicate that the consonant letter stands alone with no vowel, which sometimes happens at the end of Sanskrit words. Many Buddhist texts taken to China along the Silk Road were written using a version of the Siddhaṃ script; this continued to evolve, minor variations are seen across time, in different regions.
It was used for transmitting the Buddhist tantra texts. At the time it was considered important to preserve the pronunciation of mantras, Chinese was not suitable for writing the sounds of Sanskrit; this led to the retention of the Siddhaṃ script in East Asia. The practice of writing using Siddhaṃ survived in East Asia. Kūkai introduced the Siddhaṃ script to Japan when he returned from China in 806, where he studied Sanskrit with Nalanda-trained monks including one known as Prajñā. By the time Kūkai learned this script, the trading and pilgrimage routes over land to India had been closed by the expanding Abbasid Caliphate. In Japan, the writing of mantras and copying/reading of sutras using the Siddhaṃ script is still practiced in the esoteric schools of Shingon Buddhism and Tendai as well as in the syncretic sect of Shugendō; the characters are known as bonji. The Taishō Tripiṭaka version of the Chinese Buddhist canon preserves the Siddhaṃ characters for most mantras, Korean Buddhists still write bījas in a modified form of Siddhaṃ.
A recent innovation is the writing of Japanese language slogans on T-shirts using Bonji. Japanese Siddhaṃ has evolved from the original script used to write sūtras and is now somewhat different from the ancient script, it is typical to see Siddhaṃ written with a brush, as with Chinese writing. In Japan, a special brush called; the informal style is known as "fude". In the middle of the 9th century, China experienced a series of purges of "foreign religions", thus cutting Japan off from the sources of Siddhaṃ texts. In time, other scripts Devanagari, replaced Siddhaṃ in India, while in Eastern South Asia, Siddhaṃ evolved to become the Bengali script, Tirhuta script and Anga script, leaving East Asia as the only region where Siddhaṃ is still used. There were special forms of Siddhaṃ used in Korea that varied from those used in China and Japan, there is evidence that Siddhaṃ was written in Central Asia, as well, by the early 7th century; as was done with Chinese characters, Japanese Buddhist scholars sometimes created multiple characters with the same phonological value to add meaning to Siddhaṃ characters.
This practice, in effect, represents a'blend' of the Chinese style of writing and the Indian style of writing and allows Sanskrit texts in Siddhaṃ to be differentially interpreted as they are read, as was done with Chinese characters that the Japanese had adopted. This led to multiple variants of the same characters. With regards to directionality, Siddhaṃ texts were read from left-to-right top-to-bottom, as with Indic languages, but they were written in the traditional Chinese style, from top-to-bottom right-to-left. Bilingual Siddhaṃ-Japanese texts show the manuscript turned 90 degrees clockwise and the Japanese is written from top-to-bottom, as is typical of Japanese, the manuscript is turned back again, the Siddhaṃ writing is continued from left-to-right. Over time, additional markings were developed, including punctuation marks, head marks, repetition marks, end marks, special ligatures to combine conjuncts and to combine syllables, several ornaments of the scribe's choice, which are not encoded.
The nuqta is used in some modern Siddhaṃ texts. ↑ The combinations that contain adjoining duplicate letters should be deleted in this table. Alternative forms of conjuncts that contain ṇ. Siddhaṃ is still a hand written script; some efforts have been made to create computer fonts, though to date none of these are capable of reproducing all of the Siddhaṃ conjunct consonants. Notably, the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Texts Association has created a Siddhaṃ font for their electronic version of the Taisho Tripiṭaka, though this does not contain all possible conjuncts; the software Mojikyo contains fonts for Siddhaṃ, but split Siddhaṃ in different blocks and requires multiple fonts to render a single document. A Siddhaṃ input system which relies on the CBETA font Siddhamkey 3.0 has been produced. Siddhaṃ script was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. The Unicode block for Siddhaṃ is U+11580–U+115FF: Bonji Taikan. Chaudhuri, Saroj Kumar. Siddham in China and Japan, Sino-Platonic papers No. 88 Stevens, John