Felix Arvid Ulf Kjellberg, better known online as PewDiePie, is a Swedish YouTuber and gamer–commentator, best known for his YouTube video content, which consists of Let's Play commentaries and comedic formatted shows. Born in Gothenburg, Kjellberg pursued a degree in industrial economics and technology management at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg. In 2010, during his time at the university, he registered a YouTube account under the name PewDiePie; the following year, he dropped out of Chalmers after losing interest in his degree field, much to the dismay of his parents. After failing to earn an apprenticeship with an advertising agency in Scandinavia, he decided to focus on creating content for his YouTube channel. In order to fund his videos, Kjellberg began selling prints of his Photoshop art projects and worked at a hot dog stand. Kjellberg soon gathered a increasing online following, in July 2012, his channel surpassed one million subscribers. On 15 August 2013, Kjellberg became the most-subscribed user on YouTube, being surpassed in late 2013 by YouTube Spotlight and several times in early 2019 by Indian record label T-Series.
From 29 December 2014 to 14 February 2017, Kjellberg's channel was the most-viewed YouTube channel. As of April 2019, the channel has received over 94 million subscribers and 21 billion video views, ranking as the most subscribed and tenth-most viewed on the platform. Kjellberg's most noted YouTube content includes his Let's Play-styled video game commentaries of the horror genre, his content has been praised as genuine and unfiltered, but received as abrasive, in some cases, met with controversy. As a result of an early 2017 controversy regarding allegations of anti-Semitism in several of Kjellberg's videos, Maker Studios – the multi-channel network he was signed to – ended their partnership with him. While he criticized the coverage of the situation and defended his content as jokes that were taken out of context, he conceded its offensiveness. Kjellberg has raised money for charities. Due to his popularity, Kjellberg's coverage of indie games has created an Oprah effect, boosting sales for titles he plays.
In 2016, Time named him one of "The World's 100 Most Influential People". Kjellberg lives in Brighton with his fiancée, Italian Internet personality and fashion designer Marzia Bisognin. Kjellberg was raised in Gothenburg, Sweden, he was born to Lotta Kristine Johanna and Ulf Christian Kjellberg, grew up with his sister. His mother, a former CIO, was named the 2010 CIO of the Year in Sweden, his father is a corporate executive. During his early schooling life, he was interested in art, has detailed that he would draw popular video game characters such as Mario and Sonic the Hedgehog, as well as play video games on his Super Nintendo Entertainment System. During high school, he would skip classes to play video games at an Internet café with friends, he went on to pursue a degree in industrial economics and technology management at Chalmers University of Technology, but left the university in 2011. On his decision, Kjellberg has stated, "Thinking about it now, it was utterly absurd. To get into Chalmers for industrial economics you need straight A's, but somehow I was happier selling hot dogs and making my own gaming-videos."
While his reason for leaving Chalmers has been reported as a want to focus on his YouTube career, in 2017, Kjellberg clarified, "Why does everyone get this story wrong? I dropped out of university. To drop out of university to pursue YouTube, that'd just be fucking stupid." He added that "industrial management and economics boring as hell I couldn't relate to fucking anyone."Kjellberg has shared that he "loved Photoshop", wanting to work on photo manipulation art using Adobe Photoshop rather than be in school. Relating to this passion, he entered Photoshop contests and earned an apprenticeship at "one of the best advertising agencies in Scandinavia." He was interested in creating content on YouTube, after not earning the apprenticeship, he sold limited edition prints of his Photoshopped images in order to purchase a computer to work on YouTube videos. Early in his career, Kjellberg's content consisted of videos under the Let's Play umbrella, his commentaries of horror games made up his best known content during this early stage, although he expanded out of this niche while having his channel maintain a gaming identity.
Unlike conventional walkthroughs, Kjellberg devoted his Let's Play videos to "sharing gaming moments on YouTube with my fam." Variety details. He begins each video introducing himself in a high-pitched, goofy voice, drawing out the vowels of his YouTube moniker delves into the videos." ESPN noted that Kjellberg performed a "Brofist" gesture at the end of his videos. Kjellberg referred to his fan base as the "Bro Army" and addresses his audience as "bros". On during his YouTube career, Kjellberg stopped referring to his fan base as the "Bro Army", began using the terms "Squad Fam", "9 year olds", in his videos; as his channel grew, he began to branch out in terms of his video content, uploading vlogs, in addition to live-action and animated comedy shorts. Kjellberg has uploaded music onto his channel accompanied by an animation or fan art. Regarding his music videos, Kjellberg h
808s & Heartbreak
808s & Heartbreak is the fourth studio album by American hip hop producer and vocalist Kanye West. It was released on November 2008, by Roc-A-Fella Records. West recorded the album during September and October 2008 at Glenwood Studios in Burbank and Avex Recording Studio in Honolulu, with the help of producers No I. D. Jeff Bhasker and others; the album features guest appearances from Kid Cudi, Young Jeezy, Mr Hudson, Lil Wayne. Conceived in the wake of several distressing personal events, 808s & Heartbreak marked a major musical departure from West's previous rap records, instead featuring a sparse, electronic sound and West singing through an Auto-Tune vocal processor, his lyrics explore themes of loss, alienated fame, heartache, while the album's production abandons conventional hip hop sounds in favor of a minimalist sonic palette, which includes prominent use of the titular Roland TR-808 drum machine. 808s & Heartbreak debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, selling 450,145 copies in its first week.
Despite varying responses from listeners, the album received positive reviews from most critics and was named one of 2008's best records in several year-end lists. Four singles were released to promote the record, including the hit singles "Love Lockdown" and "Heartless". 808s & Heartbreak has since been cited as a prominent influence on subsequent hip hop, R&B music, as a new wave of rappers and producers came to adopt aspects of its style and thematic content. By 2013, it had sold 1.7 million copies in the United States. Following the release of his third studio album Graduation, the remainder of 2007 and the following year featured events that profoundly affected Kanye West. On November 10, 2007, West's mother Donda West died due to complications arising following cosmetic surgery involving a tummy tuck and breast reduction procedure. Months West and fiancée Alexis Phifer ended their engagement and their long-term intermittent relationship, which had begun in 2002. At the same time, West struggled to adapt to his newfound pop star status he once strove to achieve becoming the subject of media scrutiny.
The loss and longing for companionship and a sense of normality served to inspire 808s & Heartbreak. West stated that "This album was therapeutic – it's lonely at the top."West felt that his emotions could not be expressed through rapping, which he said had limitations. There were "melodies that were in me", he explained. "What was in me I couldn't stop." West went to classify 808s & Heartbreak as a pop album, asserting his disdain towards the contemporary backlash to the concept of pop music and expressed admiration for what some pop stars have accomplished in their careers. He stated that he wishes to present the music as a new genre called "pop art," clarifying that he was well aware of the visual art movement of the same name and wished to present a musical equivalent. "Either call it'pop' or'pop art,' either one I'm good with," he stated. The album was recorded over a span of three weeks from September to October 2008. Recording sessions took place at Glenwood Studios in Burbank, California and at Avex Recording Studio in Honolulu, Hawaii.
As implied by its title, 808s & Heartbreak prominently features the Roland TR-808 drum machine. Drawing inspiration from 1980s synthpop and electropop performers such as Phil Collins, Gary Numan, TJ Swan and Boy George, West felt that the 808 is a resourceful instrument that can be used to evoke emotion. West utilized the sounds created by the 808 and manipulated its pitch to produce a distorted, electronic sound, an effect he referred to as "heartbreak", he felt. According to West, the fact that Hawaii's area code was "808" was coincidental, as he had developed the album's title before being informed; the realization inspired him to pursue his direction with the album, however. In terms of musical direction, West's intentions, according to Mike Dean, were to go against the typical sound of hip hop beat, instead evoking the presence of tribal drums. Overall, West maintained a "functional" approach towards the album's studio production; the album makes prominent use of the voice audio processor technology of Auto-Tune.
West had experimented with the technology on The College Dropout for the background vocals of "Jesus Walks" and "Never Let Me Down", but he had not used it for lead vocals until 2008. "We were working on the remixes for Lil Wayne's'Lollipop' and Young Jeezy's'Put On' and he fell in love with the Auto-Tune", producer Mike Dean explained. Towards the end, West enlisted T-Pain for coaching on. West himself stated that he loved using Auto-Tune and was dismayed that the term has been associated with being "wack", he considers the technology "the funnest thing to use" and compared the situation to when he was a child and thought the color pink was cool until someone told him "it was gay", producing an analogy of how the views of society can rob people of their confidence and self-esteem. He went on to state that he enjoyed the electronic feel produced by Auto-Tune and sought out to juxtapose the mechanical sounds with the traditional sounds of taiko drums and choir monks. West credits rapper Kid Cudi, who had signed with his G.
O. O. D. Music record label, with assisting in the creation of the album's brooding sound. After receiving a copy of his 2008 mixtape A Kid Named Cudi, West became an avid fan in regards to the hit single "Day'n' Nite." West surprised Kid Cudi with a phone call, had him flown over to Hawaii to work on 808s & Heartbreak. The pair worked side by side in the studio while playi
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Snoopy is Charlie Brown's pet beagle in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz, he can be found in all of the Peanuts movies and television specials, like The Peanuts Movie. Since his debut on October 4, 1950, Snoopy has become one of the most recognizable and iconic characters in the comic strip, is considered more famous than Charlie Brown in other countries; the original drawings of Snoopy were inspired by one of Schulz's childhood dogs. Snoopy is a loyal, innocent and good-natured beagle, prone to imagining fantasy lives, including being an author, a college student known as "Joe Cool", an attorney, a British World War I "flying ace" in the Royal Flying Corps, he is best known in this last persona, wearing an aviator's helmet and goggles and a scarf while carrying a swagger stick. Snoopy can be selfish and lazy at times, mocks his owner, Charlie Brown, but on the whole he shows great love and loyalty for his owner. In the 1990s comic strips, he is obsessed with cookies. All of his fantasies have a similar formula: Snoopy pretends to be something "world famous", fails.
His short "novels" are never published, his Sopwith Camel is shot down by his imaginary rival enemy, the German flying ace the "Red Baron". Schulz said of Snoopy's character in a 1997 interview: "He has to retreat into his fanciful world in order to survive. Otherwise, he leads kind of a miserable life. I don't envy dogs the lives they have to live."Snoopy imagines himself to speak, but never does, other than moans and yipping yelps and sniveling crying. He talks, but to himself, his thoughts are shown in thought balloons. In the animated Peanuts films and television specials, Snoopy's thoughts are not verbalized, his vocal effects were provided by Bill Melendez, who first played the role during Snoopy's appearances on The Tennessee Ernie Ford Show. The only exceptions are in the animated adaptions of the musicals You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown and Snoopy!!! The Musical in which Snoopy's thoughts are verbalized by Robert Towers and Cameron Clarke, respectively. Snoopy's doghouse is shown to be bigger on the inside than the outside.
It is shown in a side view, so you cannot see the inside, except for the May 8, 1960 comic strip in the second frame. Snoopy appeared on the October 4, 1950, two days after the first strip, he was called Snoopy for the first time a month on November 10. On March 16, 1952, his thoughts were first shown in a thought balloon. Snoopy first appeared upright on his hind legs on January 9, 1956, when he was shown ice-skating across a frozen lake. Despite his history of conflicted loyalties, his constant disrespect for Charlie Brown, his inability to remember his name, Snoopy has shown both love and loyalty to his owner, he joins Charlie Brown in walking out of a game of Ha-Ha Herman when Peppermint Patty insults Charlie Brown, unaware that Charlie Brown is within earshot. He helps Charlie Brown recover his autographed baseball when a bully takes it and challenges Charlie Brown to fight him for it; when Charlie Brown has to stop dedicating himself to making Snoopy happy, Snoopy replies, "Don't worry about it.
I was happy." In The Peanuts Movie, Snoopy remains loyal to Charlie Brown and caring for him throughout the movie. In early Peanuts strips, Charlie Brown was not Snoopy's owner, it was not clear who his owner was; the September 29, 1951 strip implied. Charlie Brown was first portrayed as being responsible for Snoopy in the strips of November 1 and 3, 1955. Snoopy tries to kiss Lucy on the cheek and/or nose, which Lucy, afraid of dog germs hates; these actions result in Lucy hurting Snoopy. Despite their rivalry toward each other, each seems to care for the other: in Snoopy, Come Home, Lucy is sad to see him go and is glad when he comes back home. In some strips, Lucy goes to Snoopy for help, such as in the April 16, 1961 strip, wherein a jealous Lucy and Frieda are beating each other up at Schroeder's piano, Lucy ends up winning, shakes hands with Snoopy in the end, looking injured. Snoopy commandeers Lucy's psychiatric booth either in her absence or when she ends up being the one needing help.
Snoopy tries to steal Linus' blanket, leading to slapstick fights and wild chases. Lila was Snoopy's owner before Charlie Brown. Snoopy visits her in the film Snoopy, Come Home and struggles to decide whether to stay with Charlie Brown or go back to Lila. Lila convinces him to leave Charlie Brown so he can live with her again. However, upon arriving at her residence, Snoopy is overjoyed to see a "NO DOGS ALLOWED" sign, returns to live with Charlie Brown. Peppermint Patty refers to Snoopy as a "funny looking kid with a big nose", unaware that he is a beagle. In one instance, she has him serve as her attorney in a case involving the school dress code. In the March 21
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma is a major brewery based in Monterrey, Nuevo León, founded in 1890. It is a subsidiary of Heineken International; the company operates brewing plants in Monterrey, Toluca, Orizaba and, beginning in 2017, Meoqui. The plants produce, among other brands, Dos Equis, Bohemia, Carta Blanca, Noche Buena, Indio and Tecate, it has an annual production of 3.09 GL. The Cuauhtémoc brewery was founded in Monterrey in 1890 by José A. Muguerza, Francisco G. Sada Muguerza, Alberto Sada Muguerza, Isaac Garza Garza, Joseph M. Schnaider, with capital of 150,000 pesos, starting with the Carta Blanca brand. Cuauhtémoc brewery produced its first beer barrel in 1893 and won first prize in the Chicago and Paris world fairs. In 1909 Cervecería Cuauhtémoc started to expand vertically. To provide glass bottles, in 1909, Vidrios y Cristales de Monterrey, S. A. Vidriera Monterrey, S. A. Grupo Vitro, was founded. In order to produce boxes, bottle caps, packaging materials, Fábricas de Cartón Monterrey was founded in 1900.
In 1929, Malta, S. A. was established to produce malt for the brewery. The cardboard box department would become Titán Company. During the Mexican Revolution which began in 1910, its original founders supported Victoriano Huerta; as a consequence, his rival Venustiano Carranza seized the brewery, so the founders' families fled to Texas. They re-acquired the brewery through the intervention of U. S. and Russian diplomats. The Sociedad Cuauhtémoc was founded in 1918 to provide medical and educative services to the workers' families; the working day was reduced from twelve to nine hours in 1907. By 1936 the holdings of the Garza, Calderón and Sada families and their associates were divided into two groups: the Cuauhtemoc group and the Vidriera group. In that year the family's holdings were reorganized, creating Valores Industriales S. A. as a holding company controlling the majority of shares of the firms held by Cuauhtemoc Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc and Famosa. During the 20th century, Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma was headed by José Calderón Muguerza and the two Garza Sada brothers Eugenio Garza Sada and Roberto Garza Sada.
In 1943, company executive Eugenio Garza Sada with his brother and other prominent people founded the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, in 1973, the Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame was opened at the site of the company headquarters. After Eugenio Garza Sada's assassination, VISA, the Cerveceria Cuauthtemoc Moctezuma's holding, was split into two units: Visa and Grupo Industrial Alfa. Alfa received Hylsa and cash, while Visa retained the brewery business and its stake in the Banco de Londres and its affiliated institutions, Eugenio Garza Lagüera, a son of Eugenio Garza Sada, was named CEO of Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc Moctezuma, Bernardo Garza Sada a son of Roberto Garza Sada was named CEO of Alfa; when oil prices fell in 1981, Mexico's economic boom, financed with borrowed money, abruptly halted. Visa found itself more than $1 billion in debt the following year, the federal government nationalized Banca Serfin—the nation's third-largest bank—in which Visa held a 77 percent stake.
The nondeposit banks and associated financial companies in Grupo Financiero Serfin, not nationalized, were reorganized into a new financial-services group called Valores de Monterrey. Vamsa's life-insurance subsidiary, Seguros Monterrey, was the largest in Mexico. With the integration of the Moctezuma brewery in 1985, the Dos Equis, Superior and Noche Buena brands were added to the Carta Blanca, Tecate and Indio brands. In 1988 Fomento Económico Mexicano, S. A. de C. V. was formed as the main subsidiary of Visa containing other companies. In 1994 FEMSA sold a 22 percent share of its beer business to John Labatt Ltd. of Canada and signed an agreement with Labatt to associate their respective companies in the United States. FEMSA became the successor of Visa in 1998. On 11 January 2010, the Dutch brewing company Heineken International announced it would acquire the beer activities of FEMSA, including Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery; the company operates plants in Monterrey, Navojoa, Toluca and for 2012 one in Chihuahua.
The company has an annual production of 3.09 gigalitres. The Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery can be visited. Hours are Monday through Friday from 9:00 to 17:00 and Saturday from 9:00 to 14:00. Tours are offered in both English and Spanish; the Brewery has a beer garden which offers a free glass of Dos Equis, or Carta Blanca. The Garden features a century-old beer truck; the garden's hours are every day from 10:00 to 18:00 hrs. The company produces a range of dark lagers, some of which are available only in Mexico; the brewery's original premium beer. Carta Blanca takes its name from the French "carte blanche". Introduced in the 1890s called El Sol. Sol is for sale in four sizes in Mexico: 500 ml, 355 ml -not refundable aluminium can, 325 ml bottles and 940 ml, this last is known as a Caguama. New variations from Cerveza Sol include: Sol Brava (a dark beer in a light dark b