Ban was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century in medieval Croatia and Hungary and their respective predecessor states. In English, a common term for the province governed by the ban is banate and term for the office of the ban is banship; the first known mention of the title ban is in the 10th century by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, in the work De Administrando Imperio, in the 30th and 31st chapter "Story of the province of Dalmatia" and "Of the Croats and of the country they now dwell in", dedicated to the Croats and the Croatian organisation of their medieval state. In the 30th chapter, describing how the Croatian state was divided into eleven ζουπανίας, the ban βοάνος, καὶ ὁ βοάνος αὐτῶν κρατεῖ τὴν Κρίβασαν, τὴν Λίτζαν καὶ τὴν Γουτζησκά. In the 31st chapter, describing the military and naval force of Croatia, "Miroslav, who ruled for four years, was killed by the βοέάνου Πριβουνία", after that followed a temporary decrease in the military force of the Croatian Kingdom.
In 1029, was published a Latin charter by Jelena, sister of ban Godemir, in Obrovac, for donation to the monastery of St. Krševan in Zadar. In it she is introduced as "Ego Heleniza, soror Godemiri bani...". Franjo Rački noted that if is not an original is a transcript from the same 11th century. In the 12th century, the title was mentioned by Byzantine historian John Kinnamos, anonymous monk of Dioclea, in the Supetar Cartulary; the Byzantine historian John Kinnamos wrote the title in the form μπάνος. In the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, dated to 12th and 13th century, in the Latin redaction is written as banus, bano, in the Croatian redaction only as ban; the Supetar Cartulary includes information until the 12th century, but the specific writing about bans is dated to the late 13th and early 14th century, a transcript of an older document. It mentions that there existed seven bans and they were elected by the six of twelve Croatian noble tribes, where the title is written as banus and bani.
The Late Proto-Slavic word *banъ is not of native Slavic lexical stock and is considered to be a borrowing from a Turkic language. The title's origin among medieval Croats is not understood, as much is hard to determine the exact source and to reconstruct the primal form of the Turkic word it is derived from, it is explained as a derivation from the Pannonian Avars name Bayan, a derivation of the Proto-Turkic root *bāj- "rich, wealth. The Proto-Turkic root *bāj- is sometimes explained as a native Turkic word,. Within the Altaic theory, the Turkic word is inherited from the Proto-Altaic *bēǯu "numerous, great"; the title word ban was derived from the name Bojan, there were additionally proposed Iranian, Germanic, language origin. The Avar nameword bajan, which some scholars trying to explain the title's origin interpreted with alleged meaning of "ruler of the horde", itself is attested as the 6th century name of Avar khagan Bayan I which led the raids on provinces of the Byzantine Empire; some scholars assume that the name was a possible misinterpretation of a title, but Bayan had a title of khagan, the name, as well its derivation, are well confirmed.
The title ban among the Avars has never been attested to in the historical sources, as such the Avarian etymological derivation is unconvincing. The title origin is unknown, it was used as "evidence" throughout the history of historiography to prove ideological assumptions on Avars, specific theories on the origin of early medieval Croats. The starting point of the debate was year 1837, the work of historian and philologist Pavel Jozef Šafárik, whose thesis has influenced generations of scholars. In his work Slovanské starožitnosti, Slawische alterthümer and Geschichte der südslawischen Literatur, was the first to connect the ruler title of ban not of Slavic lexical stook, which ruled over župas of today Lika region, with the Pannonian Avars, he concluded how Avars lived in that same territory, basing his thesis on a literal reading of the statement from Constantine VII's 30th chapter, "there are still descendants of the Avars in Croatia, are recognized as Avars". However, modern historians and archaeologists until now proved the opposite, that Avars never lived in Dalmatia proper, that statement occurred somewhere in Pannonia.
Šafárik assumed that the Avars by the name word bayan called their governor, in the end concluded that the title ban derives from the "name-title" Bayan, a Persian title word, neglected that it should derive from the Slavic name Bojan. His thesis would be endorsed by many historians, both South Slavic titles ban and župan were asserted as Avars official titles, but it had more to do with the scholar's ideology of the time than actual reality. Franz Miklosich wrote that the word, of Croatian origin was expanded by the Croats among the Bulgarians and Serbs, while if is Persian, than among Slavs is borrowed from the Turks. Erich Berneker wrote that became by contraction from bojan, borrowed from Mongolian-Turkic bajan, noted Bajan is a personal name among Mongols, Bulgars, Altaic Tatars, Kirghiz. Đuro Daničić decided for an intermediate solution. J. B. Bury derived the title from the name of Avar khagan Bayan I, Bulgarian khagan Kubrat's son Batbayan, with which
Oltenia is a historical province and geographical region of Romania in western Wallachia. It is situated between the Danube, the Southern Carpathians and the Olt river. Inhabited by Dacians, Oltenia was incorporated in the Roman Empire. In 129, during Hadrian's rule, it formed Dacia Inferior, one of the two divisions of the province, it was colonized with veterans of the Roman legions. The Romans withdrew their administration south of the Danube at the end of the 3rd century and Oltenia was ruled by the foederati Germanic Goths. In the late 4th century Oltenia came under the rule of the Taifals before invasion by the Huns. From 681, with some interruptions, it was part of the Bulgarian Empire. In 1233, the Kingdom of Hungary formed the Banate of Severin in the western part of the region that would persist until the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Around 1247 a polity emerged in Oltenia under the rule of Litovoi; the rise of the mediaeval state of Wallachia followed in the 14th century, the voivode was represented in Oltenia by a ban - "the Great Ban of Craiova".
This came to be considered the greatest office in Wallachian hierarchy, one, held most by members of the Craiovești family, from the late 15th century to about 1550. The title would continue to exist up until 1831. During the 15th century, Wallachia had to accept the Ottoman suzerainty and to pay an annual tribute to keep its autonomy as a vassal. From the Craiovești family, many bans cooperated with the Turks. However, many rulers, including the Oltenian-born Michael the Brave, fought against the Ottomans, giving Wallachia brief periods of independence. After 1716, the Ottomans decided to cease choosing the voivodes from among the Wallachian boyars, to appoint foreign governors; as the governors were Orthodox Greeks living in Phanar, this period is known as the Phanariote regime. Two years in 1718 under the terms of the Treaty of Passarowitz, Oltenia was split from Wallachia and annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy. Under the occupation, Oltenia was the only part of the Danubian Principalities to experience Enlightened absolutism and Austrian administration, although these were met by considerable and mounting opposition from conservative boyars.
While welcomed at first as liberators, the Austrians disenchanted the inhabitants by imposing rigid administrative, fiscal and political reforms which were meant to centralize and integrate the territory. In 1761, the residence of Bans was moved to Bucharest, in a move towards centralism, it remained there until the death of the last Ban, Barbu Văcărescu, in 1832. In 1821, Oltenia and Gorj County were at the center of Tudor Vladimirescu's uprising. Vladimirescu gathered his Pandurs in Padeș and relied on a grid of fortified monasteries such as Tismana and Strehaia; the traditional heraldic symbol of Oltenia understood to represent Banat, is part of the coat of arms of Romania: on gules field, an or lion rampant, facing dexter, holding a sword, standing over an or bridge and stylised waves. Oltenia is part of the Sud - Vest development region, it includes the counties: Gorj Doljand parts of the counties: Mehedinți Vâlcea Olt Teleorman Oltenia's main city and seat for a majority of the late Middle Ages is Craiova.
The first medieval seat of Oltenia was Turnu Severin, anciently called Drobeta, in the Banate of Severin. That city is located near the site of Trajan's Bridge, built by Apollodorus of Damascus for Emperor Trajan in his conquest of the region. Vlad Georgescu, Istoria ideilor politice românești, Munich, 1987 Neagu Djuvara, Între Orient și Occident. Țările române la începutul epocii moderne, Bucharest, 1995 Constantin C. Giurescu, Istoria Bucureștilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre, Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1966, p. 93 Șerban Papacostea, Oltenia sub stăpânirea austriacă, Bucharest, 1971, p. 59 Ingrao, Charles. The Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 and one below an OF-3; the rank of captain is considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. In some militaries, such as United States Army and Air Force and the British Army, captain is the entry-level rank for officer candidates possessing a professional degree, most medical professionals and lawyers. In the U. S.. Army, lawyers who are not officers at captain rank or above enter as lieutenants during training, are promoted to the rank of captain after completion of their training if they are in the active component, or after a certain amount of time one year from their date of commission as a lieutenant, for the reserve components.
The rank of captain should not be confused with the naval rank of captain or with the UK-influenced air force rank of group captain, both of which are equivalent to the army rank of colonel. The term goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning "chief, prominent"; the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is somewhat earlier, from the 1550s extended in meaning to "master or commander of any kind of vessel". A captain in the period prior to the professionalization of the armed services of European nations subsequent to the French Revolution, during the early modern period, was a nobleman who purchased the right to head a company from the previous holder of that right, he would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant. The funding to provide for the troops came from his government. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the monarch would receive money from another nobleman to command the company.
Otherwise, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. Many air forces, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces and a few non-Commonwealth air forces use an air force-specific rank structure in which flight lieutenant is OF-2. A group captain was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey and increase from OF-1 to OF-5 in half strip increments. A variety of images illustrative of different forces' insignia for captain are shown below: Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
A caliphate is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah. The caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate. In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates. Prior to the rise of Muhammad and the unification of the tribes of Arabia under Islam, Arabs followed a pre-Islamic Arab polytheism, lived as self-governing sedentary and nomadic communities, raided their neighbouring tribes. Following the early Muslim conquests of the Arabian Peninsula, the region became unified and most of the tribes adopted Islam.
The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established after Muhammad's death in 632. The four Rashidun caliphs, who directly succeeded Muhammad as leaders of the Muslim community, were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider to be an early form of Islamic democracy; the fourth caliph, who, unlike the prior three, was from the same clan as Muhammad, is considered by Shia Muslims to be the first rightful caliph and Imam after Muhammad. Ali reigned during the First Fitna, a civil war between supporters of Ali and supporters of the assassinated previous caliph, from Banu Umayya, as well as rebels in Egypt; the second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The caliphate continued the Arab conquests, incorporating the Caucasus, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula into the Muslim world; the caliphate had considerable acceptance of the Christians within its territory, necessitated by their large numbers in the region of Syria.
Following the Abbasid Revolution from 746–750, which arose from non-Arab Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbasid Caliphate was established in 750. The third caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate was ruled by the Abbasids, a dynasty of Meccan origin which descended from Hashim, a great-grandfather of Muhammad, making them part of Banu Hashim, via Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, hence the name. Caliph al-Mansur founded its second capital of Baghdad in 762 which became a major scientific and art centre, as did the territory as a whole during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad. From 945 to 1157, the Abbasid Caliphate came under Buyid and Seljuq military control. In 1250, a non-Arab army created by the Abbasids called. In 1258, the Mongol Empire sacked Baghdad, ending the Abbasid Caliphate, in 1261 the Mamluks in Egypt re-established the Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo. Though lacking in political power, the Abbasid dynasty continued to claim authority in religious matters until the Ottoman conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517.
The fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, was established after their conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517. The conquest gave the Ottomans control over the holy cities of Mecca and Medina controlled by the Mamluks; the Ottomans came to be viewed as the de facto leaders and representatives of the Muslim world. In the Indian subcontinent, dominant powers such as the Delhi Sultanate's Alauddin Khilji, Mughal Empire's sixth ruler Aurangzeb, Mysore's kings Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan have been heralded as few of the Indian caliphs existed, due to their establishments of Islamic laws throughout South Asia. Following their defeat in World War I, their empire was partitioned by the United Kingdom and French Third Republic, on 3 March 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate. A few other states that existed through history have called themselves caliphates, including the Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Northeast Africa, the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Iberia, the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco and the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria.
The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph may come to power in one of four ways: either through an election, through nomination, through a selection by a committee, or by force. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt. In the early 21st century, following the failure of the Arab Spring and defeat of the self-proclaimed "Islamic State", there has seen "a broad mainstream embrace of a collective Muslim identity" by young Muslims and the appeal of a caliphate as a "idealized future Muslim state" has grown stronger. Before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root; the term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means "successor", "steward", or "deputy" and has traditionally been considered a shortening of Khalīfat Rasūl Allāh. However, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phr
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.