The Kazakhs are a Turkic ethnic group who inhabit the Ural Mountains and northern parts of Central Asia, the region known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan; the Kazakhs are descendants of the Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes – Argyns, Naimans, Keraits, Qarluqs and of the Kipchaks. The term Kazakh is sometimes used to denote Kazakhstanis who are not ethnic Kazakhs, for example Alexander Vinokourov; the Kazakhs began using that name during the 15th or the 16th century. There Qazaq; some speculate that it comes from the Turkish verb qaz, because the Kazakhs were wandering steppemen. Another theory on the origin of the word Kazakh is that it comes from the ancient Turkic word qazğaq, first mentioned on the 8th century Turkic monument of Uyuk-Turan. According to Turkic linguist Vasily Radlov and Orientalist Veniamin Yudin, the noun qazğaq derives from the same root as the verb qazğan.

Therefore, qazğaq defines a type of person who seeks gain. Kazakh was a common term throughout medieval Central Asia with regard to individuals or groups who had taken or achieved independence from a figure of authority. Timur described his own youth without direct authority as his Qazaqliq. At the time of the Uzbek nomads' Conquest of Central Asia, the Uzbek Abu'l-Khayr Khan had differences with the Chinggisid chiefs Giray/Kirey and Janibeg/Janibek, descendants of Urus Khan; these differences resulted from the crushing defeat of Abu'l-Khayr Khan at the hands of the Qalmaqs. Kirey and Janibek moved with a large following of nomads to the region of Zhetysu/Semirechye on the border of Moghulistan and set up new pastures there with the blessing of the Moghul Chingisid Esen Buqa, who hoped for a buffer zone of protection against the expansion of the Oirats, it is not explicitly explained that to be the reason for Kazakhs taking the name permanently, but it is the only verifiable source of the ethnonym.

The group under Kirey and Janibek are called in various sources Uzbek-Qazaqs. The Russians called the Kazakhs'Kirgiz' and Kirghiz-Kaisak to distinguish them from the Kyrgyz proper. In the 17th century, Russian convention seeking to distinguish the Qazaqs of the steppes from the Cossacks of the Imperial Russian Army suggested spelling the final consonant with "kh" instead of "q" or "k", adopted by the USSR in 1936. Kazakh – Казах Cossack – КазакThe Ukrainian term Cossack comes from the same Kypchak etymological root: wanderer, independent free-booter, their nomadic pastoral lifestyle made. The nation, which amalgamated nomadic tribes of various Kazakh origins, managed to preserve the distant memory of the original founding clans, it was important for Kazakhs to know their genealogical tree for no less than seven generations back. In modern Kazakhstan, tribalism is fading away in government life. Still it is common for Kazakhs to ask each other the tribe they belong to when they become acquainted with one another.

Now, it is more of a tradition than necessity, there is no hostility between tribes. Kazakhs, regardless of their tribal origin, consider themselves one nation; those modern-day Kazakhs who yet remember their tribes know that their tribes belong to one of the three Zhuz: The Senior Horde The Middle The Junior There is much debate surrounding the origins of the Hordes. Their age is unknown so far in extant historical texts, with the earliest mentions in the 17th century; the Turkologist Velyaminov-Zernov believed that it was the capture of the important cities of Tashkent and Sayram in 1598 by Tevvekel Khan that separated the Qazaqs, as they possessed the cities for only part of the 17th century. The theory suggests that the Qazaqs divided among a wider territory after expanding from Zhetysu into most of the Dasht-i Qipchaq, with a focus on the trade available through the cities of the middle Syr Darya, to which Sayram and Yasi belonged; the Junior juz originated from the Nogais of the Nogai Horde.

The Kazakh language is a member of the Turkic language family, as are Uzbek, Tatar, modern Turkish, Azeri and many other living and historical languages spoken in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia. Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak group of the Turkic language family. Kazakh is characterized, in distinction to other Turkic languages, by the presence of /s/ in place of reconstructed proto-Turkic */ʃ/ and /ʃ/ in place of */tʃ/. Kazakh, like most of the Turkic language family lacks phonemic vowel length, as such there is no distinction between long and short vowels. Kazakh was written with the Arabic script during the 19th century, w

Second Coming (Second Coming album)

Second Coming is the eponymous second studio album by the American rock band Second Coming. It was released independently with eight tracks through their own label and reissued and re-released with three additional tracks - "Tonight ", "The War", "Unknown Rider" - on September 22, 1998, through Capitol Records, it is the first Second Coming album to feature vocalist Travis Bracht, who became their permanent singer until the band broke up in 2008, the only one to feature guitarist Dudley Taft. Before joining drummer James Bergstrom and bassist Johnny Bacolas, the only two band members on this album who were involved with its predecessor L. O. V. Evil, guitarist Dudley Taft enjoyed moderate success with the band Sweet Water. Meanwhile, vocalist Travis Bracht sang in a band called Peace and Silence, which recorded and released one album called Fathom That. To raise funds for this album, Second Coming moonlighted as a cover band called FTA, an acronym for "Funding the Album", they independently recorded an eight-track album that would be reissued by Capitol Records with three additional tracks.

Bacolas said, "We had been done with our album for two months when we were signed by Capitol, we were going to do our own distribution, so the deal was like an added bonus." "This has all happened quickly," summed Taft, who co-produced the album with Kelly Gray. "We wanted to record a short CD to put out ourselves and see what happens, hoping it would get us to the next place. The more things happen, the more we realize maybe these are the songs to make something happen… That’s what everyone around us seems to be thinking." Bracht is credited for writing all the lyrics off Second Coming with the exception of "Vintage Eyes", credited to Taft. Taft is credited for writing or co-writing all the music off this album except for "Travisty", an apparent personal song written by Bracht about the time he spent growing up in the foster care system in his teenage years."That song took me six months to write, I tore my legs off trying to make everything count, not wasting any lines," Bracht said of the song.

"Writing that song was the classic scene of a writer surrounded himself with crumpled papers, throwing everything away and starting over in the middle of a room full of garbage. It’s the first song I’ve written by myself, it was the hardest thing I’ve done, but that’s my fucking song. It’s the closest thing to having a child, it means a lot." Greg Parto of Allmusic described the music on Second Coming as having "mammoth guitar riffs, classic rock vocals, hefty drumming, a touch of experimentalism thrown in from time to time." Janiss Garza wrote, "In spite of occasional pretension and high dramatics on "The War" and "The Song", Second Coming still manage, through pure muscle, to bring grunge up to date.""Second Coming is a swaggering epic that obliterates the lines between their hometown’s trademarked grunge sound, the classic rock backgrounds that make them one of hard rock’s brightest prospects," writes Paul Gargano of Maximum Ink. "When all is said and done, the 11-cut debut boldly and intelligently surges them ahead of their musical peers."

All lyrics except where noted. All music by Dudley Taft, except where noted; the album's credits and personnel can be obtained from the liner notes

Santiago Luna

Santiago Luna Torres is a Spanish professional golfer. Luna's father was on the staff at Puerta de Hierro Golf Club in Madrid, he turned professional in 1982 and has spent over twenty years on the European Tour, playing in over five hundred tournaments. He ranked in the top one hundred on the Order of Merit twelve times, with a best of 31st place in 1998, his sole win on the European Tour came in 1995 at the Madeira Island Open, but he has several victories in other professional tournaments. He has represented his country in international competition several times, in 1999 he helped Spain to the runner-up position at the World Cup. 1988 Les Bulles Laurent-Perrier, Campeonato de España 1990 Campeonato de España 1992 Campeonato de España 1998 King Hassan II Trophy 1999 Oki Telepizza - APG 2000 Campeonato de España 2002 King Hassan II Trophy 2003 King Hassan II Trophy Note: The Open Championship was the only major Luna played. CUT = missed. Professional Alfred Dunhill Cup: 1991, 1998 World Cup: 1995, 1998, 1999 2005 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2006 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2008 European Tour Qualifying School graduates Santiago Luna at the European Tour official site Santiago Luna at the Official World Golf Ranking official site