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Kazi Nazrul Islam

Kazi Nazrul Islam was a Bengali language poet, writer and Indian revolutionary the national poet of Bangladesh. Popularly known as Nazrul, he produced a large body of poetry and music with themes that included religious devotion and rebellion against oppression. Nazrul's activism for political and social justice earned him the title of "Rebel Poet", his compositions form the avant-garde genre of Nazrul Geeti. Born in a Bengali Muslim Kazi family, Nazrul Islam received religious education and as a young man worked as a muezzin at a local mosque, he learned about poetry and literature while working with the rural theatrical group Letor Dal. He joined the British Indian Army in 1917. After serving in the British Indian Army in the Middle East during World War I, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Calcutta, he criticised the British Raj and called for revolution through his poetic works, such as "Bidrohi" and "Bhangar Gaan", as well as in his publication Dhumketu. His nationalist activism in Indian independence movement led to his frequent imprisonment by the colonial British authorities.

While in prison, Nazrul wrote the "Rajbandir Jabanbandi". His writings inspired Bengalis of East Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Nazrul's writings explored themes such as freedom, humanity and revolution, he opposed all forms of bigotry and fundamentalism, including religious, caste-based and gender-based. Nazrul wrote short stories and essays but is best known for his songs and poems, he profusely enriched ghazals in the Bengali language. He is known to have experimented with Arabic and Sanskrit words in his works to produce rhythmic effects. Nazrul composed music for nearly 4,000 songs, collectively known as Nazrul Geeti. In 1942 at the age of 43, he began losing his voice and memory. A medical team in Vienna diagnosed the disease as Pick's disease, a rare incurable neurodegenerative disease, it caused Nazrul's health to decline and forced him to live in isolation in India. He was admitted in Ranchi psychiatric hospital for many years. At the invitation of the Government of Bangladesh and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972.

He died four years on 29 August 1976 in Bangladesh. Nazrul was born on Thursday 25 May 1899 in the village of Churulia, Asansol Sadar, Paschim Bardhaman district of the Bengal Presidency, he was the second of three sons and a daughter. Nazrul's father Kazi Faqeer Ahmed was the caretaker of the local mosque and mausoleum. Nazrul's mother was Zahida Khatun. Nazrul had two brothers, Kazi Saahibjaan and Kazi Ali Hussain, a sister, Umme Kulsum, he was nicknamed Dukhu Miañ. Nazrul studied at a maktab and madrasa, run by a mosque and a dargah where he studied the Quran, Islamic philosophy, theology, his father died in 1908 and at the age of ten, Nazrul took his father's place as a caretaker of the mosque to support his family. He assisted teachers in the school, he worked as the muezzin at the mosque. Attracted to folk theatre, Nazrul joined a leto run by his uncle Fazle Karim, he worked and travelled with them, learning to act, as well as writing songs and poems for the plays and musicals. Through his work and experiences, Nazrul began studying Bengali and Sanskrit literature, as well as Hindu scriptures such as the Puranas.

Nazrul composed folk plays for the group, which included Chāshār Shōng, plays about characters from the Mahabharata including Shokunībōdh, Rājā Judhisthirer Shōng, Dātā Kōrno, Ākbōr Bādshāh, Kobi Kālidās, Bidyan Hutum, Rājputrer Shōng. In 1910, Nazrul enrolled at the Searsole Raj High School in Raniganj. In school, he was influenced by his teacher, a Jugantar activist, Nibaran Chandra Ghatak, began a lifelong friendship with fellow author Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay, his classmate, he transferred to the Mathrun High English School, studying under the headmaster and poet Kumudranjan Mallik. Unable to continue paying his school fees, Nazrul joined a group of kaviyals, he took jobs as a cook at Wahid's, a well-known bakery of the region, at a tea stall in the town of Asansol. In 1914, Nazrul studied in the Darirampur School in Mymensingh District. Amongst other subjects, Nazrul studied Bengali, Arabic, Persian literature and Hindustani classical music under teachers who were impressed by his dedication and skill.

Nazrul did not appear for the matriculation pre-test examination. He had two primary motivations for joining the British Indian Army: first, a youthful desire for adventure and, second, an interest in the politics of the time. Attached to the 49th Bengal Regiment, he was posted to the Karachi Cantonment, where he wrote his first prose and poetry. Although he never saw active fighting, he rose in rank from corporal to havildar, served as quartermaster fo

Magico (manga)

Magico is a Japanese shōnen manga series written and illustrated by Naoki Iwamoto. The series follows the story of Shion and Emma to complete the magic ritual "Magico" to seal away the power of Echidna, a dreadful and powerful magic dormant inside Emma's body. Magico has been serialized in the Japanese magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump, published by Shueisha from February 2011 to July 2012. Emma, a country girl, first came to the city to start a new life after having been isolated since early childhood, but for some reason, when she entered the city all the young men and the king tried to forcibly marry her. And when it seemed that there was no hope left but to marry the king, a dragon comes crashing into the room. To everyone's surprise, a young man named Shion comes out of the dragon's mouth, he "saves" her and they leave. On he explains to Emma about her history and how she is the legendary Echidna, a power born every 500 years so devastating that in the wrong hands, could mean the destruction of the world.

Shion goes on to tell her. He goes on to speak of a ritual; this ritual is called Magico, to complete this ritual they would have to perform and complete many difficult tasks to seal the magic of Echidna away. The first of, to marry Shion!? What other tasks remain for these two!? Shion Elphias Levi Voiced by: Romi Park He is one of the three strongest mages in the Eaglyas, known as the Sages of the West, knew Emma from when they were both children from when she fed him when he was starving to death, she is the reason he became a mage and he wants nothing more than to protect her. Though he appears strong in the beginning, it is revealed he has low self confidence and does not want anyone to find out about his hidden past, he worked hard to become a mage and has a specific type of magic he likes best. Shion travels around in a dragon which has many other rooms inside of it, he cares for Emma deeply, although he does not like to admit. His magical abilities are:Magic Broom: Can lift objects and can be manipulated like a hand.

Each strand can lift up to 200 tons. It will spread and the individual strands can be used for different purposes; when up against a formidable opponent, it can protect the user by forming itself into a ball that nothing can penetrate. So far only Shion has used this type of magic. To use it, it is needed to complete ritual of defeating 1000 Agiri with a single broom; when not in use, this magic appears as a normal broom in the hands of the user until it is needed which it grows in size. It is burned by flames or fire magic, it can be upgraded by a ritual sacrificing all the users happy memories. Fire Magic: Face will be converted into a fire dragon, breathing fire from the mouth. 24 House: Creative magic system. House floor plan drawn on paper, can only be summoned for 24 hours, it is not tough and would not protect from anything that would destroy a normal house. Emma Voiced by: Ai Kayano The heroine of this series with a natural and pure trusting toward others; as her body houses the Echidna, which has the power to destroy the world, she must travel around the world in search of different items that can be used for Magico.

She was isolated in seclusion from childhood, forced to live under house arrest, however she does not know why. Emma's life is threatened by those who seek to kill her and claim the power of Echidna for themselves. In cooperation with Shion, they plan to seal Echidna and prevent it from awakening while saving her life, she has grown strong feelings for Shion, but she tries to hide this fact, although she is not good at it. Luu An orphan who resided in the outlands before meeting Shion and Emma, her town, which had always distrusted her, used her as a sacrifice thinking it would change their luck. She had been living alone in the wilderness until she met Shion and Emma, she uses the powerful magic named Palm Exchange Magic. Because of the strength of this magic, Luu can grow in age, but she cannot do it for long and becomes weak for a long time afterwards, she becomes adopted by Shion and Emma after aiding them in one of their rituals and becomes the little sister of Anise. She is warm-hearted but can be aggressive towards those who threaten her new family.

Her magical ability is:Palm Exchange Magic: To obtain this magic ability, one has to continuing to hit a rock a million times. It allows the user to change the appearance of ones fist depending on how many attack combos can be strung together. After the 100th combo, the attack is strong enough to revitalize the spirit body, an 18-year-old Luu would form temporarily. Anise Voiced by: Mai Yamane A speaking female black cat wearing a red collar with bells hanging off, she has a wealth of knowledge to the description of a number of different magic and rituals. She is a supporter to Shion and approves of his relationship with Emma, she teases him about how he is not open with his feelings, which annoys him. However, she has calm and loving personality, she is known for never asking irrelevant questions. Sieg Voiced by: Masahiro Iwasaki A green dragon which Shion uses for transportation, he is depicted as wearing sunglasses. Shion raised him from an egg. Shion and Luu use his body as a residence and main source of transportation.

He appears to have an unlimited amount of rooms inside of him, he gains no damage from anything destroyed inside of him. Sieg is a holy dragon, if somebody enters his body he can nullify any curses. Magico is writte

List of Texas Rangers managers

The Texas Rangers are an American baseball franchise based in Arlington, Texas. They are members of the American League West division; the Rangers franchise was formed in 1961 called the Washington Senators, as a member of the American League. In its 58-year history, the Texas Rangers baseball franchise of Major League Baseball's American League has employed 27 managers; the duties of the team manager include team leadership on and off the field. Mickey Vernon became the first manager of the Texas Rangers in 1961, serving for just over two seasons. Ron Washington has managed more seasons than any other manager in Rangers history. Before 2010, the only Rangers manager to have led the team to the playoffs was Johnny Oates, who won the 1996 Manager of the Year Award with the Rangers. Ted Williams is the only Rangers manager to have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame as a player. In 1963, manager Mickey Vernon was replaced by interim manager Eddie Yost. One game Yost was replaced by Gil Hodges.

In 1973, Whitey Herzog was replaced by Del Wilber. One game Billy Martin took over the role of manager. In 1975, Frank Lucchesi took over for Martin in midseason. After six games, Connie Ryan could not finish the season, so Billy Hunter took over the role of manager, only to be fired with one game to go in the 1978 season and replaced by Pat Corrales. In 1982, Don Zimmer was fired as Rangers manager but continued to run the team for three more games before being replaced by Darrell Johnson. Rangers owner Eddie Chiles said the poor play of the Rangers had nothing to do with Zimmer's firing but was instead'something personal'. In 1985, after Doug Rader led the Rangers to losing seasons, he was replaced by Bobby Valentine, who in turn was replaced by Toby Harrah during midseason. In 2001, Johnny Oates's poor performance forced the Rangers to hire Jerry Narron as his replacement during midseason. Buck Showalter was hired as manager of the Texas Rangers on October 11, 2002, following a last-place season under manager Jerry Narron.

Showalter managed the Rangers through the 2006 season, before being fired as manager on October 4, 2006. In November 2006, Ron Washington was hired as manager of the Rangers, he managed the team from 2007 to 2014, longer than any other person in the franchise's history, when he announced his resignation on September 5, 2014. Tim Bogar managed the rest of the season on an interim basis. Jeff Banister was hired to lead the team from 2015 to September 2018, when he was fired. Don Wakamatsu replaced him as interim manager. Chris Woodward was hired as the new manager for 2019. Statistics current through the end of the 2018 season a Each year is linked to an article about that particular team season. General references"Texas Rangers Managerial Register". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 2008-12-30. "Rangers All-Time Managers". Texas Rangers. Retrieved 2008-12-30. In-text citations

A83 road

The A83 is a major road in the south of Argyll and Bute, Scottish Highlands, running from Tarbet, on the western shore of Loch Lomond, where it splits from the A82, to Campbeltown at the southern end of the Kintyre peninsula. From Tarbet the A83 runs west across the watershed between Loch Lomond and Loch Long to Arrochar near the head of Loch Long, it goes round the head of the loch, along the western shore for a short distance, before turning NW up Glen Croe to the Rest & be thankful viewpoint picnic area in Cowal, at the pass through the Arrochar Alps from the shore of Loch Long to that of Loch Fyne. It was near this spot that an RAF Tornado crashed on 2 July 2009. REST & BE THANKFUL are the words inscribed on a stone near the junction of the A83 and the B828, placed there by soldiers who built the original military road in 1753, now referred to as the Drovers' road; the original stone was replaced by a commemorative stone at the same site. The section is so named as the climb out of Glen Croe is so long and steep at the end that it was traditional for travellers to rest at the top, be thankful for having reached the highest point.

The current road no longer keeps to the floor of Glen Croe but climbs across the southern slopes of The Cobbler, on the north side of the Glen, to the highest point of the pass. The westward descent to Loch Fyne is through Glen Kinglas. At Cairndow the A815, the main road down the Cowal peninsula, south to Dunoon and Toward at the A815 roads end, both on the Firth of Clyde. On reaching the shore of Loch Fyne, the main road follows the eastern shore of the loch northwards to its head and goes south west along the western shore through Inveraray and on to Lochgilphead and Ardrishaig, where it crosses the entrance to the Crinan Canal. From Ardrishaig the road continues south to Tarbert, where it crosses over to the western shore of the Kintyre peninsula. In the final section it passes through the villages of Whitehouse, Tayinloan and Bellochantuy before crossing back to the east of the peninsula, on the Firth of Clyde coast, as it reaches Campbeltown; the stretch south of the Rest and be thankful junction has been closed on a number of occasions due to landslides, causing significant disruption to local traffic.

The road was closed here due to a 400 tonne landslide on 28 October 2007. The road was reopened on Monday 10 November. A 1,070 tonne landslide closed the road around noon on 8 September 2009; the road reopened at 15.00 on 10 September 2009. A landslip on 1 December 2011 closed the road for 24 hours, another closed the road from 22 February 2012, an more substantial landslip in August 2012 resulted in further major delays and closures. On the 3 October 2013, the road was reopened at 17.30, had been closed between the A815 and the B828. Contractor Bear Scotland said that from 21:00 they would continue to work on some sections of the A83, so drivers may experience slight delays during the night. On 30 December 2015, Storm Frank caused a 200 tonne landslide here; the road reopened the following afternoon. The A83 closed again for a period of 9 days in October 2018, in response to landslides triggered during the start of storm Callum. 2007 Rest and Be Thankful Landslide, British Geological Survey 2009 Rest and Be Thankful Landslide, British Geological Survey

Hawaiian quilt

A Hawaiian quilt is a distinctive quilting style of the Hawaiian Islands that uses large radially symmetric applique patterns. Motifs work stylized botanical designs in bold colors on a white background. Hawaiian quilt applique is made from a single cut on folded fabric. Quilting stitches follow the contours of the applique design. Hawaiian quilting derives from an indigenous bed cover textile. Kapa was constructed from the inner bark of local trees. Traditional kapa was beaten and felted dyed in geometric patterns. Quilting may have begun in the Hawaiian islands with the arrival of missionaries and Western fabrics in the 1820s; the climate of Hawaii is unsuitable for cotton cultivation and kapa is unsuitable for quilting so all Hawaiian quilts are constructed from imported material. The earliest written reference comes from Isabella Bird who visited Hawaii in 1870 and wrote a travelogue Six Months in the Sandwich Islands. Another Hawaiian quilt style is the Hawaiian flag quilt known as Ku’u Hae Aloha quilts.

The typical flag quilt includes four Hawaiian flags surrounding the coat of arms of the Hawaiian Royal Family or crown. Flag quilts combine pieced work with appliqued motifs, unlike other traditional Hawaiian quilts, which do not use pieced work. Flag quilts may have originated as early as 1843, when Lord George Paulet claimed the Hawaiian Islands for the British and ordered all Hawaiian flags destroyed. Many of these flag quilts date back to the overthrow of the monarchy, when displaying the Hawaiian flag was considered treason. Quilts bearing symbols of the monarchy were a form of silent resistance. Hawaiian quilters made other styles of quilts including embroidering quilts and crazy quilting; the most famous Hawaiian crazy quilt is the one made by Queen Liliuokalani during her internment after the overthrow of the monarchy. Antique flag quilts fetch higher prices than applique quilts: high quality flag quilts may be valued at $40,000 - $60,000 while applique quilts sell for $9000 – $15,000.

Factors that affect price include the quality of the original construction, preservation of the item's color and physical integrity, provenance. Hawaiian art Serrao, The Hawaiian quilt, A spiritual experience, Reflection on its history, designing, quilting methods and patterns, Mutual Pub. 1997. Severson, Don R. Finding Paradise, Island Art in Private Collections, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, 237-254; the Queen's Quilt Quilting History of Hawaii Bishop Museum Quilt Database A Stitch in Time Article about Hawaiian quilters by Cheryl Tsutsumi. Maui No Ka'Oi Magazine Vol. 12 No.6


A townland is a small geographical division of land used in Ireland and in the Western Isles in Scotland. The townland system is of Gaelic origin, pre-dating the Norman invasion, most have names of Irish Gaelic origin. However, some townland names and boundaries come from Norman manors, plantation divisions, or creations of the Ordnance Survey; the total number of inhabited townlands in Ireland was 60,679 in 1911. The total number recognised by the Irish Place Names database as of 2014 was 61,098, including uninhabited townlands small islands. In Ireland a townland is the smallest administrative division of land, though a few large townlands are further divided into hundreds; the concept of townlands is based on the Gaelic system of land division, the first official evidence of the existence of this Gaelic land division system can be found in church records from before the 12th century, it was in the 1600s that they began to be mapped and defined by the English administration for the purpose of confiscating land and apportioning it to investors or planters from Britain.

The term "townland" in English is derived from the Old English word tun. The term describes the smallest unit of land division in Ireland, based on various forms of Gaelic land division, many of which had their own names; the term baile, anglicised as "bally", is the most dominant element used in Irish townland names. Today the term "bally" denotes an urban settlement, but its precise meaning in ancient Ireland is unclear, as towns had no place in Gaelic social organisation; the modern Irish term for a townland is baile fearainn. The term fearann means "land, quarter"; the Normans left no major traces in townland names, but they adapted some of them for their own use seeing a similarity between the Gaelic baile and the Norman bailey, both of which meant a settlement. Throughout most of Ulster townlands were known as "ballyboes", represented an area of pastoral economic value. In County Cavan similar units were called "polls", in Counties Fermanagh and Monaghan they were known as "tates" or "taths".

These names appear to be of English origin, but had become naturalised long before 1600. In modern townland names the prefix pol- is found throughout western Ireland, its accepted meaning being "hole" or "hollow". In County Cavan, which contains over half of all townlands in Ulster with the prefix pol-, some should be better translated as "the poll of...". Modern townlands with the prefix tat- are confined exclusively to the diocese of Clogher, which covers Counties Fermanagh and Monaghan, the barony of Clogher in County Tyrone), cannot be confused with any other Irish word. In County Tyrone the following hierarchy of land divisions was used: "ballybetagh", "ballyboe", "sessiagh", "gort" and "quarter". In County Fermanagh the divisions were "ballybetagh", "quarter" and "tate". Further subdivisions in Fermanagh appear to be related to liquid or grain measures such as "gallons", "pottles" and "pints". In Ulster the ballybetagh was the territorial unit controlled by an Irish sept containing around 16 townlands.

Fragmentation of ballybetaghs resulted in units consisting of four and twelve townlands. One of these fragmented units, the "quarter", representing a quarter of a ballybetagh, was the universal land denomination recorded in the survey of County Donegal conducted in 1608. In the early 17th century 20 per cent of the total area of western Ulster was under the control of the church; these "termon" lands consisted of ballybetaghs and ballyboes, but were held by erenaghs instead of sept leaders. Other units of land division used throughout Ireland include: In County Tipperary, "capell lands" and "quatermeers". A "capell land" consisted of around 20 great acres. In the province of Connacht, "quarters" and "cartrons", a quarter being reckoned as four cartrons, each cartron being 30 acres; the quarter has been anglicised as "carrow", "carhoo" or "caracute". In County Clare, as in Connacht, "quarters", "half-quarters", "cartrons" and "sessiagh". Here a "half-quarter" equated to around 60 acres, a "cartron" equated to around 30 acres and a "sessiagh" was around 20 acres."Cartrons" were sometimes called "ploughlands" or "seisreagh".

Thomas Larcom, the first Director of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, made a study of the ancient land divisions of Ireland and summarised the traditional hierarchy of land divisions thus: 10 acres – 1 Gneeve. This hierarchy was not applied uniformly across Ireland. For example, a ballybetagh or townland could contain less than four ploughlands. Further confusion arises when it is taken into account that, while Larcom used the general term "acres" in his summary, terms such as "great acres", "large acres" and "small acres" were used in records. Writing in 1846, Larcom remarked that the "large" and "small" acres had no fixed ratio between them, that there were various other kinds of acre in use in Ireland, including the Irish acre, the English acre, the Cunningham acre, the plantation acre and the statute acre; the Ordnance Survey maps used the statute acre measurement. The quality and situation of the land affected the