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Kazimierz Górski

Kazimierz Klaudiusz Górski was a coach of Poland national football team and honorary president of Polish Football Union. He was a football player, capped once for Poland, he was born in Lwów, now Lviv, Ukraine. He played as a forward in several Polish football teams: RKS Lwów, Spartak Lviv, FC Dynamo Lviv, Legia Warsaw and his football nickname was "Sarenka", his successful career was interrupted by World War II and it took until 1948 before he participated in his only international match, a game between Poland and Denmark. He graduated in football training from the Higher School of Physical Education in Kraków and the Physical Education Academy in Wrocław in 1980, he was the coach of Legia Warsaw, Marymont Warszawa, Gwardia Warszawa, Lublinianka Lublin, ŁKS Łódź. He started as the coach of the Polish national junior team from 1956 to 1966 the Polish U-23 national team from 1966 to 1970, the first Poland national football team from 1970 to 1976, his first international match with the team was held on 5 May 1971 in Lausanne against Switzerland.

His major successes were winning the gold medal in the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. Kazimierz Górski was the coach of the Polish national team for 73 matches. Poland qualified for the 1974 World Cup by defeating 1966 World Cup winners England at home and holding them to a draw at Wembley. After resigning his position with the Polish national team, he went to Greece and was a successful coach with Panathinaikos Athens, Kastoria FC, Olympiakos Piraeus and Ethnikos Piraeus. From 1976 Kazimierz Górski was an honorary member of the Polish Football Union; when he retired from coaching, he became an activist for PZPN in 1986. From 1987 he was a vice-president and from 1991 to 1995 was the president of PZPN. From 3 July 1995 he was the honorary president of PZPN, he died from cancer following a long illness on 23 May 2006, aged 85, in Warsaw. FIFA Order of Merit Order of Merit in Ruby – UEFA award Gold Medal of Merit – FIFA award Commander's Cross of Polonia Restituta Commander's with Star of Polonia Restituta Grand Cross of Polonia Restituta Honorary citizen of Lviv and Lubaczów Doctor Honoris Causa of the Gdańsk Academy of Physical Education and Sport Super Victor A School Sports Championships in Łódź was named after him.

The National Stadium, Warsaw has a statue honouring him outside it. Media related to Kazimierz Górski at Wikimedia Commons


RETAIN is a mainframe based database system, accessed via IBM 3270 terminals, used internally within IBM providing service support to IBM field personnel and customers. The acronym RETAIN stands for Remote Technical Assistance Information Network. Two different, but similar, systems were called RETAIN; the first, dating to the mid-1960s was a system that provided technical information to people in the IBM Field Engineering Division in the form of short bulletins or tips, organized according to machine type number or, for software, according to software component ID number. This information was accessible using simple query commands from IBM service branch office terminals; the terminals supported by this early RETAIN system were typewriter-type terminals, such as the IBM 2740. These same terminals were used to access the IBM Field Instruction System, which provided education in the form of programmed instruction courseware; the RETAIN system was built on the same software framework as that of FIS.

In fact, most of the early support for RETAIN was written in the language of a "course". The system was used to provide field support for the System/360 family of mainframe systems, although it was used to disseminate some technical information on other older systems. In 1970, concurrent with the announcement of System/370, the next generation of mainframes after System/360, a new system was announced, called RETAIN/370; this system was designed for use by special Technical Support Centers located in regional centers, rather than by the branch office. This new system was designed to support display terminals, rather than the old typewriter-based ones. A special version of the 2915 display designed for the airline reservations systems, such as SABRE, was used; the 2915 was a small keyboard-display driven by a large electronic controller and data interchange unit, the IBM 2948. Each 2948 supported up to 31 display terminals; the cost of this display system, with its large controller, prevented the 2915 terminals from being utilized in branch offices.

Thus, the use of regional support centers for this system. The older RETAIN system continued to be used for several years afterwards, running in parallel with RETAIN/370, still providing direct support to branch-office terminals, it was sometimes called the "RETAIN/360" system. In time, after RETAIN/370 became available via 3270 terminals in the branch offices, the old RETAIN system was phased out, RETAIN/370 was renamed to RETAIN. RETAIN/370 ran special applications designed for technical support center use, its most powerful feature was a full-text search engine, enabling most text documents in the system to be retrieved by using boolean search requests, similar in concept to full-text search engines in use today on the Internet, such as Google or AltaVista, although limited only to searching for individual words, or combinations of words, without reference to word-adjacency. RETAIN/370 was the first IBM system deployed on a large scale; the search engine component of RETAIN is called IRIS, for Interpretive Retrieval Information System.

In the mid-1970s, a RETAIN was expanded to permit multiple copies of the database to be hosted on geographically distributed systems. RETAIN's custom-built Data Bank Manager, which served as the foundation for all RETAIN applications, the IRIS search engine, was modified to support "mirroring" of file updates to take place automatically across the network, in a manner nearly invisible to the application programs, but which providing a high level of data integrity. After this change, RETAIN hosts were created in two US locations, two in Europe, two in South America, two in Japan. Most applications were developed by IBM programmers in Raleigh, NC, with some work being done in North Harbour, UK. Registered users of the system numbered in over 60 countries. At the time System/370 was announced, along with the corresponding RETAIN/370 system, IBM announced that the new family of computers would be equipped to permit remote diagnosis of hardware problems; each System/370 installation of model 145 and above have a telecommunications adapter included capable of being used for remote support.

The hardware diagnostic programs were written to allow control via a remote connection to applications on the RETAIN system that could be controlled by IBM specialists located at the IBM support center in Chicago, managed by Paul Rushton, including the original plant of manufacture of the CPU. This form of support was dubbed "Data Link / Hardware"; the connection was made through a communications device called an IBM 2955 adapter, a stripped-down variant of the 2701 communications controller. It could connect at 600 bit/s to the RETAIN system to run diagnostics; this was to run the same diagnostics that could be run locally by an IBM CE, but in time other specialized applications were developed, such as programs to analyze "logouts" generated by hardware malfunctions, i.e. "machine check" interruptions. In time, the concept of remote support was extended to software as well. Through a special application, an MVS system could be connected, via RETAIN, to an IBM support center, memory dumps and other system data could be examined remotely.

The application permitted download of software fixes, or IBM Program temporary fixes. Although the 2955 only supported a 6-bit character code, binary transfer of memory dump and


The Rüdisühli family was a Swiss family of artists, including painters and copyists, who were active from the mid-19th to the mid-20th Century. The family was from the Basel area. Jacob Rüdisühli was a painter of landscapes and of sentimental works influenced by Arnold Böcklin. Four of his fourteen children, Louise and Eduard, received their first training from him; the three sons all subsequently attended the Kunstgewerbeschule Basel, his daughter Louise became a self-taught painter of portraits and landscapes. The Rüdisühli family's works were once fashionable, but fell out of critical favour by the end of the First World War. Johannes Neckermann, a son of the dressage rider and businessman Josef Neckermann, collected them work by Hermann Rüdisühli, for more than 25 years. Neckermann's art collection was sold at auction in 2009. Jacob Rüdisühli Hermann Rüdisühli Louise Rüdisühli Michael Rüdisühli Eduard Rüdisühli Carl Brun, et al. ed. Schweizerisches Künstler-Lexikon. Schweizerischer Kunstverein.

4 vols. Frauenfeld: Huber, 1905–1917. Reprint Nendeln: Kraus, 1982. E. Bénézit, ed. rev. Jacques Busse. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps et de tous les pays par un groupe d'écrivains spécialistes français et étrangers. Rev. ed. 14 vols. Paris: Gründ, 1999. Dejardin, Fiona M.. The Rüdisühli: A Family of Painters. From the Collection of Johannes Neckermann: Yager Museum, Hartwick College, New York, October 2001 – January 6, 2002. Oneonta, New York: Yager Museum. OCLC 602793857

856 Damghan earthquake

The 856 Damghan earthquake or the 856 Qumis earthquake occurred on 22 December 856. The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 7.9, a maximum intensity of X on the Mercalli intensity scale. The meizoseismal area extended for about 350 kilometres along the southern edge of the eastern Alborz mountains of present-day Iran including parts of Tabaristan and Gorgan; the earthquake's epicenter is estimated to be close to the city of Damghan, the capital of the Persian province of Qumis. It caused 200,000 deaths and is listed by the USGS as the sixth deadliest earthquake in recorded history. Iran lies within the complex zone of continental collision between the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate, which extends from the Bitlis-Zagros belt in the south to the Greater Caucasus mountains, the Apsheron-Balkan Sill and the Kopet Dag mountains in the north; the epicentral area is located in the Alborz mountain range, in which oblique north-south shortening is accommodated by a combination of thrusting and sinistral strike-slip faulting.

The main active structure in the Qumis region is the Shahrud fault system, which extends for several hundred km. This zone of overall sinistral strike-slip consists of several fault strands, including the Damghan Fault, Northern Damghan Fault and the Astaneh Fault System, all of which lie within the epicentral area and show evidence of displacement during the Quaternary; the longest of these possible candidates for the source of the 856 earthquake is the 150 km long Astaneh Fault System. Trenching along one of the segments of the Astaneh Fault System has provided evidence of a significant earthquake along the fault that occurred well after 600 BC and before 1300 AD, consistent with the 856 event. Aftershocks affected the area for several years including a damaging earthquake in western Khurasan; the area of significant damage extended along the Alborz for about 350 kilometres, including the towns of Ahevanu, Tash and Shahrud, with all the villages in the area damaged. Hecatompylos, now called the former capital of Parthian Empire, was destroyed.

Half of Damghan and a third of the town of Bustam were destroyed. The earthquake badly affected water supplies in the Qumis area due to springs and qanats drying up, but because of landslides damming streams; the total death toll for the earthquake is reported as 200,000, with 45,096 casualties in Damghan alone. Šahr-e Qumis was so badly damaged. The effects of the earthquake were still visible in the area between Bastam and Damghan many years later. From the results of trenching at a single site along the Astaneh Fault a repeat period of about 3,700 years has been estimated and no large earthquakes have been recorded in the Damghan area since 856. However, further trenching studies are needed to establish whether the entire length of the fault is involved in a rupture event, or whether shorter segments may be responsible for smaller earthquakes with a shorter recurrence period. List of earthquakes in Iran List of historical earthquakes

Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve

Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve is a nature reserve located near the western coast of Madagascar in Melaky Region at 18°40′S 44°45′E. The area was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1990 due to the unique geography, preserved mangrove forests, wild bird and lemur populations; the southern end of the protected area has subsequently been changed into the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, covering 666 square kilometres. The northern end of the protected area remains as a strict nature reserve covering 853 square kilometres, it is characterised above cliffs over the Manambolo River. The sharp limestone formations can cut through equipment and flesh which makes traversing them difficult; the word "Tsingy" is derived from a local word meaning "the place where one cannot walk barefoot". Tourists can access the national park by road from a town 150 km south of the park. Limited access is possible from the town of Antsalova, which can be reached by plane from Antananarivo or Mahajanga. List of national parks of Madagascar Madagascar dry deciduous forests World Heritage Sites in Madagascar Media related to Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve at Wikimedia Commons Tsingy de Bemaraha Official Website UNESCO Strict Nature Reserve

The Tale of Shim Chong (film)

The Tale of Shim Chong is a 1985 North Korean musical film directed by Shin Sang-ok. It is based on the traditional story of the same name; the story is of the daughter of a poor blind farmer. The peasant signs a deal with a monk to deliver 300 sacks of rice in return of his sight, but is unable to deliver the goods. Shim Chong agrees to be sacrificed to the God of the Sea on behalf of sailors who need to appease the deity, she meets the god who praises her for her filial piety. Shim Chong returns to the surface inside a giant orchid; the king falls in love with her and helps her find her desperate father who has gone missing by organizing a feast for all the blind people in the kingdom. The Tale of Shim Chong was made when Shin and his wife Choi Eun-hee, who plays the part of Shim Chong's mother, were abducted to North Korea; the two were allowed to complete the filming of the underwater sequences of the film at the Bavaria Film Studios in Munich, West Germany. The negatives of the film went missing for some time.

The Tale of Shim Chong has been likened with the work of Busby Berkeley. Shim Chong is the daughter of a poor blind farmer, her father visits a temple one day and is told by a monk that his blindness could be cured in exchange for 300 sacks of rice. The farmer soon realizes that he is not able to. Meanwhile, a group of sailors lament; the only way to appease the god is to sacrifice a young girl. Shim Chong agrees to be the sacrificial offering if the sailors provide the sacks of rice her father is missing and some money. Once the farmer finds out about this deal he unsuccessfully tries to stop Shim Chong. Shim Chong is thrown overboard; the seas calm. Shim Chong meets the God of the Sea; the god praises her for her filial piety. In the underwater world, Shim Chong meets her deceased mother. Shim Chong leaves the world of the God of the Sea by floating to the surface inside a giant orchid. A group of fishermen take it to the king who rules the land. Shim Chong emerges from the orchid and the king falls in love with her.

Shim Chong, can only think about her father who has gone missing. It turns out he had found a new woman, but the woman cheats her and takes all of the money that Shim Chong had asked from the sailors; the king helps Shim Chong find her father by organizing a feast for all blind people in his kingdom. When Shim Chong recognizes her father at the feast, he miraculously regains his eyesight. Choi Eun-hee acts the part of Shim Chong's mother; the theme is of filial piety. The Tale of Shim Chong was directed by Shin Sang-ok while he and his wife Choi Eun-hee were abducted to North Korea, it is in the genre of a musical film. The story is based on an ancient Korean folk tale The Tale of Shim Chong about a princess of a realm at the bottom of the sea. Shin had made a film based in the story in 1972 in South Korea; the underwater world is populated by dancers in exotic outfits. Although they are masked, their way of dancing gives away the fact; this otherworldly realm is contrasted with the kingdom on dry land, inhabited by people acted by Koreans.

With the permission of Kim Jong-il, Shin and Choi traveled to the Bavaria Film Studios in Munich, West Germany, where they shot the underwater sequences of the film. Shin was helped in special effects by the team. Shin and Choi's every move in Munich. Johannes Schönherr, the author of North Korean Cinema: A History raises the question why they did not try to defect in a city, in the West, where it would have been comparatively easy at any rate. Instead and Choi returned to North Korea after the filming was complete; the film was released in 1985, the same year that he directed Pulgasari and saw the release of his film Salt. Shin sent the negatives of The Tale of Shim Chong to Kim Guh-wha, a Shin Film representative in Hong Kong to add Chinese subtitles. Kim was the man whom, as Shin discovered, had handed him over to North Korean agents in Hong Kong in 1978; the negatives went missing at some point. Shin rediscovered the negatives. Paul Fischer, the author of A Kim Jong-Il Production likens it with the work of Busby Berkeley, calling it "an extravagant musical... with fantasy creatures, expensive costumes, underwater scenes".

Abduction of Shin Sang-ok and Choi Eun-hee Cinema of North Korea Human sacrifice List of North Korean films Simcheonggapansori of the same story Bärtås, Magnus. Hirviöidenkin on kuoltava: Ryhmämatka Pohjois-Koreaan. Translated by Eskelinen, Heikki. Helsinki: Tammi. ISBN 978-951-31-7727-0. Fischer, Paul. A Kim Jong-Il Production: Kidnap, Murder... Making Movies North Korean-Style. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-241-97000-3. Schönherr, Johannes. North Korean Cinema: A History. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-9052-3; the Tale of Shim Chong on IMDb