Iwakura Tomomi was a Japanese statesman during the Bakumatsu and Meiji period. The former 500 Yen banknote issued by the Bank of Japan carried his portrait. Iwakura was born in Kyoto as the second son of a low-ranking courtier and nobleman Horikawa Yasuchika. In 1836 he was adopted by Iwakura Tomoyasu, from whom he received his family name, he was trained by the kampaku Takatsukasa Masamichi and wrote the opinion for the imperial Court reformation. In 1854 he became a chamberlain to his first cousin once removed; as with most other courtiers in Kyoto, Iwakura opposed the Tokugawa shogunate's plans to end Japan's national isolation policy and to open Japan to foreign countries. When Hotta Masayoshi, a Rōjū of the Tokugawa government came to Kyoto to obtain imperial permission to sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce in 1858, Iwakura gathered courtiers who opposed the treaty and attempted to hinder negotiations between the Shōgun and the Court. After Tairō Ii Naosuke was assassinated in 1860, Iwakura supported the Kobugattai Movement, an alliance of the Court and the Shogunate.
The central policy of this alliance was the marriage of the Shōgun Tokugawa Iemochi and Princess Kazu-no-Miya Chikako, the younger sister of the Emperor Kōmei. Samurai and nobles who supported the more radical Sonnō jōi policy saw Iwakura as a supporter of the Shogunate, put pressure on the Court to expel him; as a result, Iwakura moved to Iwakura, north of Kyoto. In Iwakura he wrote many opinions and sent them to the Court or his political companions in Satsuma Domain. In 1866 when Shōgun Iemochi died, Iwakura attempted to have the Court seize political initiative, he failed. When the Emperor Kōmei died the next year, there was a rumor Iwakura had plotted to murder the emperor with poison, but he escaped arrest. With Ōkubo Toshimichi and Saigō Takamori, on January 3, 1868, he engineered the seizure of the Kyoto Imperial Palace by forces loyal to Satsuma and Chōshū, thus initiating the Meiji Restoration, he commissioned Imperial banners with the sun and moon on a red field, which helped ensure that the encounters of the Meiji Restoration were bloodless affairs.
After the establishment of the Meiji government, Iwakura played an important role due to the influence and trust he had with Emperor Meiji. He was responsible for the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath of 1868, the subject abolition of the han system. Soon after his appointment as Minister of the Right in 1871, he led the two-year around-the-world journey known as the Iwakura mission, visiting the United States and several countries in Europe with the purpose of renegotiating the unequal treaties and gathering information to help effect the modernization of Japan. A celebration was held in Manchester and Liverpool in 1997 to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the Iwakura Mission. On his return to Japan in 1873, he was just in time to prevent an invasion of Korea. Realizing that Japan was not in any position to challenge the western powers in its present state, he advocated strengthening the imperial institution, which he felt could be accomplished through a written constitution and a limited form of parliamentary democracy.
He ordered Inoue Kowashi to begin work on a constitution in 1881, ordered Itō Hirobumi to Europe to study various European systems. Although in poor health by early 1883, Iwakura went to Kyoto in May to direct efforts to restore and preserve the imperial palace and the buildings of the old city, many of, falling into disrepair since the transfer of the capital to Tokyo. Soon however, he became ill and was confined to his bed; the Meiji Emperor sent Erwin Bälz, to examine Iwakura. The emperor visited his cousin and old friend on July 19, was moved to tears at his condition. Iwakura died the following day, was given a state funeral, the first given by the imperial government. From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Junior fifth rank Fifth rank Senior fifth rank Fourth rank Senior fourth rank Third rank Senior second rank First rank Senior first rank Beasley, William G.. The Meiji Restoration.
Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804708159. Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3756-9 Jansen, Marius B. and Gilbert Rozman, eds.. Japan in Transition: from Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691054599; the Iwakura Mission to America and Europe: A New Assessment. Richmond, Surrey: Japan Library. ISBN 9781873410844. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868–2000. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780312239145.
Okinawa Prefecture is the southernmost prefecture of Japan. It encompasses two thirds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1,000 kilometres long; the Ryukyu Islands extend southwest from Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu to Taiwan. Naha, Okinawa's capital, is located in the southern part of Okinawa Island. Although Okinawa Prefecture comprises just 0.6 percent of Japan's total land mass, about 75 percent of all United States military personnel stationed in Japan are assigned to installations in the prefecture. About 26,000 U. S. troops are based in the prefecture. The oldest evidence of human existence on the Ryukyu islands is from the Stone Age and was discovered in Naha and Yaeyama; some human bone fragments from the Paleolithic era were unearthed from a site in Naha, but the artifact was lost in transportation before it was examined to be Paleolithic or not. Japanese Jōmon influences are dominant on the Okinawa Islands, although clay vessels on the Sakishima Islands have a commonality with those in Taiwan.
The first mention of the word Ryukyu was written in the Book of Sui. Okinawa was the Japanese word identifying the islands, first seen in the biography of Jianzhen, written in 779. Agricultural societies begun in the 8th century developed until the 12th century. Since the islands are located at the eastern perimeter of the East China Sea close to Japan and South-East Asia, the Ryukyu Kingdom became a prosperous trading nation. During this period, many Gusukus, similar to castles, were constructed; the Ryukyu Kingdom entered into the Imperial Chinese tributary system under the Ming dynasty beginning in the 15th century, which established economic relations between the two nations. In 1609, the Shimazu clan, which controlled the region, now Kagoshima Prefecture, invaded the Ryukyu Kingdom; the Ryukyu Kingdom was obliged to agree to form a suzerain-vassal relationship with the Satsuma and the Tokugawa shogunate, while maintaining its previous role within the Chinese tributary system. The Satsuma clan earned considerable profits from trade with China during a period in which foreign trade was restricted by the shogunate.
Although Satsuma maintained strong influence over the islands, the Ryukyu Kingdom maintained a considerable degree of domestic political freedom for over two hundred years. Four years after the 1868 Meiji Restoration, the Japanese government, through military incursions annexed the kingdom and renamed it Ryukyu han. At the time, the Qing Empire asserted a nominal suzerainty over the islands of the Ryukyu Kingdom, since the Ryūkyū Kingdom was a member state of the Chinese tributary system. Ryukyu han became Okinawa Prefecture of Japan in 1879 though all other hans had become prefectures of Japan in 1872. In 1912, Okinawans first obtained the right to vote for representatives to the National Diet, established in 1890. Near the end of World War II, in 1945, the US Army and Marine Corps invaded Okinawa with 185,000 troops. A third of the civilian population died; the dead, of all nationalities, are commemorated at the Cornerstone of Peace. After the end of World War II, the Ryukyu independence movement developed, while Okinawa was under United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands administration for 27 years.
During this "trusteeship rule", the United States established numerous military bases on the Ryukyu islands. During the Korean War, B-29 Superfortresses flew bombing missions over Korea from Kadena Air Base on Okinawa; the military buildup on the island during the Cold War increased a division between local inhabitants and the American military. Under the 1952 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, the United States Forces Japan have maintained a large military presence. Since 1960, the U. S. and Japan have maintained an agreement that allows the U. S. to secretly bring nuclear weapons into Japanese ports. The Japanese tended to oppose the introduction of nuclear arms into Japanese territory by the government's assertion of Japan's non-nuclear policy and a statement of the Three Non-Nuclear Principles. Most of the weapons were alleged to be stored in ammunition bunkers at Kadena Air Base. Between 1954 and 1972, 19 different types of nuclear weapons were deployed in Okinawa, but with fewer than around 1,000 warheads at any one time.
Between 1965 and 1972, Okinawa was a key staging point for the United States in its military operations directed towards North Vietnam. Along with Guam, it presented a geographically strategic launch pad for covert bombing missions over Cambodia and Laos. Anti-Vietnam War sentiment became linked politically to the movement for reversion of Okinawa to Japan. In 1965, the US military bases, earlier viewed as paternal post war protection, were seen as aggressive; the Vietnam War highlighted the differences between the United States and Okinawa, but showed a commonality between the islands and mainland Japan. As controversy grew regarding the alleged placement of nuclear weapons on Okinawa, fears intensified over the escalation of the Vietnam War. Okinawa was perceived, by some inside Japan, as a potential target for China, should the communist government feel threatened by the United States. American military secrecy blocked any local reporting on what was occurring at bases such as Kadena Air Base.
As information leaked out, images of air strikes were published, the local population began to fear the potential for retaliation. Political leaders such as Oda Makoto
Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock paintings of such subjects as female beauties; the term ukiyo-e translates as "picture of the floating world". Edo became the seat of government for the military dictatorship in the early 17th century; the merchant class at the bottom of the social order benefited most from the city's rapid economic growth. Many indulged in the entertainments of kabuki theatre and geisha of the pleasure districts; the term ukiyo came to describe this hedonistic lifestyle. Printed or painted ukiyo-e images of this environment emerged in the late 17th century and were popular with the merchant class, who had become wealthy enough to afford to decorate their homes with them; the earliest success was in the 1670s with Moronobu's paintings and monochromatic prints of beautiful women. Colour in prints came gradually—at first added by hand for special commissions. By the 1740s, artists such as Masanobu used multiple woodblocks to print areas of colour.
From the 1760s the success of Harunobu's "brocade prints" led to full-colour production becoming standard, each print made with numerous blocks. Specialists have prized the portraits of beauties and actors by masters such as Kiyonaga and Sharaku that came in the late 18th century. In the 19th century followed a pair of masters best remembered for their landscapes: the bold formalist Hokusai, whose Great Wave off Kanagawa is one of the best-known works of Japanese art. Following the deaths of these two masters, against the technological and social modernization that followed the Meiji Restoration of 1868, ukiyo-e production went into steep decline; some ukiyo-e artists specialized in making paintings. Artists carved their own woodblocks for printing; as printing was done by hand, printers were able to achieve effects impractical with machines, such as the blending or gradation of colours on the printing block. Ukiyo-e was central to forming the West's perception of Japanese art in the late 19th century–especially the landscapes of Hokusai and Hiroshige.
From the 1870s Japonism became a prominent trend and had a strong influence on the early Impressionists such as Degas and Monet, as well as Post-Impressionists such as van Gogh and Art Nouveau artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec. The 20th century saw a revival in Japanese printmaking: the shin-hanga genre capitalized on Western interest in prints of traditional Japanese scenes, the sōsaku-hanga movement promoted individualist works designed and printed by a single artist. Prints since the late 20th century have continued in an individualist vein made with techniques imported from the West. Japanese art since the Heian period had followed two principal paths: the nativist Yamato-e tradition, focusing on Japanese themes, best known by the works of the Tosa school; the Kanō school of painting incorporated features of both. Since antiquity, Japanese art had found patrons in the aristocracy, military governments, religious authorities; until the 16th century, the lives of the common people had not been a main subject of painting, when they were included, the works were luxury items made for the ruling samurai and rich merchant classes.
Works appeared by and for townspeople, including inexpensive monochromatic paintings of female beauties and scenes of the theatre and pleasure districts. The hand-produced nature of these shikomi-e limited the scale of their production, a limit, soon overcome by genres that turned to mass-produced woodblock printing. During a prolonged period of civil war in the 16th century, a class of politically powerful merchants had developed; these machishū had power over local communities. In the early 17th century Tokugawa Ieyasu unified the country and was appointed shōgun with supreme power over Japan, he consolidated his government in the village of Edo, required the territorial lords to assemble there in alternate years with their entourages. The demands of the growing capital drew many male labourers from the country, so that males came to make up nearly seventy percent of the population; the village grew during the Edo period from a population of 1800 to over a million in the 19th century. The centralized shogunate put an end to the power of the machishū and divided the population into four social classes, with the ruling samurai class at the top and the merchant class at the bottom.
While deprived of their political influence, those of the merchant class most benefited from the expanding economy of the Edo period, their improved lot allowed for leisure that many sought in the pleasure districts—in particular Yoshiwara in Edo—and collecting artworks to decorate their homes, which in earlier times had been well beyond their financial means. The experience of the pleasure quarters was open to those of sufficient wealth, manners, a
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Toyohara Chikanobu, better known to his contemporaries as Yōshū Chikanobu, was a prolific woodblock artist of Japan's Meiji period. Chikanobu signed his artwork "Yōshū Chikanobu"; this was his "art name" sakuhinmei. The artist's "real name" honmyō was Hashimoto Naoyoshi. Many of his earliest works were signed "studio of Yōshū Chikanobu" Yōshū-sai Chikanobu. At least one triptych from 12 Meiji exists signed "Yōshū Naoyoshi"; the portrait of the Emperor Meiji held by the British Museum is inscribed "drawn by Yōshū Chikanobu by special request" motome ni ōjite Yōshū Chikanobu hitsu. No works have surfaced that are signed either "Toyohara Chikanobu" or "Hashimoto Chikanobu". Chikanobu was a retainer of the Sakakibara clan of Takada Domain in Echigo Province. After the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate, he joined the Shōgitai and fought in the Battle of Ueno, he joined Tokugawa loyalists in Hakodate, Hokkaidō, where he fought in the Battle of Hakodate at the Goryōkaku star fort. He served under the leadership of Ōtori Keisuke.
Following the Shōgitai's surrender, he was remanded along with others to the authorities in the Takada domain. In 1875, he decided to try to make a living as an artist, he travelled to Tokyo. He found work as an artist for the Kaishin Shimbun. In addition, he produced nishiki-e artworks. In his younger days, he had studied the Kanō school of painting, he studied with a disciple of Keisai Eisen and he joined the school of Ichiyūsai Kuniyoshi. After Kuniyoshi’s death, he studied with Kunisada, he referred to himself as Yōshū. Like many ukiyo-e artists, Chikanobu turned his attention towards a great variety of subjects, his work ranged from Japanese mythology to depictions of the battlefields of his lifetime to women's fashions. As well as a number of the other artists of this period, he too portrayed kabuki actors in character, is well known for his impressions of the mie of kabuki productions. Chikanobu was known as a master of bijinga. Images of beautiful women, for illustrating changes in women's fashion, including both traditional and Western clothing.
His work illustrated the changes in coiffures and make-up across time. For example, in Chikanobu's images in Mirror of Ages, the hair styles of the Tenmei era, 1781-1789 are distinguished from those of the Keiō era, 1865-1867, his works capture the transition from the age of the samurai to Meiji modernity, the artistic chaos of the Meiji period exemplifying the concept of "furumekashii/imamekashii". Chikanobu is a recognizable Meiji period artist, but his subjects were sometimes drawn from earlier historical eras. For example, one print illustrates an incident during the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake; the early Meiji period was marked by clashes between disputing samurai forces with differing views about ending Japan's self-imposed isolation and about the changing relationship between the Imperial court and the Tokugawa shogunate. He created a range of scenes of the Satsuma Rebellion and Saigō Takamori; some of these prints illustrated the period of domestic unrest and other subjects of topical interest, including prints like the 1882 image of the Imo Incident known as the Jingo Incident at right.
The greatest number of Chikanobu's war prints sensō-e appeared in triptych format. These works documented the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. For example, the "Victory at Asan" was published with a contemporaneous account of the July 29, 1894 battle. Among those influenced by Chikanobu were Nobukazu Yōsai Nobukazu and Gyokuei Yōdō Gyokuei. Examples of battle scenes 戦争絵 include: Boshin War 1868-1869 Satsuma Rebellion 1877 Examples of scenes from this war include: Jingo Incident Korea 1882 Examples of scenes from this war include: Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 Examples of scenes from this war include: Russo-Japanese War 1904-5 Examples of scenes from this war include: Examples of warrior prints include: Examples of "beauty pictures" include: Examples of historical scenes include: Recent history Ancient history Examples of scenic spots include: Examples of portraits include: Examples of "enlightenment pictures" include: Examples of "kabuki scenes/actor portraits" include: Examples of "Memorial prints" include: Examples of "Etiquette and Manners for Women" include: Examples of Emperor Meiji relaxing include: Examples of "Contrast prints" include: Examples of this genre include: Like the majority of his contemporaries, he worked in the ōban tate-e format.
There are quite a number of single panel series, as well as many other prints in this format which are not a part of any series. He produced several series in the ōban yoko-e format, which were then folded cross-wise to produce an album. Although he is best known for his triptychs, single topics and series, two diptych series are known as well. There are, at least, two polyptych prints known, his signature may be found in the line drawings and illustrations in a number of ehon, which were of a historical nature. In addition, there are fan prints uchiwa-e, as well as number of sheets of sugoroku with his signature that still exist and at least three prints in the kakemo
The Saionji family was a Japanese kuge family related to the Northern Fujiwara branch of the Fujiwara clan and the Imadegawa clan. The family's name was taken from that of the family's formal residence in Kyoto, its kamon was a tomoe; the family was descended from son of Fujiwara no Kinzane. In the time of Michisue's great-grandson Saionji Kintsune, Minamoto no Yoritomo's niece was married into the Saionji family, thus giving the Kamakura shōguns of the Minamoto clan some influence in, protection from, the Imperial Court. Members of the Saionji family began to be appointed Kantō Mōshitsugi, acting alongside the Rokuhara Tandai to manage communications and relations between the shogunate and the Court; this began the family's rise including posts as high as dajō-daijin. Since Kintsune's time, the family, with the support of the Kamakura shogunate, could exert influence over the Imperial regents, the Sesshō and Kampaku; the family made its formal residence in the Kitayama area of Kyoto. Thus the family came to be sometimes known as the Lords of Kitayama.
Saionji Sanekane joined the family to the Daikaku-ji line of the Imperial family, having become involved with the daughter of Emperor Go-Daigo or Emperor Kameyama and siring a son, Saionji Kinhira. Several decades in the time of Saionji Kinmune, the Kamakura shogunate came to an end, the Saionji were dismissed from their post as Kantō Mōshitsugi. Kinmune helped hide the persecuted Hōjō Yasuie and, in the wake of the death of Emperor Go-Daigo, helped plot to set Emperor Go-Fushimi on the throne, his schemes revealed by his younger brother Saionji Kinshige, Kinmune was executed. During the Nanboku-chō period which followed, in which the two Imperial lines jousted for power, Kinmune's son Saionji Sanetoshi served the Northern Court as Minister of the Right, restoring the prestige of the family's name. A Saionji family is known to have existed as producers of biwa. Saionji Saneharu was made Minister of the Left, gained influence and some financial support through connections to the Hosokawa and Nagaoka clans.
Towards the end of the Edo period, Saionji Kinmochi was adopted into the family from the related Tokudaiji branch of the Fujiwara clan. Kinmochi lived through the Meiji Restoration, becoming one of the genrō, or elder statesmen who were a part of the original Meiji government at its beginning, he subsequently held a number of Cabinet posts, becoming Prime Minister of Japan in 1906. As members of the kazoku, the Saionji maintained a considerable degree of prestige, continued to be close to the world of politics, through the end of World War II, when the kazoku were dissolved; the family continues today, Saionji remains now an uncommon Japanese surname. Saionji Michisue Saionji Kintsune Saionji Kinuji Saionji Sanekane Saionji Kinhira Saionji Reishi Saionji Kinmune Saionji Kinshige Saionji Sanetoshi Saionji Sanemitsu Saionji Kinhiro, daimyō Saionji Saneharu Saionji Kinmochi, statesman Saionji Saneuji This article is derived from the content of the corresponding article on the Japanese Wikipedia.
Sansom, George. A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Pp405-6ff. Sansom, George. A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press