Keelung known as Keelung City, is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders New Taipei with which it forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, along with Taipei itself. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain and maritime role, the city is Taiwan's second largest seaport. According to early Chinese accounts, this northern coastal area was called Pak-kang. By the early 20th century, the city was known to the Western world as Kelung, as well as the variants Kiloung and Keelung. In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa James W. Davidson related that "Kelung" was among the few well-known names, thus warranting no alternate Japanese romanization. However, the Taiwanese people have long called the city Kelang, it has been proposed that this name was derived from the local mountain that took the shape of a rooster cage. However, it is more probable that the name was derived from the first inhabitants of the region, as are the names of many other Taiwanese cities.
In this case, the Ketagalan people were the first inhabitants, early Han settlers approximated "Ketagalan" with Ke-lâng. In 1875, during the late Qing era, a new official name was given. In Mandarin the working language of Chinese government at the time, both the old and new names were pronounced Kīlóng. Under Japanese rule, the city was known to the west by the Japanese romanization Kīrun. In Taiwanese Hokkien, native language of the area, the city is called Ke-lâng. In Hanyu Pinyin, a system created for Mandarin Chinese in Mainland China, the name of Keelung is written as Jīlóng. Keelung was first inhabited by a tribe of Taiwanese aborigine; the Spanish expedition to Formosa in the early 17th century was its first contact with the West. The Spanish ruled it as a part of Spanish Formosa. From 1642 to 1661 and 1663–1668, Keelung was under Dutch control; the Dutch East India Company took over the Spanish Fort San Salvador at Santissima Trinidad. They renamed it Fort Noort-Hollant; the Dutch had three more minor fortifications in Keelung and a little school and a preacher.
When Ming Dynasty loyalist Koxinga attacked the Dutch in southern Taiwan, the crew of the Keelung forts fled to the Dutch trading post in Japan. The Dutch strengthened their earlier forts. However, trade with Qing China through Keelung was not what they hoped it would be and, in 1668, they left after getting harassed by aboriginals. Given the strategic and commercial value of Taiwan, there were British suggestions in 1840 and 1841 to seize the island. In September 1841, during the First Opium War, the British transport ship Nerbudda became shipwrecked near Keelung Harbour due to a typhoon; the brig Ann became shipwrecked in March 1842. Most of the crew were Indian lascars. Survivors from both ships were transferred by authorities to the capital Tainan; the Taiwan Qing commanders, Ta-hung-ah and Yao Ying, filed a disingenuous report to the emperor, claiming to have defended against an attack from the Keelung fort. In October 1841, HMS Nimrod sailed to Keelung to search for the Nerbudda survivors, but after Captain Joseph Pearse found out that they were sent south for imprisonment, he ordered the bombardment of the harbour and destroyed 27 sets of cannon before returning to Hong Kong.
Most of the survivors—over 130 from the Nerbudda and 54 from the Ann—were executed in Tainan in August 1842. In 1863, the Qing Empire opened up Keelung as a trading port and the city enjoyed rapid development due to the abundant commodities such as placer gold and high quality coal found in the drainage area of Keelung River. In 1875, Taipeh Prefecture was included Keelung. In 1878, Keelung was formed into a sub-prefecture. Around the same time, the name was changed from Ke-lang to Kilong, which means "rich and prosperous land". During the Sino-French War, the French attempted an invasion of Taiwan during the Keelung Campaign. Liu Mingchuan, who led the defence of Taiwan, recruited Aboriginals to serve alongside the Chinese soldiers in fighting against the French of Colonel Jacques Duchesne's Formosa Expeditionary Corps; the French were defeated at the Battle of Tamsui and the Qing forces pinned the French down at Keelung in an eight-month-long campaign before the French withdrew. A systematic city development started during the Japanese Era, after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, which handed all Taiwan over to Japan.
A five-phase construction of Keelung Harbor was initiated, in by 1916 trade volume had exceeded those of Tamsui and Kaohsiung Harbors to become one of the major commercial harbors of Taiwan. Keelung was governed as Kīrun Town, Kīrun District, Taihoku Prefecture in 1920 and was upgraded to a city in 1924; the Pacific War broke out in 1941, Keelung became one of the first targets of Allied bombers and was nearly destroyed as a result. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China in October 1945, Keelung was established as a provincial city of Taiwan Province; the Keelung City Government worked with the harbor bureau to rebuild the city and the harbor and in 1984, the harbor became the 7th larg
Dihan Avishka Gunawardene, Avishka Gunawardene is a former Sri Lankan cricketer, who played Tests and ODIs. He served as the Sri Lanka A coach for many years, in 2017, he was first appointed for the national team as the batting coach, he is an explosive left-handed opening batsman who first came into the public eye during the 1998 Commonwealth Games, when he scored a century and achieved the highest score in the South African defeat. His only ODI century was 132 against West Indies at Nairobi during the ICC KnockOut Trophy in 2000. In that match, he revived the Sri Lankan innings from a precarious 10/2 to 287/6 and handed the Lankans 108 runs victory, he did not succeed in the longer version of the game. He made his Test debut against Pakistan during the Asian Championship in 1999 with 43 which remains his highest individual score in his 6 Tests. Despite a few centuries, avoidable dismissals stopped Gunawardene from appearing for the team. Gunawardene's opportunity arose in the Asia Cup in 2004.
Gunawardene has been involved in Twenty20 cricket since 2004. A ban on him and four other Sri Lankans was lifted in September 2008, meaning Gunawardene was free to play domestic cricket in Sri Lanka. Avishka is the head cricket coach of Sinhalese Sports Club and was the coach for the winning SLPL 2012 team Uva Next, he serves as a director at Legacy Travels Ltd
SanDisk/Fusion-io's NVMFS file system known as Direct File System, accesses flash memory via a virtual flash storage layer instead of using the traditional block layer API. This file system has two main novel features. First, it lays out files directly in a large virtual storage address space. Second, it leverages the virtual flash storage layer to perform block allocations and atomic updates; as a result, NVMFS performs better and is much simpler than a traditional Unix file system with similar functionalities. Additionally, this approach avoids the log-on-log performance issues triggered by log-structured file systems. Microbenchmark results show that NVMFS can deliver 94,000 I/O operations per second for direct reads and 71,000 IOPS for direct writes with the virtualized flash storage layer on top of a first-generation Fusion-io ioDrive. For direct access performance, NVMFS is better than ext3 on the same platform, sometimes by 20%. For buffered access performance, NVMFS is consistently better than ext3, sometimes by over 149%.
Application benchmarks show that NVMFS outperforms ext3 by 7% to 250% while requiring less CPU power. Additionally, I/O latency is lower with NVMFS compared to ext3; the API used by NVMFS to access flash memory consists of: An address space, several orders of magnitude larger than the storage capacity of the flash memory. Read and trim/deallocate/discard primitives. Atomic writes; the layer that provides this API is called the virtualized flash storage layer in the DFS paper. It is the responsibility of this layer to perform block allocation, wear leveling, garbage collection, crash recovery, address translation and to make the address translation data structures persistent