Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. It reopened in 2006 after a three-year refurbishment and since has been one of Scotland's most popular visitor attractions; the museum has 22 galleries, housing a range of exhibits, including Renaissance art and artifacts from ancient Egypt. The gallery is located on Argyle Street, in the West End of the city, on the banks of the River Kelvin, it is adjacent to Kelvingrove Park and is situated near the main campus of the University of Glasgow on Gilmorehill. The construction of Kelvingrove was financed by the proceeds of the 1888 International Exhibition held in Kelvingrove Park; the gallery was designed by Sir John W. Simpson and E. J. Milner Allen and opened in 1901, as the Palace of Fine Arts for the Glasgow International Exhibition held in that year, it is built in a Spanish Baroque style, follows the Glaswegian tradition of using Locharbriggs red sandstone, includes an entire program of architectural sculpture by George Frampton, William Shirreffs, Francis Derwent Wood and other sculptors.

The centrepiece of the Centre Hall is a concert pipe organ installed by Lewis & Co.. The organ was commissioned as part of the Glasgow International Exhibition, held in Kelvingrove Park in 1901; the organ was installed in the concert hall of the exhibition, capable of seating 3,000 people. The Centre Hall of the newly completed Art Gallery and Museum was intended from the beginning to be a space in which to hold concerts; when the 1901 exhibition ended, a Councillor urged the Glasgow Corporation to purchase the organ, stating that without it, "the art gallery would be a body without a soul". Purchase price and installation costs were met from the surplus exhibition proceeds, the organ was installed in the Centre Hall by Lewis and Co; the present case front in walnut with non-functional display pipes was commissioned at this time from John W. Simpson. Simpson was the senior partner of architects of the gallery building. There is an urban myth in Glasgow that the building was accidentally built back-to-front, the architect jumped from one of the towers in despair upon realising his mistake.

In reality, the grand entrance was always intended to face into Kelvingrove Park. Kelvingrove was reopened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 11 July 2006 after a three-year closure for major refurbishment and restoration; the work cost around £28 million and included a new restaurant and a large basement extension to its display space to accommodate the 8,000 exhibits now on display. A new layout and wayfinding scheme was introduced to make the building more visitor-friendly, designed and executed by London-based museum design company, Event Communications. After its 2003–06 refurbishment, the museum was the most popular free-to-enter visitor attraction in Scotland, recording 2.23 million visitors in 2007. These numbers made it the most visited museum in the United Kingdom outside London that year; the museum's collections came from the McLellan Galleries and from the old Kelvingrove House Museum in Kelvingrove Park. It has one of the finest collections of arms and armour in the world and a vast natural history collection.

The art collection includes many outstanding European artworks, including works by the Old Masters, French Impressionists, Dutch Renaissance, Scottish Colourists and exponents of the Glasgow School. The museum houses Christ of Saint John of the Cross by Salvador Dalí; the copyright of this painting was bought by the curator at the time after a meeting with Dalí himself. For a period between 1993 and 2006, the painting was moved to the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art; the museum contains a large gift of the decorative arts from Anne Hull Grundy, an art collector and philanthropist, covering the history of European jewellery in the 18th and 19th centuries. Museum website

Palma de Mallorca

Palma known as Palma de Mallorca, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain. It is situated on the south coast of Mallorca on the Bay of Palma; the Cabrera Archipelago, though separated from Palma proper, is administratively considered part of the municipality. As of 2018, Palma Airport serves over 29 million passengers per year. Palma was founded as a Roman camp upon the remains of a Talaiotic settlement; the city was subjected to several Vandal raids during the fall of the Western Roman Empire reconquered by the Byzantine Empire colonised by the Moors and, in the 13th century, by James I of Aragon. After the conquest of Mallorca, the city was loosely incorporated into the province of Tarraconensis by 123 BC. Whilst Pollentia acted as a port to Roman cities on the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, Palma was the port used for destinations in Africa, such as Carthage, Hispania, such as Saguntum and Carthago Nova. Though present-day Palma has no significant remains from this period, occasional archaeological finds are made in city centre excavations.

For example, the remains of the Roman Wall can be seen at Can Bordils, the Municipal Archive, below it, at the Maimó ben Faraig Center. Though the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Muslim conquest is not well understood, there is clear evidence of a Byzantine presence in the city, as indicated by mosaics found in the oldest parts of the Cathedral, in early medieval times part of a paleo-Christian temple. Between 902 and 1229, the city was under Islamic control, it remained the capital of the island and it was known as Medina Mayurqa, which in Arabic means "City of Majorca". The arrival of the Moors in the Balearic Islands occurred at the beginning of the 8th century. During this period, the population developed an economy based on self-sufficiency and piracy, showed evidence of a relative hierarchy; the dominant groups took advantage of the Byzantine withdrawal due to Islamic expansion across the Mediterranean, to reinforce their domination upon the rest of the population, thus ensuring their power and the gradual abandonment of Imperial political structures.

In 707, a Muslim fleet, under the command of Abd Allgaht ibn Musa, son of the governor of Ifriqiya, Musa ibn Nusayr, stopped off at the island. It appears; this treaty was granted in exchange for a tax, respect for social and political structures to the communities that subscribed to it, as well as the continuity of their religious beliefs. After 707, the city was inhabited by Christians who were nominally in allegiance to the sovereignty of the Umayyad Caliphate, yet who, de facto, enjoyed absolute autonomy; the city, being in Mallorca, constituted an enclave between western Christian and Islamic territories, this attracted and encouraged increased levels of piracy in the surrounding waters. For wide sectors of the city's population, the sacking of ships which passed through Balearic waters was a source of riches over the next fifteen decades. Continued piracy in the region lead to a retaliation by Al-Andalus which launched a naval fleet against the city and the whole of the Islands; the Islands were defended by the emperor Charlemagne in 799 from a Muslim pirate incursion.

In 848, four years after the first Viking incursions had sacked the whole island, an attack from Córdoba forced the authorities to ratify the treaty to which the city had submitted in 707. As the city still occupied an eccentric position regarding the commerce network established by the Moors in the western Mediterranean, the enclave was not incorporated into Al-Andalus. While the Emirate of Córdoba reinforced its influence upon the Mediterranean, Al-Andalus increased its interest in the city; the consequence of this was the substitution of the submission treaty for the effective incorporation of the islands to the Islamic state. A squad under the command of Isam al-Jawlani took advantage of instability caused by several Viking incursions and disembarked in Mallorca, after destroying any resistance, incorporated Mallorca, with Palma as its capital, to the Córdoban state; the incorporation of the city into the Emirate set the basis for a new society. Commerce and manufacturing developed in a manner, unknown.

This caused considerable demographic growth, thereby establishing Medina Mayurqa as one of the major ports for trading goods in and out of the Emirate of Córdoba. The Umayyad regime, despite its administrative centralisation, mercenary army and struggle to gain wider social support, could neither harmonise the various ethnic groups inside al-Andalus nor dissolve the old tribes which still organised sporadic ethnic fighting. During the 11th century, the Caliphate's control waned considerably. Provinces broke free from the central Cordoban administration, became sovereign states — taifas — under the same governors, named by the last Umayyad Caliphs. According to their origin, these "taifas" can be grouped under three broad categories: people of Arab, Berber or Slavic origin. Palma was part of the taifa of Dénia; the founder of this state was a client of the Al-Mansur family, Muyahid ibn Yusuf ibn Ali, who could profit from the progressive crumbling of the Caliphate's superstructure to gain control over the province of Dénia.

Subsequently, Muyahid organised a campaign throughout the Balearic Islands to consolidate the district and incorporated


Traxcavator was a namebrand of the Trackson Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The word "Traxcavator" came from combining "tractor" and "excavator". Trackson commenced business in Milwaukee in 1922 and built tracked attachments for Fordson tractors - built tracked attachments for other tractor manufacturers; the early Trackson tracked attachments were popular on tractors used for road grader power units, as well as for tractors used in poor ground conditions. The Trackson company was owned by Armand Lamfrom Froehlich, the chief engineer was Walter Stiemke. Sometime in the early 1930s, Walter Stiemke recognized the potential of combining the Trackson track system with the Lessman Manufacturing Company lifting mechanism, for digging or excavating. Stiemke convinced the owner of Trackson, Armand Lamfrom Froehlich, to buy the Lessman Manufacturing Co to pursue a marriage of the two systems - for the machine sales opportunity, as well as the earthmoving work - that Stiemke felt was possible by combining the two systems.

Trackson designed a cable lift shovel for a tractor built by Caterpillar Inc.. In 1937, Caterpillar announced the "Trackson Shovel option" for the Caterpillar Thirty. By 1938, Trackson had produced a revised cable shovel model, known as the T4, fitted to the Caterpillar D4 tractor. Within a few years, there were 4 Trackson cable loaders or shovels available, all based on Caterpillar crawlers; the T2 Trackson cable shovel was fitted to the Caterpillar D2 - the T4 to the Cat D4 - the T6 to the Cat D6 - and the T7, fitted to the Cat D7. The crawler tractors were modified for Trackson shovel use by being fitted with longer trackframes, to assist with stability when the bucket was being carried at a height. Sometime in the mid-1940s, the name "Traxcavator" was coined by the Trackson company for their cable shovel machines. Trackson, in the 1940s built pipelayers on Caterpillar tractors and other attachments such as truck mounted cranes and shovels. In 1948, collaboration between Caterpillar engineers and Trackson engineer saw the development of the HT4 Trackson hydraulic shovel.

This was an all-new hydraulic shovel-loader design, integrated with the current model D4 tractor. The HT4 sold alongside the cable Traxacavators, until 1952, when the cable Traxcavator line ceased production. In December 1951 the Caterpillar Company purchased the Trackson Company, the cable Traxcavators and the HT4, became Caterpillar Traxcavators. In late 1952, the all-new No.6 Caterpillar Shovel was announced by Caterpillar, cable Traxcavator production ceased. The Caterpillar HT4 and No.6 Shovel were the only hydraulic Traxcavators available from Caterpillar until the all-new 933, 955 and 977 made their appearance in early 1955. The name "Traxcavator" was a registered Caterpillar brand name for many years, but has developed into common usage to describe any tracked shovel/loader. Bulldozer Crawler tractor Excavator Caterpillar Chronicle, by Eric. C. Orelmann, pub by MBI, page 65, ISBN 0-7603-0667-2