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Kenan Evren

Ahmet Kenan Evren was a Turkish politician and military officer, who served as the seventh President of Turkey from 1980 to 1989. He assumed the post by leading the 1980 military coup. On 18 June 2014, a Turkish court sentenced him to life imprisonment and demotion of his military rank down to private, from army general, for leading the military coup in 1980, obstructing democracy by deposing the prime minister Süleyman Demirel, abolishing the parliament and the senate and abolishing the constitution; this sentence was on appeal at the time of his death. Evren died at a military hospital in Ankara on 9 May 2015, aged 97. Kenan Evren was born in Manisa Province. Evren was of Albanian descent on his father's side that originated from Preševo, while his mother was from a Bulgarian Turkish background. After going to elementary school and middle school in Manisa, Balıkesir and Istanbul, he attended military high school in Maltepe, Ankara. In 1938, he graduated in 1949 from military academy as a staff officer.

From 1958 to 1959, he served in the Turkish Brigade in Korea. In 1964, he was promoted to general. Evren served at various posts as Army Chief, he was the commander of Operation Gladio's Turkish branch. The Counter-Guerrilla was an anti-communist "stay-behind" guerrilla force set up with the support of NATO, he became Chief of General Staff in March 1978. The years leading to the coup were characterized as a fierce struggle between the rightists and leftists. Hoping to see a communist revolution, the left wingers rioted in the streets. Universities had taken sides and each became headquarters for either the leftists or rightists. With the coup came the National Security Council as the ruling body; the council of 1980 was composed of the commanders Kenan Evren, the Chief of Staff and President of the State. The parliament was dissolved; the Central Intelligence Agency's Ankara bureau chief at the time, Paul B. Henze, received a call from the White House Situation Room saying "Paul, your guys have done it", while President Jimmy Carter was watching Fiddler on the Roof at the Kennedy Center.

After the coup, Kenan Evren was elected as President of Turkey on 7 November 1982 with the 90% approval of the new constitution, submitted to a controversial referendum, replacing the older constitution which, according to him, had liberties too "luxurious" for Turkey. Evren suspended many forms of civil liberties and human rights on the grounds that it was necessary to establish stability, he professed great admiration for the founder of the Republic of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. During his military regime, many people were tortured and executed due to their political beliefs. Evren took strong measures to ensure that the division between the political left and right would not turn into violence again. According to a report on the Susurluk scandal of 1996, prepared by Prime Ministry Inspection Board deputy chairman Kutlu Savaş, quoted by the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, "Fascists had been released from prison in return for'finishing some jobs' under Evren's rule after 12 September 1980".

Responding to a journalist's question regarding the execution of 17-year-old Erdal Eren, he responded "Should we feed him rather than hang him?" After his retirement, he moved to the Turkish Mediterranean resort town of Armutalan and took up painting. On 2 August 2006, a reported plan for assassinating Evren was thwarted when two men were apprehended and arrested in Muğla. A previous attempt in 1996 had been tracked down when two members of the assassination team spoke on a cellphone eavesdropped by the police, the Islamic call to prayer could be heard during their conversation. Since the timing of the adhan was 4–5 minutes after Istanbul, a point more to the west by that time margin was sought and the team members were caught in Marmaris itself. In 2004, he revealed that his daughter, Şenay Gürvit, son-in-law, Erkan Gürvit, are members of the National Intelligence Organization, his daughter presided over the reprisal operations against the militant Armenian organization ASALA. After Bülent Ecevit's death, he expressed remorse over the arrest of political leaders after the 1980 coup, but defended the coup itself and the 35 executions.

Civilian resentment exists, there were demands for his being called to account following the Ergenekon investigation. On 10 January 2012, Turkish courts decided to press charges against General Kenan Evren and General Tahsin Şahinkaya, former Commander of the Turkish Air Force, for their role in the 1980 coup. Prosecutors sought life sentences against them; the first court hearing of the case was scheduled for 4 April 2012. Both were sentenced to life imprisonment on 18 June 2014 by a court in Ankara. In accordance with Article 30 of the Military Penal Code, Evren and Şahinkaya were demoted to the lowest rank of private. Evren married Sekine Evren in 1944 and they had three daughters, Şenay, Gülay and Miray. Sekine died in 1982. Evren was hospitalized for massive gastrointestinal bleeding on 3 August 2009, in Yalıkavak, where his summer house is located. A temporary artificial pacemaker was applied to Evren while in intensive care due to bradycardia, his large intestine was removed a week at GATA in Istanbul where he was transferred.

He was discharged on 24 September 2009. Evren died at a military hospital in Ankara on 9 May 2015, aged 97. On 12 May, he was

David Brainerd

David Brainerd was an American missionary to the Native Americans who had a fruitful ministry among the Delaware Indians of New Jersey. During his short life he was beset by many difficulties; as a result, his biography has become a source of encouragement to many Christians. Missionaries such as William Carey and Jim Elliot, Brainerd's cousin, the Second Great Awakening evangelist James Brainerd Taylor have been motivated by the ministry of David Brainerd. David Brainerd was born on April 20, 1718 in Haddam, the son of Hezekiah, a Connecticut legislator, Dorothy, he had nine siblings. He was orphaned at the age of fourteen, as his father died in 1727 at the age of forty-six and his mother died five years later. After his mother's death, Brainerd moved to East Haddam to live with one of his older sisters, Jerusha. At the age of nineteen, he inherited a farm near Durham, but did not enjoy the experience of farming and so returned to East Haddam a year to prepare to enter Yale. On 12 July 1739, he recorded having an experience of'unspeakable glory' that prompted in him a'hearty desire to exalt, to set him on the throne and to "seek first his Kingdom"'.

This has been interpreted by evangelical scholars as a conversion experience. Two months he enrolled at Yale. In his second year at Yale, he was sent home because he was suffering from a serious illness that caused him to spit blood, it is now believed that he was suffering from tuberculosis, the disease which would lead to his death seven years later. When he returned in November 1740, tensions were beginning to emerge at Yale between the faculty staff and the students as the staff considered the spiritual enthusiasm of the students, prompted by visiting preachers such as George Whitefield, Gilbert Tennent, Ebenezer Pemberton and James Davenport, to be excessive; this led to the college trustees passing a decree in 1741 that'if any student of this College shall directly or indirectly say, that the Rector, either of the Trustees or tutors are hypocrites, carnal or unconverted men, he shall for the first offense make a public confession in the hall, for the second offense be expelled'. On the afternoon of the same day, the faculty had invited Jonathan Edwards to preach the commencement address, hoping that he would support their position, but instead he sided with the students.

In the next term, Brainerd was expelled because it was said that he commented that one of his tutors, Chauncey Whittelsey,'has no more grace than a chair' and that he wondered why the Rector'did not drop down dead' for fining students perceived as over-zealous. He apologized for the first comment, but denied making the second; this episode grieved Brainerd as a recent law forbade the appointment of ministers in Connecticut unless they had graduated from Harvard, Yale or a European institution, meaning that he had to reconsider his plans. In 1742, Brainerd was licensed to preach by a group of evangelicals known as'New Lights'; as a result, he gained the attention of Jonathan Dickinson, the leading Presbyterian in New Jersey, who unsuccessfully attempted to reinstate Brainerd at Yale. Instead, it was therefore suggested that Brainerd devote himself to missionary work among the Native Americans, supported by the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, he was approved for this missionary work on 25 November 1742.

On 1 April 1743, after a brief period serving a church on Long Island, Brainerd began working as a missionary to Native Americans, which he would continue until late 1746 when worsening illness prevented him from working. In his final years, he suffered from a form of depression, sometimes immobilizing and which, on at least twenty-two occasions, led him to wish for death, he was affected by difficulties faced by other missionaries of the period, such as loneliness and lack of food. His first missionary task was working at Kaunameek, a Housatonic Indian settlement near present-day Nassau, New York, twenty or thirty miles from missionary John Sergeant, working in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Brainerd remained there for one year. During this period he started a school for Native American children and began a translation of the Psalms. Subsequently, he was reassigned to work among the Delaware Indians along the Delaware River northeast of Bethlehem, where he remained for another year, during which he was ordained by the Newark Presbytery.

After this, he moved to Crossweeksung in New Jersey. Within a year, the Indian church at Crossweeksung had 130 members, who moved in 1746 to Cranbury where they established a Christian community. In these years, he refused several offers of leaving the mission field to become a church minister, including one from the church at East Hampton on Long Island, he remained determined, however, to continue the work among Native Americans despite the difficulties, writing in his diary:' could have no freedom in the thought of any other circumstances or business in life: All my desire was the conversion of the heathen, all my hope was in God: God does not suffer me to please or comfort myself with hopes of seeing friends, returning to my dear acquaintance, enjoying worldly comforts'. In November 1746, he became too ill to continue ministering, so moved to Jonathan Dickinson's house in Elizabethtown. After a few months of rest, he travelled to Northampton, where he stayed at the house of Jonathan Edwards.

Apart from a trip to Boston in the summer of that year, he remained at Edwards's house until his death the following year. In May 1747, he was diagnosed with incurable consumption.

Miss Minnesota USA

The Miss Minnesota USA competition is the pageant that selects the representative for the state of Minnesota in the Miss USA pageant. It is directed by Future Productions based in Savage, Minnesota since its inception in 1995, which directs the state pageants for Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. Barbara Elaine Peterson was the first Miss Minnesota USA to be crowned Miss USA, was the first Miss USA to not place in the Miss Universe pageant, her sister, Polly Peterson Bowles, was Miss Minnesota USA 1981. In 2016, Halima Aden became the first contestant to compete wearing a burkini, the first to wear a hijab the entire time. In 2017, Mikayla Holmgren was the first woman with Down syndrome to compete in a statewide Miss USA pageant. Taylor Fondie of Ham Lake was crowned Miss Minnesota USA 2020 on December 1, 2019 at Ames Center in Burnsville, she will represent Minnesota for the title of Miss USA 2020. Miss USA: Barbara Peterson 2nd runners-up: Deborah Cossette, Meridith Gould 3rd runner-up: Lanore Van Buren 4th runners-up: Kari Lee Johnson Top 6: Angelique de Maison Top 10/12: Jodell Stirmlinger, Carla Reid Peterson, Jolene Stavrakis Top 15/19/20: Mary Ann Papke, Dawn Joyce, Kaylee Unverzagt, Erica Nego, Haley O'Brien, Cat Stanley Minnesota holds a record of 15 placements at Miss USA.

Miss Congeniality: Elizabeth Jane Carroll, Janet Tveita, Dottie Cannon Miss Photogenic: Paige Swenson, Sarah Cahill Color key 1 Age at the time of the Miss USA pageant 2 Contestant resigned title before the Miss USA pageant Official website Miss Minnesota-USA 2009 Official Website

Alfa Romeo 182

The Alfa Romeo 182 is a Formula One car, used by the Alfa Romeo team during the 1982 Formula One season. The car made its debut at the 1982 Brazilian Grand Prix. In the third race of the season at Long Beach, Andrea de Cesaris achieved pole position at an average speed of 141.331 km/h. The best race was at Monaco. Alfa Romeo used three different models throughout 1982: the 179D, the 182 and the 182B; the Alfa Romeo V12 produced about 540 hp at 12000 rpm. The 182B variant was tested for the first time at the 1982 Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder. At the Italian Grand Prix, a turbo variant of this car, designated 182T, which carried a V8 turbo engine was tested by Andrea de Cesaris, it was not used in the race though. This version was derived from the 182D version; the 182T was converted to one of five 183Ts next year

Neutral Socialist Conferences during the First World War

During the First World War there were three conferences of the Socialist parties of the non-belligerent countries. The first joint meeting of any of the socialist parties after the out break of the war was held by representatives of the Swiss Social Democratic Party and the Italian Socialist Party at Lugano on September 27, 1914. Attendees included Giacinto Menotti Serrati, Angelica Balabanoff, Oddino Morgari, Constantino Lazzari, Filippo Turati, Elia Musatti, Giuseppe Modigliani, Dominico Armuzzi, Giuseppe de Falco, Celestino Ratti for the Italians and Josef Albisser, Mario Ferri, Hermann Greulich, Paul Pfluger, Anton Rimathe, Hans Schenkel, Robert Grimm and Charles Naine for the Swiss Party; the resolution adopted by the conference declared that the war was caused by "the imperialist policy of the Great Powers", the competition for markets, the attempt to suppress the proletariat and Social democracy. It claimed that the Central Powers could not claim this as a fight against Czarism to protect high culture, as they suppressed it in their own lands, that the Entente could not claim to be fighting for self-determination, as the war was not being fought to free the nations from "capitalist oppression" and their Alliance with Russia only increased oppression and hindered the growth of high culture.

The resolution further stated that the capitalists had stirred parts of the working class into a chauvinist frenzy and made portions of it believe it was fighting for a noble cause. The conference called on the parties of the neutral countries to demand that their states stay out of the war, that the war should be brought to a speedy end by diplomatic negotiations. A joint meeting of the socialist parties of the Scandinavian countries was held on October 11 at Stockholm. Hjalmar Branting, Fredrik Ström and Herman Lindquist represented the Swedish Social Democratic Party, Jacob Vidnes, Magnus Nilssen and Ole Lian represented the Labour Party and Frederick Borgbjerg, Thorvald Stauning and Carl Madsen for the Danish Social Democrats. Pieter Jelles Troelstra of the Social Democratic Workers' Party attended. Among the topics discussed was a proposed by the Dutch that the headquarters of the International Socialist Bureau be moved from occupied Brussels to Amsterdam and its affairs be put in charge of the Dutch party.

It was decided that a conference of all the parties affiliated to the ISB should be called to decide on the issue. The French rebuffed this offer, it was soon decided to call a conference just of the parties of neutral countries; some time between October 11 and November 1914, the headquarters of the ISB were moved to the Hague and three Dutch members were added to the Executive Committee with the consent of its Secretary, Camille Huysmans, all the other affiliated parties, with the exception of the French. Meanwhile, attempts to line up delegations from other neutral countries were not successful; the proposed program of the conference, which excluded discussion of the causes of the war and the standpoints of the belligerents alienated the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, who declined to attend. The Swiss party was more intent on a conference along the lines of the Lugano resolution, by December 19 they had decided not to attend; when Hilquit learned that the scope of the conference had narrowed down to four countries in a "localized" region of Europe, he felt the US would be out of place there and decided not to attend.

The Italian Modigliani did not attend "rather from accident than for any other reason", according to Angelica Balabanov. When the conference did assemble on January 17–18, 1915, it consisted of sixteen delegates, four from the Netherlands and four each from the Scandinavian countries; the representatives of the Jewish Bund and the editor of Het Volk, the central Dutch organ were admitted as guests. Greetings or declarations were received by the conference from the French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Swiss Social Democratic Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Independent Labour Party, the Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, the Organization Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, the Nasha Zarya group, Camille Huysmans, several Swedish trade unions and Bund; the conferences main resolution was drafted by a commission of Stauning, Troelsta and Branting. It blamed capitalism "in its imperialist form", growth of armaments, secret diplomacy and expansionism as the cause of the war.

Recalling the resolution passed at the 1910 Copenhagen Congress, it called on socialist parliamentarians to struggle for the introduction compulsory arbitration courts for international disputes. It further suggested that socialist parties should elaborate peace terms that would not be the basis for a future war, called for a full meeting of the International Socialist Bureau "as soon as is deemed convient", a full congress of the international at the time of the peace negotiations, they reminded the workers that the world war was only possible because the capitalists were in control of the governments and "consequently, the conference urges the laboring class to make every effort to seize political power in order that imperialism may be crushed and international Social Democracy may accomplish its mission of emancipating the p

1940 Victorian state election

The 1940 Victorian state election was held in the Australian state of Victoria on Saturday 16 March 1940 to elect 44 of the 65 members of the state's Legislative Assembly. Several events had taken place since the previous state election on 2 October 1937, which had changed the breakdown of the parties in the Assembly: In November 1937, Ian Macfarlan left the United Australia Party and sat as an Independent. Macfarlan gave two reasons for his resignation from the UAP: that the party was sitting in opposition to the Dunstan Country government which he praised. Frederick Holden left the UAP and sat on the cross benches; this reduced the UAP's numbers from 21 to 19. Ernie Bond had been expelled from the Labor Party over his support for the "Premiers' Plan" in 1932, had won several elections as an independent, he was re-admitted to the ALP in on 16 April 1938. This increased the ALP's numbers from 20 to 21. On 5 November 1938, the United Country Party won a by-election in the seat of Gippsland North, after the death of the sitting member James Weir McLachlan, an independent.

This reduced the number of Independents to 3, increased the numbers for the UCP from 20 to 21. In August 1939, Alfred Kirton resigned from the UAP and sat as an independent, before joining the United Country Party on 29 August 1939; this reduced the UAP from 19 seats to 18, increased the UCP seats from 21 to 22. In 1939 Frederick Cook moved from being an Independent to joining the Liberal Country Party, a breakaway group from the Country Party who supported the federal party's participation in a Coalition government. Candidates of the Victorian state election, 1940 1940 Victorian Legislative Council election