Sacred Wonders of Britain
Sacred Wonders of Britain is a British factual television series, first broadcast on BBC Two on 30 December 2013. The three-part series was presented by Neil Oliver. Computer-generated imagery was produced by Carbon Digital at MediaCityUK for the series, including the title sequence. According to overnight figures, the first episode had 2.36 million viewers with 9.79% of the audience share. The second and third episodes had audience shares of 7.3%. Lucy Mangan of The Guardian said the programme was "equally unafraid to be informative and meditative, which made it rather wonderful"; the Daily Mirror called it a "towering spectacle of non-information" and was unconvinced by the series. Sacred Wonders of Britain at BBC Programmes Sacred Wonders of Britain on IMDb "Sacred Wonders of Britain", Radio Times
Old Square, Birmingham
Old Square is a public square and road junction in the Core area of Birmingham City Centre, England. The site of the square was occupied the Priory of St Thomas of Canterbury, with The Minories, Upper Priory and Lower Priory being the original entrance roads to the hospital; the land is believed to have once been the highest point in Birmingham city centre leading to the construction of the priory. In 1536, the Priory was dissolved and the structures on site were demolished in 1547; the site remained as ruins for 150 years until it was purchased by John Pemberton in 1697. He further levelled the land for construction work to create his Priory estate; the square dates from 1713 when it was recorded as having 16 uniform two-storied houses with five-bayed fronts having angle pilasters, pedimented doorways, dormer windows. It was created as the centrepiece to John Pemberton's Priory Estate, it was designed by William Westley who produced a print of the square's layout in 1732. From old conveyances, it is recorded that 20s.
Per yard frontage was paid for the site of some of the houses in the square and up to 40s. In Bull Street. To 2s. Per yard. One of the corner houses called "the Angle House", was popular in that it was sold in 1791 for £420, increasing to £970 in 1805. In 1843 the price increased £1,330 and in 1853, £2,515; the centre of the square itself was closed off with iron railings with several pedestrian paths. Over time it became neglected and in 1832 it was the scene of a public demonstration; the stones there were used as missiles by the crowd during the parliamentary elections of that year. The trees and railings were removed during 1836 and 1837 as a result of many accidents occurring there due to the roadways being narrow and dangerous. Following this, the Birmingham Street Commissioners widened the roads; the square was to suffer a major demolition programme in 1882 to make way for the construction of Corporation Street. Buildings that were constructed as a result were of grand architecture, one of, the Grand Theatre to the south of the square.
Lewis's Department store was constructed at the western end to replace Berlin House and to build over the Minories in 1885 following personal persuasion from Joseph Chamberlain. During the Victorian era, the square became a tram junction for trams running along Corporation Street and those coming from Upper Priory. During World War II, a hole was dug next to Lewis's Department Store and above it, a bomb shelter was built; the shelter did not suffer any damage however nearby areas along Corporation Street did suffer direct hits. The square was to become subject to more development during the post-war years when the land leases given to the builders of Corporation Street during the 1880s expired; this resulted in the demolition of many Victorian buildings. As one major part of the development of Old Square, Lower Priory to the south was converted into the Priory Queensway, which required the road to be widened and elevated. To do this, the Grand Theatre was demolished and an underground car park was constructed beneath.
The Priory Queensway made it possible for the construction of Priory Square by Sir Frederick Gibberd in the southwestern corner of the square. In the southeast, another development to compliment the new shopping centre was constructed. Pedestrians were relegated to subterranean subways, although these converged in an uncovered area, but below road level. In the early 2000s, Old Square was redeveloped, to raise pedestrian routes through the square to the surface; as part of the development, the Priory Queensway was reconstructed as a sloping road following the gradient of the Birmingham city ridge as a result of the demolition of Masshouse Circus. In 2006, refurbishment work on Cannon House to the northeast of the square commenced to convert it into Grade A office space; the development by Nurton Developments, who acquired the building in June 2004 transformed the exterior. Proposed future work to the square includes the redevelopment of Priory Square to create Martineau Galleries by the Birmingham Alliance.
In the centre of Old Square is a memorial dedicated to Tony Hancock, born in the Hall Green area of the city. The memorial, by Bruce Williams, was unveiled by Sir Harry Secombe on 13 May 1996; the memorial was intended to be placed on New Street but a temporary site on the Corporation Street edge of the square was found. The statue was relocated to the centre of Old Square. An earlier public sculpture in Old Square is a mural named Old Square sculpted by Kenneth Budd in 1967; the mural was commissioned by the Public Works Department of Birmingham City Council and was paid for from the Capital Account. It was unveiled on 21 April 1967 by Alderman C. V. Simpson, chairman of the Public Works Department; the mural depicts the history of Old Square from the priory onwards. Online Planning Application - Number C/07564/05/OUT, Birmingham Alliance. Submitted 06/12/2005 to Birmingham City Council for Martineau Galleries. Victor Skipp; the History of Greater Birmingham - down to 1830. Yardley, Birmingham: V. H. T. Skipp.
ISBN 0-9506998-0-2. Walter Showell. Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham - A History And Guide Arranged Alphabetically. New Street, Birmingham: Cornish Brothers. Memorials of the Old Square, Birmingham, 1897 Tony Hancock memorial British History Online Maps:'Warwickshire: 014/05', Ordnance Survey 1:2,500: Epoch 1 Secular Architecture in Birmingham Nurton Developments: Priory and Cannon House Howlers: Filling in Old Square Grand Theatre
Guy's Hospital is an NHS hospital in the borough of Southwark in central London. It is part of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and one of the institutions that comprise the King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre, it is a large teaching hospital and is, with St Thomas' Hospital and King's College Hospital, the location of King's College London GKT School of Medical Education. The Tower Wing is the world's second tallest hospital building, standing at 148.65 metres with 34 floors. It is one of the tallest buildings in London; the hospital dates from 1721, when it was founded by philanthropist Thomas Guy, who had made a fortune from the South Sea Bubble and as a publisher of unlicensed Bibles. It was established as a hospital to treat "incurables" discharged from St Thomas' Hospital. Guy had been a Governor and benefactor of St Thomas' and his fellow Governors supported his intention by granting the south-side of St Thomas' Street for a peppercorn rent for 999 years.
Following his death in 1724, Thomas Guy was entombed at the hospital's chapel, in a tomb featuring a marble sculpture by John Bacon. The original buildings formed a courtyard facing St Thomas Street, comprising the hall on the east side and the Chapel, Matron's House and Surgeon's House on the west-side. A bequest of £180,000 by William Hunt in 1829, one of the largest charitable bequests in England in historic terms, allowed for a further hundred beds to be accommodated. Hunt's name was given to the southern expansion of the hospital buildings which took place in 1850. Two inner quadrangles were divided by a cloister, restyled and dedicated to the hospital's members who fell in the First World War; the east side comprised the care wards and the'counting house' with the governors'Burfoot Court Room'. The north-side quadrangle is dominated by a statue of Lord Nuffield, the chairman of governors for many years and a major benefactor. In 1974, the hospital added the 34-storey Guy's Tower and 29-storey Guy's House: this complex was designed by Watkins Gray.
The Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, dedicated to improving outcomes of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, was opened by the Princess Royal in December 2004. In October 2005 children's departments moved to the Evelina London Children's Hospital in the grounds next to St Thomas's close to the Palace of Westminster. A new cancer centre, built by Laing O'Rourke at a cost of £160 million, was completed in April 2016. Medical services at the Guy's site are now concentrated in the buildings to the east of Great Maze Pond: these buildings, which are connected, are known as Tower Wing, Bermondsey Wing, Southwark Wing and Borough Wing; the Cancer Centre is in a separate building just to the south. To the west of the Great Maze Pond is Guy's Campus. At 148.65 metres high, Guy's Tower regained its tallest hospital building in the world status in 2014. It has since been surpassed by the Outpatient Center at the Houston Methodist Hospital, in Houston, USA at 156.05 metres.
Healthcare in London List of hospitals in England King's Health Partners Francis Crick Institute Tall buildings in London Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust Guy's and St Thomas' Charity Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases Lists of Guy's Hospital students
Lullingstone Roman Villa
Lullingstone Roman Villa is a villa built during the Roman occupation of Britain, situated near the village of Eynsford in Kent, south eastern England. Constructed in the 1st century around A. D. 80-90, the house was expanded and occupied until it was destroyed by fire in the 5th century. The occupants were native Britons who had adopted Roman customs; some evidence found on site suggests that about A. D. 150, the villa was enlarged and may have been used as the country retreat of the governors of the Roman province of Britannia. Two sculpted marble busts found in the cellar may be those of Pertinax, governor in 185-186, his father-in-law, Publius Helvius Successus. In the 4th century a room already in religious use, was converted to a Christian chapel or house church, much the earliest known in the British Isles. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the ruins of a Roman temple-mausoleum on the site of the villa were incorporated into a Christian chapel, extant at the time of the Norman Conquest, one of the earliest known chapels in the country.
The villa is located in the Darent Valley, along with six others, including those at Crofton and Dartford. The earliest stage of the villa was built around 82 AD, it was situated in an area near to several other villas, was close to Watling Street, a Roman road by which travellers could move to and from Londinium to Durobrivae, Durovernum Cantiacorum, the major Roman port of Rutupiæ. Around AD 150 the villa was expanded and a heated bath block with hypocaust was added. Two marble busts from the 2nd century found in the cellar depict the owners or residents of the villa, which may have been the designated country retreat of the provincial governors. There is some evidence that the busts are those of Pertinax, governor of Britannia in 185-186, his father. In the 3rd century, a larger furnace for the hypocaust as well as an expanded bath block were added, as were a temple-mausoleum and a large granary. In the 4th century, the dining room was equipped with a fine mosaic floor with one illustration of Zeus, disguised as a bull, abducting Europa and a second depicting Bellerophon killing the Chimera.
Sometime early in the 5th century a fire destroyed the building, it was abandoned and forgotten until its excavation in the 20th Century. The first discovery of the site was made in 1750, when workers fencing a deer park dug post holes through a mosaic floor, but no systematic excavations were done until the 20th century. In 1939, a blown-down tree revealed scattered mosaic fragments; the villa was excavated in the period 1949–61 by archaeologists, the ruins themselves were preserved under a specially-designed cover in the 1960s, when the villa was taken over by English Heritage, who opened the ruins to the public. The building began to leak late in the 20th century and required a major £1.8m renovation and redisplay project in 2006-08 to make it safe to display fragile objects from the site in it. The dining room, or triclinium, was situated in the centre of the main building, was decorated with a pair of large mosaics on the floor dating to the mid-4th century. One depicts the abduction of the princess Europa by the god Jupiter, disguised as a bull, whilst the other depicts Bellerophon slaying the Chimera, whilst surrounded by four sea creatures.
Surrounding these mosaics were smaller images depicting hearts and swastikas. One room of the building had been used as both a pagan shrine, as a Christian chapel, one of the earliest in Britain; the original pagan shrine room was dedicated to local water deities, a wall painting depicting three water nymphs dating from this period can still be seen in a niche in the room. Just after the 3rd century, this niche had been covered over, as the whole room had been redecorated with white plaster painted with red bands, two busts of male figures had been placed in the room; some scholars have theorised that at this point the inhabitants focused their worship on household deities and ancestor spirits abandoning the worship of the water deities. In the 4th century the room above the pagan shrine was converted to Christian use, with painted plaster on the walls, including a row of figures of standing worshipers, a characteristic Christian Chi-rho symbol; some of the paintings are now on display in the British Museum.
According to English Heritage, which maintains the site: The evidence of the Christian house-church is a unique discovery for Roman Britain and the wall paintings are of international importance. Not only do they provide some of the earliest evidence for Christianity in Britain, they are unique – the closest parallels come from a house-church in Dura Europus, Syria; as remarkable as the discovery of the house-church is the possibility that pagan worship may have continued in the cult room below. What is not clear is whether this represented the family hedging their bets, trumpeting their apparent acceptance of Christianity, while trying to keep the old gods happy, or whether it represents some members of the family clinging to old beliefs in the face of the adoption of Christianity by others. A Romano-Celtic temple-mausoleum complex was constructed around 300 AD to hold the bodies of two young people, those of a male and a female, in lead coffins. Although the young woman's coffin was robbed in antiquity, the other remained in situ and undisturbed, is now on display at the site.
English Heritage site
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture; some wall paintings are painted on large canvases, which are attached to the wall. Whether these works can be called "murals" is a subject of some controversy in the art world, but the technique has been in common use since the late 19th century. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the cave paintings in the Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in Borneo, Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France. Many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces, the Oxtotitlán cave and Juxtlahuaca in Mexico and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster; the huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco. In Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting.
In modern times, the term became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement. There are many different techniques; the best-known is fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, in parts. The colors lighten; the marouflage method has been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways; the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil. Initiated by the works of mural artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-l'oeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas, pasted to a wall surface to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene. In the history of mural several methods have been used: A fresco painting, from the Italian word affresco which derives from the adjective fresco, describes a method in which the paint is applied on plaster on walls or ceilings.
The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, lime mortar or plaster. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster. After this the painting stays for a long time up to centuries in brilliant colors. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. Mezzo-fresco is painted on nearly-dry plaster, was defined by the sixteenth-century author Ignazio Pozzo as "firm enough not to take a thumb-print" so that the pigment only penetrates into the plaster. By the end of the sixteenth century this had displaced the buon fresco method, was used by painters such as Gianbattista Tiepolo or Michelangelo; this technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work. In Greco-Roman times encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used. Tempera painting is one of the oldest known methods in mural painting. In tempera, the pigments are bound in an albuminous medium such as egg yolk or egg white diluted in water.
In 16th-century Europe, oil painting on canvas arose as an easier method for mural painting. The advantage was that the artwork could be completed in the artist's studio and transported to its destination and there attached to the wall or ceiling. Oil paint may be a less satisfactory medium for murals because of its lack of brilliance in colour; the pigments are yellowed by the binder or are more affected by atmospheric conditions. The canvas itself is more subject to rapid deterioration than a plaster ground. Different muralists tend to become experts in their preferred medium and application, whether that be oil paints, emulsion or acrylic paints applied by brush, roller or airbrush/aerosols. Clients will ask for a particular style and the artist may adjust to the appropriate technique. A consultation leads to a detailed design and layout of the proposed mural with a price quote that the client approves before the muralist starts on the work; the area to be painted can be gridded to match the design allowing the image to be scaled step by step.
In some cases the design is projected straight onto the wall and traced with pencil before painting begins. Some muralists will paint directly without any prior sketching, preferring the spontaneous technique. Once completed the mural can be given coats of varnish or protective acrylic glaze to protect the work from UV rays and surface damage. In modern, quick form of muralling, young enthusiasts use POP clay mixed with glue or bond to give desired models on a canvas board; the canvas is set aside to let the clay dry. Once dried, the canvas and the shape can be painted with your choice of colors and coated with varnish; as an alternative to a hand-painted or airbrushed mural, digitally printed murals can be applied to surfaces. Existing murals can be photographed and be reproduced