Harvey Littleton was an American glass artist and educator. Born in Corning, New York, he grew up in the shadow of Corning Glass Works, where his father headed Research and Development during the 1930s. Expected by his father to enter the field of physics, Littleton instead chose a career in art, gaining recognition first as a ceramist and as a glassblower and sculptor in glass. In the latter capacity he was influential, organizing the first glassblowing seminar aimed at the studio artist in 1962, on the grounds of the Toledo Museum of Art. Imbued with the prevailing view at the time that glassblowing could only be done on the factory floor, separated from the designer at his desk, Littleton aimed to put it within the reach of the individual studio artist. In his role as an educator, Littleton was an "... outspoken and eloquent advocate of university education in the arts." He initiated the first hot glass program at an American university and promoted the idea of glass as a course of study in university art departments in the United States.
Littleton's students went on to disseminate the study of glass art and establish other university-level hot glass programs throughout the U. S. Littleton retired from teaching in 1977 to focus on his own art. Exploring the inherent qualities of the medium, he worked in series with simple forms to draw attention to the complex interplay of transparent glass with multiple overlays of thin color. While at Wisconsin, as an outgrowth of a workshop he taught in cold-working techniques for glass, Littleton began experimenting with printmaking from glass panes; as an independent artist, his studio included space for printmaking, he continued to explore and develop the techniques of vitreography. Littleton worked as an independent glassblower and sculptor until chronic back problems forced him to abandon hot glass in 1990, he continued his creative interest in vitreography well beyond that. Harvey Kline Littleton was born in Corning, New York, the fourth offspring of Dr. Jesse T. Littleton, Jr. and Bessie Cook Littleton.
His father was a physicist, recruited from the faculty at the University of Michigan to join the first research team at Corning Glass Works. Director of Research at the time of Harvey's birth, Dr. Littleton is remembered today as the developer of Pyrex glassware and for his work on tempered glass. Harvey Littleton's introduction to the world of glass began. On Saturdays his father would take Harvey off his mother's hands for a few hours by bringing him to the laboratory. There he was turned over to the laboratory stockman who entertained him or, at least, kept the little boy out of trouble; when he was twelve and his siblings were at the glassworks watching at the time of the failure of the first casting of the two-hundred inch mirror for the Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory. At home, the properties of glass and its manufacture were frequent topics at the family dinner-table. Dr. Littleton was fascinated by glass and believed that the material had unlimited uses. Littleton attended high school at Corning Free Academy.
His interest in art developed during this time, he took life drawing and sculpture courses through an extension program at Elmira College. When he was eighteen, Littleton enrolled at the University of Michigan to study physics, his choice of major was influenced by his father, who wanted one of his children to follow him in his profession. According to Littleton, "I always thought I would be a physicist like my father". While studying physics, Littleton took sculpture classes with Avard Fairbanks at Michigan, which fueled his growing preference for art. After three semesters of physics, the pull of art proved stronger than his respect for his father's wishes, with sister Martha's encouragement he arranged to study at Cranbrook Academy of Art for the 1941 spring semester. There he studied metalwork with Harry Bertoia and sculpture with Marshall Fredericks, worked part-time as a studio assistant to the aging Carl Milles. Dr. Littleton was not pleased by his son's decision. Littleton enlisted Martha's aid in arriving at a compromise: Littleton would return to the University of Michigan that fall, to major in industrial design.
He enrolled in a ceramics class, with Mary Chase Stratton During the summers of 1941 and 1942 Littleton worked at Corning. In summer 1942, working as a mold maker in the Vycor multiform project laboratory, he cast his first work in glass. Using a neoclassic torso he had modeled in clay, he made a casting in white Vycor. Following the Pearl Harbor attack, Littleton tried to volunteer in the Coast Guard, the Air Force, the Marines, but was rejected because of his poor eyesight. In the fall of 1942, he was drafted into the Army, he was assigned to the Signal Corps, served in North Africa and Italy. Near the end of the war, he received a commendation for developing a decoding device. In England awaiting his turn to be shipped home, he attended classes at the Brighton School of Art to fill time, he fired another small clay torso that he carried home in his barracks bag. Once back in Corning, New York, Littleton cast the torso, as a small edition. Littleton returned to the University of Michigan in January, 1946, finished his degree in industrial design in 1947.
With his father's encouragement Littleton submitted a proposal to Corning to create a workshop within the factory to research the aesthetic properties of industrial g
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Toshiko Takaezu was an American ceramic artist and painter. Takaezu was born to Japanese immigrant parents in Pepeekeo, Hawaii, on 17 June 1922, she moved to Honolulu in 1940, where she worked at the Hawaii Potter's Guild creating identical pieces from press molds. While she hated creating hundreds of identical pieces, she appreciated that she could practice glazing. Takaezu attended Saturday classes at the Honolulu Museum of Art School and attended the University of Hawaii where she studied under Claude Horan. From 1951 to 1954, she continued her studies at Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, where she befriended Finnish ceramist Maija Grotell, who became her mentor. Takaezu earned an award after her first year of study, which acknowledged her as an outstanding student in the clay department. In 1955, Takaezu traveled to Japan, where she studied Zen Buddhism, tea ceremony, the techniques of traditional Japanese pottery, which influenced her work. While studying in Japan, she worked with Kaneshige Toyo and visited Shoji Hamada, both influential Japanese potters.
She taught at several universities and art schools: Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. She retired in 1992 to become a studio artist and working in the Quakertown section of Franklin Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, about 30 miles northwest of Princeton. In addition to her studio in New Jersey, she made many of her larger sculptures at Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, New York. Toshiko Takaezu made functional wheel-thrown vessels early in her career, she switched to abstract sculptures with applied poured and painted glazes. In the early 1970s, when she didn't have access to a kiln, she painted on canvas. Takaezu died on March 9, 2011 in Honolulu, following a stroke she suffered in May 2010. Takaezu treated life with a sense of oneness with nature, she believed that ceramics involved self-revelation, once commenting, "In my life I see no difference between making pots and growing vegetables... There is need for me to work in clay... it gives me answers for my life."
When she developed her signature “closed form” after sealing her pots, she found her identity as an artist. The ceramic forms resembled human hearts and torsos, closed cylindrical forms, huge spheres she called “moons.” Before closing the forms, she dropped a bead of clay wrapped in paper inside, so that the pieces would rattle when moved. She was once asked by Chobyo Yara, she replied that it is the hollow space of air within, because it cannot be seen but is still part of the pot. She relates this to the idea. Takaezu had many solo exhibitions throughout the United States: 1955: University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin 1959, 1961: Cleveland Institute of Art, Ohio 1961: Peabody College for Teachers, Tennessee 1965: Gallery 100, New Jersey 1971: Lewis and Clark College, Oregon 1975, 1985: Florida Junior College, Florida 1987: Hale Pulamamau, Kuakini Hospital, Hawaii 1989: Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey 1989: University of Bridgeport, ConnecticutShe has been in several group exhibitions throughout the United States and internationally in countries including Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Switzerland.
Takaezu won many honors and awards for her work: 1952: McInerny Foundation grant 1964: Tiffany Foundation grant 1980: National Endowment for the Arts fellowship 1983: Dickinson College Arts Award 1987: Living Treasure Award Takaezu's work may be found in private and corporate permanent collections, as well as several public collections across the United States: Addison Gallery of American Art, Massachusetts Allentown Art Museum, Pennsylvania Arizona State University, Arizona Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland Bloomsburg University, Pennsylvania Butler Institute of American Art, Ohio Canton Museum of Art, Ohio Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio Currier Museum of Art, New Hampshire Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, California Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York Hunterdon Art Museum, New Jersey Grounds for Sculpture, New Jersey Hawaii State Art Museum, Hawaii High Museum of Art, Georgia, Honolulu Museum of Art, Hawaii Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York Museum of Arts and Design, New York, New York Museum of Fine Arts, Massachusetts Museum of Fine Arts, Texas Newark Museum, New Jersey New Jersey State Museum, New Jersey Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania Racine Art Museum, Wisconsin Seattle Art Museum, Washington Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.
C. Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio University Art Museum, New York University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii University of New Hampshire, New Hampshire Zanesville Museum of Art, Zanesville, OHTakaezu's work may be found in the National Museum in Bangkok, Thailand. Clarke and Diane Dods, Artists/Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, 1996, 98-103
Venice, Los Angeles
Venice is a residential and recreational beachfront neighborhood within Los Angeles, California. It is located within the urban region of western Los Angeles County known as the Westside. Venice was founded in 1905 as a seaside resort town, it was an independent city until 1926. Today, Venice is known for its canals and the circus-like Ocean Front Walk, a two-and-a-half-mile pedestrian promenade that features performers, mystics and vendors. In the half of the 2010s, the neighborhood has faced severe gentrification raising real-estate prices and thereby pushing out long-term inhabitants. In 1839, a region called La Ballona that included the southern parts of Venice, was granted by the Mexican government to Machados and Talamantes, giving them title to Rancho La Ballona; this became part of Port Ballona. Venice called "Venice of America," was founded by tobacco millionaire Abbot Kinney in 1905 as a beach resort town, 14 miles west of Los Angeles, he and his partner Francis Ryan had bought two miles of oceanfront property south of Santa Monica in 1891.
They built a resort town on the north end of the property, called Ocean Park, soon annexed to Santa Monica. After Ryan died and his new partners continued building south of Navy Street. After the partnership dissolved in 1904, who had won the marshy land on the south end of the property in a coin flip with his former partners, began to build a seaside resort like the namesake Italian city; when Venice of America opened on July 4, 1905, Kinney had dug several miles of canals to drain the marshes for his residential area, built a 1,200-foot -long pleasure pier with an auditorium, ship restaurant, dance hall, constructed a hot salt-water plunge, built a block-long arcaded business street with Venetian architecture. Kinney hired artist Felix Peano to design the columns of the buildings.:22 Included in the capitals are several faces, modeled after Kinney himself and a local girl named Nettie Bouck. Tourists arriving on the "Red Cars" of the Pacific Electric Railway from Los Angeles and Santa Monica rode the Venice Miniature Railway and gondolas to tour the town.
The biggest attraction was Venice's mile-long sloping beach. Cottages and housekeeping tents were available for rent; the population soon exceeded 10,000. Attractions on the Kinney Pier became more amusement-oriented by 1910, when a Venice Miniature Railway, Virginia Reel, Racing Derby, other rides and game booths were added. Since the business district was allotted only three one-block-long streets, the City Hall was more than a mile away, other competing business districts developed; this created a fractious political climate. Kinney, governed with an iron hand and kept things in check; when he died in November 1920, Venice became harder to govern. With the amusement pier burning six weeks in December 1920, Prohibition, the town's tax revenue was affected; the Kinney family rebuilt their amusement pier to compete with Ocean Park's Pickering Pleasure Pier and the new Sunset Pier. When it opened it had two roller coasters, a new Racing Derby, a Noah's Ark, a Mill Chutes, many other rides. By 1925 with the addition of a third coaster, a tall Dragon Slide, Fun House, Flying Circus aerial ride, it was the finest amusement pier on the West Coast.
Several hundred thousand tourists visited on weekends. In 1923 Charles Lick built the Lick Pier at Navy Street in Venice, adjacent to the Ocean Park Pier at Pier Avenue in Ocean Park. Another pier was planned for Venice in 1925 at Leona Street. For the amusement of the public, Kinney hired aviators to do aerial stunts over the beach. One of them, movie aviator and Venice airport owner B. H. DeLay, implemented the first lighted airport in the United States on DeLay Field, he initiated the first aerial police in the nation, after a marine rescue attempt was thwarted. DeLay performed many of the world's first aerial stunts for motion pictures in Venice. By 1925, Venice's politics had become unmanageable, its roads and sewage systems badly needed repair and expansion to keep up with its growing population. When it was proposed that Venice be annexed to Los Angeles, the board of trustees voted to hold an election. Annexation was approved in the election in November 1925, Venice was formally annexed to Los Angeles in 1926.
Los Angeles proceeded to remake Venice in its own image. It was felt that the town needed more streets—not canals—and most of them were paved in 1929 after a three-year court battle led by canal residents. Following their annexation to Los Angeles, its Parks and Recreation department intended to close Venice's three amusement piers, but had to wait until the first of the tidelands leases expired in 1946. In 1929, oil was discovered south of Washington Street on the Venice Peninsula, now known as the Marina Peninsula neighborhood of Los Angeles. Within two years, 450 oil wells covered the area, drilling waste clogged the remaining waterways, it was a short-lived boom that provided needed income to the community, which suffered during the Great Depression. The wells produced oil into the 1970s. Los Angeles had neglected Venice so long that, by the 1950s, it had become the "Slum by the Sea." With the exception of new police and fire stations in 1930, the city spent little on improvements after annexation.
The city did not pave Trolleyway until 1954 when state funds became available. Low rents for run-down bungalows attrac
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
A cartoon is a type of illustration animated in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, in the second sense they are called an animator; the concept originated in the Middle Ages, first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, beginning in Punch magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. In the early 20th century, it began to refer to animated films. A cartoon is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass, or tapestry. Cartoons were used in the production of frescoes, to link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days; such cartoons have pinpricks along the outlines of the design so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over a cartoon, held against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster.
Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London, examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons colored, were followed with the eye by the weavers on the loom. In print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of illustrations humorous in intent; this usage dates from 1843, when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster; the original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians. Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, comic strips. Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath, or—less often—a speech balloon. Newspaper syndicates have distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others.
Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon. The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti, Chon Day. Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus, Virgil Partch began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated comic strips. Richard Thompson illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip; the sports section of newspapers featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport. Editorial cartoons are found exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they employ humor, they are more serious in tone using irony or satire; the art acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social or political topics. Editorial cartoons include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike Peters, Gerald Scarfe. Comic strips known as cartoon strips in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, are a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence.
In the United States, they are not called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter and drama are represented in this medium; some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson. Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events, they offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embittered. The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is regarded as a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England. George Townshend produced some of caricatures in the 1750s; the medium began to develop in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London.
Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. By calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account for their behaviour, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of revolutionary France and Napoleon. George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, from 1815 until the 1840s, his career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day. Thomas Nast, in New York City, showed how realistic German drawing techniques could redefine American cartooning, his 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal c