Pir Ghulam Fareed is a Pakistani politician, a Member of the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab, from 1985 to 1988 and again from May 2013 to May 2018. He was born on 26 December 1942 in Gujranwala, he was elected to the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab from Constituency PP-139 in 1985 Pakistani general election. He ran for the seat of the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab as a candidate of Islami Jamhoori Ittehad from Constituency PP-87 in 1988 Pakistani general election but was unsuccessful, he lost the seat to a candidate of Pakistan Peoples Party. He ran for the seat of the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab as an independent candidate from Constituency PP-87 in 1997 Pakistani general election but was unsuccessful, he received 1,805 votes and lost the seat to a candidate of Pakistan Muslim League (PML-N. He was re-elected to the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab as a candidate of PML-N from Constituency PP-95 in 2013 Pakistani general election
A covert operation is a military operation intended to conceal the identity of the sponsor and intended to create a political effect which can have implications in the military, intelligence or law enforcement arenas—affecting either the internal population of a country or individuals outside it. Covert operations aim to secretly fulfill their mission objectives without anyone knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation, or in some cases, without anyone knowing that the operation has occurred. Covert operations and clandestine operations are different. Under U. S. law, the Central Intelligence Agency must lead covert operations unless the president finds that another agency should do so and properly informs the Congress. The CIA is the U. S. government agency allowed to carry out covert action. The CIA's authority to conduct covert action comes from the National Security Act of 1947. President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Order 12333 titled United States Intelligence Activities in 1984.
This order defined covert action as "special activities", both political and military, that the US Government could deny. The CIA was designated as the sole authority under the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act and in Title 50 of the United States Code Section 413; the CIA must have a "Presidential Finding" issued by the President of the United States in order to conduct these activities under the Hughes-Ryan amendment to the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act. These findings are monitored by the oversight committees in both the U. S. Senate and the House of Representatives; as a result of this framework, the CIA "receives more oversight from the Congress than any other agency in the federal government". The Special Activities Division is a division of the CIA's Directorate of Operations, responsible for Covert Action and "Special Activities"; these special activities include paramilitary operations. Covert operations and clandestine operations are distinct; the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, defines "covert operation" as "an operation, so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor.
A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of a sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation". The United States Department of Defense definition has been used by the United States and NATO since World War II. In a covert operation, the identity of the sponsor is concealed, while in a clandestine operation the operation itself is concealed. Put differently, clandestine means "hidden", while covert means "deniable"; the term stealth refers both to a broad set of tactics aimed at providing and preserving the element of surprise and reducing enemy resistance and to a set of technologies to aid in those tactics. While secrecy and stealthiness are desired in clandestine and covert operations, the terms secret and stealthy are not used to formally describe types of missions. Covert operations are employed in situations where operating against a target would be disadvantageous. Operations may be directed at or conducted with allies and friends to secure their support for controversial components of foreign policy throughout the world.
Covert operations may include sabotage, support for coups d'état, or support for subversion. Tactics include the use of a false front group; the activity of organizations engaged in covert operations is in some instances similar to, or overlaps with, the activity of front organizations. While covert organizations are of a more official military or paramilitary nature, like the DVS German Air Transport School in the Nazi era, the line between both becomes muddled in the case of front organizations engaged in terrorist activities and organized crime. Undercover operations are conducted by law enforcement agencies to deter and detect crime and to gather information for future arrest and prosecution. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group Creation of Bangladesh Operation Wrath of God Operation Gladio Operation Anthropoid Huston Plan Lavon Affair Iran-Contra affair Project MKULTRA Operation CHAOS CIA Project Cherry Vang Pao's Clandestine Army Palace Dog Raven Forward Air Controllers Black operations Covert operations have been the subject of popular films, novels, TV series, comics.
The Company is a fictional covert organization featured in the American TV series Prison Break. Other series that deal with covert operations are Mission: Impossible, Burn Notice, The Unit, The State Within, Covert Affairs, Air Wolf, 24, The Blacklist, Strike Back series, the Vagabond. Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U. S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions by Alfred Cumming, 18 January 2006 – Congressional Research Service RAW and Bangladesh Richard Hersh Statement to House Judiciary Democratic Congressional Briefing, 20 January 2006 via thewall.civiblog.org Full Transcript, House Judiciary Democratic Membership Briefing "Constitution in Crisis: Domestic Surveillance and Executive Power" 20 January 2006 via thewall.civiblog.org "Big Brother is Watching You Part 1 - 902 MI Group TALON Project Summary, Rep. Wexler response, News Coverage collection via thewall.civiblog.org Steath Network Operations Centre – Covert Communication Support System Covert Warfare