Kensington Gardens

Kensington Gardens, once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, are among the Royal Parks of London. The gardens are shared by the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and sit to the west of Hyde Park, in western central London; the gardens cover an area of 270 acres. The open spaces of Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Green Park, St. James's Park together form an continuous "green lung" in the heart of London. Kensington Gardens are Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Kensington Gardens are regarded as being the western extent of the neighbouring Hyde Park from which they were taken, with West Carriage Drive and the Serpentine Bridge forming the boundary between them; the Gardens are more formal than Hyde Park. Kensington Gardens are open only during the hours of daylight, whereas Hyde Park is open from 5 am until midnight all year round. Kensington Gardens has been long regarded as "smart" because of its more private character around Kensington Palace.

However, in the late 1800s, Hyde Park was considered more "fashionable," because of its location nearer to Park Lane and Knightsbridge. Kensington Gardens was the western section of Hyde Park, created by Henry VIII in 1536 to use as a hunting ground, it was separated from the remainder of Hyde Park in 1728 at the request of Queen Caroline and designed by Henry Wise and Charles Bridgeman in order to form a landscape garden, with fashionable features including the Round Pond, formal avenues and a sunken Dutch garden. Bridgeman created the Serpentine between 1726 and 1731 by damming the eastern outflow of the River Westbourne from Hyde Park; the part of the Serpentine that lies within Kensington Gardens is known as "The Long Water". At its north-western end in an area known as "The Italian Garden", there are four fountains and a number of classical sculptures. At the foot of the Italian Gardens is a parish boundary marker, delineating the boundary between Paddington and St George Hanover Square parishes, on the exact centre of the Westbourne river.

The land surrounding Kensington Gardens was predominantly rural and remained undeveloped until the Great Exhibition in 1851. Many of the original features survive along with the Palace, there are other public buildings such as the Albert Memorial, the Serpentine Gallery, Speke's monument. Queen Victoria had commissioned the Italian Gardens and the Albert Memorial during a series of improvements. Another feature is the bronze statue of Peter Pan by George Frampton standing on a pedestal covered with climbing squirrels and mice, it is home to the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Playground and a seven-mile Memorial Walk. A statue of Queen Victoria sculpted by her daughter, Princess Louise, to celebrate 50 years of her mother's rule stands outside Kensington Palace; the park contains the Elfin Oak, an elaborately carved 900-year-old tree stump. The park is the setting of J. M. Barrie's book Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, a prelude to the character's famous adventures in Neverland; the fairies of the gardens are first described in Thomas Tickell's 1722 poem Kensington Gardens.

Both the book and the character are honoured with the Peter Pan statue by George Frampton located in the park. Rodrigo Fresán's novel Kensington Gardens concerns in part the life of J. M. Barrie and of his creation Peter Pan, their relationship with the park, as well as the narrator's own; the opening scene of Wilkie Collins's story "Mrs. Zant and the Ghost" takes place in Kensington Gardens – the section that "remains nearest to the old Palace of Kensington." The Infocom interactive fiction game Trinity begins in the Kensington Gardens. The player can walk around many sections of the gardens. List of public art in Kensington Gardens Citations Bibliography Official website The Garden a poem by Ezra Pound set in Kensington Gardens

Oxhey Chapel

Oxhey Chapel is a redundant Anglican chapel in Oxhey, a suburb of Watford, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust; the chapel stands, surrounded by 1940s housing in South Oxhey between a modern church and its vicarage, some 2 miles south of the centre of Watford. The chapel was built in 1612 by Sir James Altham as a private chapel for his family and staff who lived nearby at Oxhey Place, it is on the site of an earlier monastic church. In 1649 during the Civil War following the Battle of Uxbridge, it was used by Cromwell's Parliamentary forces as a store and a barracks. During this time they damaged the chapel, took lead from the roof to make musket balls, created a new door in the east wall. In 1688 Sir John Bucknall became the owner of the house, he added a reredos to the east end of the chapel. The wood for this came from the house which he had rebuilt. In 1704 a bellcote and a hipped, tiled roof were added to the chapel.

The interior was restored in 1712, the reredos was whitewashed. The chapel was after that it was used for storage. In 1852 it was restored for T. Estcourt to be used again for worship by those living in the nearby hamlet; the whitewash was removed from the reredos, the old pews and pulpit were replaced. In 1897 vestries were added, the windows were restored and the pews were rearranged in collegiate manner; this was paid for by the owner of Oxhey Place at that time, Thomas Blackwell, the co-founder of Crosse & Blackwell, the architect being J. E. K. Cutts. During the 20th century the fabric of the chapel deteriorated, in the winter of 1962–63 part of the roof fell in. Repairs were carried out, including complete replacement of the bellcote. Although the chapel returned into use, it was declared redundant, in 1977 was vested in the Redundant Church Fund, the forerunner of the Churches Conservation Trust, it is used at times for weddings. Oxhey Chapel is constructed in knapped flint and red brick, arranged in alternating squares forming a chequerwork pattern.

The dressings are in stone, the roof is tiled. Its plan is that of a rectangle with a narthex projecting to the west; the entrance has a moulded. On each side of the narthex is a two-light window, above it is a four-light window. Above this is a stone cornice, a brick gable with a stone coping. On the roof is a 20th-century octagonal wooden bellcote, with an ogee-headed cupola. At the corners of the chapel are stone quoins. Along the north and south sides are three-light windows, a brick parapet. Between the windows on the north side is a 19th-century brick buttress. At the east end is a four-light window, above, a brick gable containing a plaque with the dates 1612 and 1963; the chapel contains a double row of stalls facing each other in collegiate fashion. The west door is surrounded by a doorcase consisting of carved Corinthian pilasters and an entablature; the reredos contains two twisted Solomonic columns framing panels containing the Ten Commandments, outside them are panels with the Lord's Prayer and the Creed.

At the top of the reredos is an open pediment enclosing a flaming urn. Above the central panels is a cartouche, over the side panels are smaller closed pediments; the sanctuary is paved with white marble. The roof is in five bays; the wooden font dates from the 17th century. It has an octagonal base, a richly carved circular bowl, a dome-shaped cover. From the roof hangs an eight-branch candelabrum. In the chapel is a wall tomb to Sir James Altham, who died in 1616, his last wife Helen, who died in 1638, it consists of two praying figures facing each other in an alabaster and marble frame, consisting of Corinthian columns and an open segmental pediment containing a cartouche flanked by obelisks. At the west end is a marble memorial tablet to John Askill Bucknall dated 1797 by C. Regnant. List of churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in the East of England Pevsner, Nikolaus.

Mexican Communist Party

The Mexican Communist Party was a communist party in Mexico. It was founded in 1917 as the Socialist Workers' Party by Manabendra Nath Roy, a left-wing Indian Bengali; the PSO changed its name to the Mexican Communist Party in November 1919, following the October Revolution in Russia. It was outlawed in 1925 and remained illegal until 1935, during the presidency of the leftist Lázaro Cárdenas; the PCM saw in the left wing of the nationalist regime that emerged from the Mexican Revolution a progressive force to be supported—i.e. Cárdenas and his allies. In the end, the PCM disappeared after helping form the Party of the Democratic Revolution, a split from the PRI led by the son of Lázaro Cárdenas, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas; the PCM lost its registration in 1946 because it did not meet the new requirements of at least 30,000 registered members in at least 21 of Mexico's 31 states and the Federal District. It is not clear whether the party was unable to recruit enough members or whether, fearing repression, it refused to turn membership rolls over to the Secretary of the Interior in charge of elections.

Over the next 30 years, the party had some minor influence in the Confederation of Mexican Workers and among the intelligentsia of Mexico City. In the mid-1960s the U. S. State Department estimated the party membership to be 50,000. In 1976 the party nominated Valentín Campa as its presidential candidate, competing against José López Portillo. Following the electoral reform of 1977 that lowered the barrier for parties to get on the ballot, the PCM regained temporary registration for the 1979 mid-term elections. After its poor showing and a two decade-long period of moderation during which it adopted a "Eurocommunist" position, the PCM merged with three other far-left political parties in November 1981 and became the Unified Socialist Party of Mexico. Most members of the PSUM merged with somewhat more moderate left-wing groups to form the Mexican Socialist Party in 1987; the PMS never competed in national elections alone, having joined the National Democratic Front —a split from the ruling Revolutionary Institutional Party —to support the presidential bid of Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas in 1988.

What was the PMS was absorbed into the newly formed Party of the Democratic Revolution in 1989. 1959–1963 Collective Secretariat of the Mexican Communist Party 1963–1981 Arnoldo Martínez Verdugo Barry Carr, Marxism & Communism in Twentieth-Century Mexico ISBN 0-8032-1458-8 Bruhn, Kathleen Taking on Goliath: The Emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle for Democracy in Mexico