London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Holland Park is a district and a public park in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in west London. Holland Park has a reputation as an affluent and fashionable area, known for attractive large Victorian townhouses, and high-class shops and restaurants. Though there are no boundaries, they are roughly Kensington High Street to the south, Holland Road to the west, Holland Park Avenue to the north. Holland Park Avenue is at the boundaries of the four wards of Norland, Pembridge. Holland Park is about 22 hectares in area, the northern half of the park is semi-wild woodland, the central section around the ruins of Holland House is more formal with several garden areas, and the southernmost section is used for sport. Today the remains of the form a backdrop for the open air Holland Park Theatre. The green-roofed Commonwealth Institute lies to the south, in 2010, the park set aside a section for pigs whose job was to reclaim the area from nettles etc. in order to create another meadow area for wild flowers and fauna.
Cattle were used subsequently to similar effect, the district was rural until the 19th century. Most of it was formerly the grounds of a Jacobean mansion called Holland House, in the decades of that century the owners of the house sold off the more outlying parts of its grounds for residential development, and the district which evolved took its name from the house. It included some areas around the fringes which had never been part of the grounds of Holland House, notably the Phillimore Estate. In the late 19th century a number of artists and art collectors lived in the area. The group were known as The Holland Park Circle. Holland Park was for the most part comfortably upper middle class when originally developed. Of the nineteenth-century residential developments of the area, one of the most architecturally interesting is The Royal Crescent designed in 1839, the stucco fronted crescent is painted white, in the style of the many Nash terraces which can be elsewhere in Londons smarter residential areas.
Today many of these four houses have been converted to apartments. The Royal crescent is listed Grade II, aubrey House is situated to the North-East of the park. Holland Park is now one of the most expensive districts in London or anywhere in the world. Several foreign countries maintain their embassies here, pete Townshends song How Can You Do It Alone includes the narrators reference to a flasher walking up Holland Park Road
Universal Music Group
Universal Music Group is an American-French global music corporation that is a subsidiary of the Paris-based French media conglomerate Vivendi. UMGs global corporate headquarters are in Santa Monica, California and it is considered one of the Big Three record labels, along with Warner Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment. Universal Music was once the music attached to film studio Universal Pictures and its origins go back to the formation of the American branch of Decca Records in September 1934. The Decca Record Co. Ltd. of England spun American Decca off in 1939, MCA Inc. merged with American Decca in 1962. The present organization was formed when its parent company Seagram purchased PolyGram in May 1998, the name had first appeared in 1996 when MCA Music Entertainment Group was renamed Universal Music Group. The PolyGram acquisition included Deutsche Grammophon which traces its ancestry to Berliner Gramophone making Deutsche Grammophon UMGs oldest unit, UMGs Canadian unit traces its ancestry to a Berliner Gramophone breakaway firm the Compo Company.
With the 2004 acquisition of Universal Studios by General Electric and merging with GEs NBC and this is the second time a music company has done so, the first being the separation of Time Warner and Warner Music Group. On June 25,2007, Vivendi completed its €1.63 billion purchase of BMG Music Publishing, after receiving European Union regulatory approval, doug Morris stepped down from his position as CEO on January 1,2011. Former chairman/CEO of Universal Music International Lucian Grainge was promoted to CEO of the company, Grainge replaced him as chairman on March 9,2011. Morris became the chairman of Sony Music Entertainment on July 1,2011. With Grainges appointment as CEO at UMG, Max Hole was promoted to COO of UMGI, starting in 2011 UMGs Interscope Geffen A&M Records will be signing contestants from American Idol/Idol series. On January 2011, UMG announced it was donating 200,000 master recordings from the 1920s to 1940s to the Library of Congress for preservation, in March 2011, Barry Weiss became chairman & CEO of The Island Def Jam Music Group & Universal Republic Records.
Both companies are restructuring under Weiss, in December 2011, David Foster was named Chairman of Verve Music Group. Among the other companies that had competed for the music business was Warner Music Group which was reported to have made a $2 billion bid. However, IMPALA has said it would fight the merger, coincidentally, UMG sister company StudioCanal has owned the EMI Films library for several years. On September 21,2012, the sale of EMI to UMG was approved in Europe, UMG divested Mute Records, Roxy Recordings, MPS Records, Cooperative Music, Now Thats What I Call Music. Jazzland, Universal Greece, Sanctuary Records, Chrysalis Records, EMI Classics, Virgin Classics, the Beatles recorded music library was allowed to remain with UMG despite being considered part of Parlophone and is now managed by UMGs reorganized Capitol Music Group worldwide. Robbie Williams, who had recorded for Chrysalis, had his transferred to Universals Island Records
The modern Western music industry emerged between the 1930s and 1950s, when records replaced sheet music as the most important product in the music business. In the commercial world, the recording industry–a reference to recording performances of songs and pieces, labels outside of these three major labels are referred to as independent labels. The largest portion of the music market for concerts and tours is controlled by Live Nation. Live Nation is a subsidiary of iHeartMedia Inc, which is the largest owner of radio stations in the United States. In the first decades of the 2000s, the industry underwent drastic changes with the advent of widespread digital distribution of music via the Internet. A conspicuous indicator of changes is total music sales, since 2000. In 2011, the largest recorded music retailer in the world was now a digital, Internet-based platform operated by a computer company, printed music in Europe, Music publishing using machine-printed sheet music developed during the Renaissance music era in the mid-15th century.
The development of music followed the evolution of printing technologies that were first developed for printing regular books. After the mid-15th century, mechanical techniques for printing music were first developed. The earliest example, a set of chants, dates from about 1465. Prior to this time, music had to be copied out by hand, to copy music notation by hand was a very costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming process, so it was usually undertaken only by monks and priests seeking to preserve sacred music for the church. The few collections of music that are extant were commissioned and owned by wealthy aristocrats. Examples include the Squarcialupi Codex of Italian Trecento music and the Chantilly Codex of French Ars subtilior music, the use of printing enabled sheet music to reproduced much more quickly and at a much lower cost than hand-copying music notation. This helped musical styles to spread to cities and countries more quickly. With music printing, though, a composers music could be printed, as sheet music of major composers pieces and songs began to be printed and distributed in a wider area, this enabled composers and listeners to hear new styles and forms of music.
A German composer could buy songs written by an Italian or English composer, and this led to more blending of musical styles from different countries and regions. The pioneer of music printing was Ottaviano Petrucci, a printer and publisher who was able to secure a twenty-year monopoly on printed music in Venice during the 16th century. Venice was one of the business and music centers during this period
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is an inner London borough of Royal borough status, to the west of the centre. As the smallest borough in London and the second smallest district in England, the borough is immediately to the west of the City of Westminster and to the east of London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. It contains major museums and universities in Albertopolis, department stores such as Harrods, Peter Jones and Harvey Nichols and it is home to the Notting Hill Carnival, Europes largest. It contains many of the most expensive places in the world. The local authority is Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council, the boroughs motto is Quam Bonum in Unum Habitare, which can be roughly translated as How good to dwell in unity. The borough was created in 1965 from the boroughs of Kensington. Kensingtons Royal Borough status was inherited by the new borough, the new borough was originally to be called just Kensington – the inclusion of Chelsea was locally supported. Due to its high French population it has held the unofficial title of the 21st arrondissement of Paris.
In 2005, the borough had more of its covered by domestic buildings than anywhere else in England at 19%. It had the fifth highest proportion of land covered by buildings at 12%. As of 2010, statistics released by the Office for National Statistics showed that life expectancy at birth for females was 89.8 years in 2008–2010, male life expectancy at birth for the same period was 85.1 years. The figures in 1991–1993 were significantly lower,73.0 years for males and 80.0 for females, the borough has a higher proportion of high earners than any other local government district in the country. It has the highest proportion of workers in the financial sector, in December 2006, Sport England published a survey which showed that the boroughs residents were the fourth most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27. 9% of the population participate at least three times a week for 30 minutes, the top quarter earn at least £41 per hour, three and a half times the level of the lowest quarter at £12 per hour or less.
Two of its more notable leaders were Nicholas Freeman, from 1977 until 1989. The Council has 42 Conservative,9 Labour and 3 Liberal Democrat councillors, the borough has combined a number of services and departments with its neighbours, Hammersmith & Fulham and Westminster City Council. Chelsea has less Underground access than Kensington, the station within Chelsea being Sloane Square. There are long-term plans for the Chelsea-Hackney line, with a station in the Kings Road near Chelsea Old Town Hall, buses Many London bus routes pass through the borough, most of them along Kings Road, Fulham Road, Kensington High Street and Ladbroke Grove
Bristol Cars is a manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars headquartered on Kensington High Street, England. After the Second World War, the car division of the Bristol Aeroplane Company was formed, unlike most speciality automakers, Bristol does not court publicity and has only one showroom, on Kensington High Street in London. Nevertheless, the company maintains an enthusiastic and loyal clientele, Bristol has always been a low-volume manufacturer, the most recent published official production figures were for 1982, which stated that 104 cars were produced in that year. The company suspended manufacturing in March 2011, when administrators were appointed,22 staff were made redundant, in April 2011, a new company was formed by the administrator to sells the original assets to Kamkorp. Since 2011, the company has been restoring and selling all models of the marque while a new model was being developed, the company returned to the automotive business in 2015 with an all-new model, called the Bullet, initially dubbed Project Pinnacle.
The car was first revealed to the public on 26 July 2016, the British aircraft industry suffered a dramatic loss of orders and great financial difficulties following the Armistice of 1918. On the outbreak of World War II, Sir George Stanley White, the company now employed 70,000 and he knew he must plan for the time when the voracious wartime demand for Bristol aircraft and aircraft engines would suddenly end. The company began working with AFN Ltd, makers of Frazer Nash cars and British importer of BMWs before the war, on plans for a joint venture in automotive manufacture. As early as 1941, a number of papers were written or commissioned by George S. M. White, Sir Stanley’s son and it was decided to purchase an existing manufacturer for this purpose. Alvis, Aston Martin, Lagonda, ERA and Lea-Francis were considered and it led to the immediate take-over of Frazer Nash by the Aeroplane Company. Aldington and his two brothers had marketed the Frazer Nash BMW before the war, and proposed to build an updated version after demobilisation and this seemed the perfect match for the aeroplane company’s own ambitions to manufacture a high quality sports car.
With the support of the War Reparations Board, H. J. Aldington travelled to Munich, by July 1945, BAC had created a car division and bought a controlling stake in AFN. A factory was established at Filton Aerodrome, near Bristol, the Bristol Car Division became an independent entity. Bristol Cars was sold after its parent joined with other British aircraft companies in 1960 to create the British Aircraft Corporation, the car division originally merged with Bristol Siddeley Engines, and was marked for closure, but was bought in September 1960 by George S. M. White the chairman and effective founder, White retained the direction of the company, but sold a forty per cent shareholding to Tony Crook, a leading Bristol agent. In September 1969, only a month before the unveiling of the new Bristol 411 at the Earl’s Court Motor Show, the car was only superficially damaged, but he suffered severe trauma. As time passed it became clear that he would never regain his health sufficiently to return to full-time work, to safeguard the future of his workforce, he decided in 1973 to sell his majority shareholding to Crook.
As the ties with the White family were severed, British Aerospace requested the company to move its factory from Filton Aerodrome, the showroom on Kensington High Street became the head office, with Crook shuttling between the two in Bristols light aircraft
London Buses route 23
London Buses route 23 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Westbourne Park station and Liverpool Street bus station, it is operated by Tower Transit, the off-peak service already operated at this frequency. On 5 January 2009, a bus operating on the route crashed into a shop in Westbourne Grove after swerving to avoid a van, injuring ten people. Later in 2009, Transport for London decided not to proceed with a change of the eastbound route in the Elgin Crescent area, following a consultation with residents. The proposal would have routed the eastbound 23 along Ladbroke Gardens instead of Elgin Crescent, First London had successfully retained route 23 with a new contract starting on 13 November 2010 and was included in the sale of First Londons Westbourne Park garage to Tower Transit on 22 June 2013. Tower Transit has successfully retained route 23 with a new contract starting on 14 November 2015, radio presenter Geoff Lloyd featured the route in the show Boring.
At the Boring Conference in December 2010
Kensington Roof Gardens
The Roof Garden is a roof garden covering 6000 m2 on top of the former Derry and Toms building on Kensington High Street, in central London, in The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Since the 1980s the garden has been used as a restaurant, the gardens are not visible from Kensington High Street. Derry and Toms department store was opened in Kensington in 1933, the gardens were laid out between 1936 and 1938 by Ralph Hancock, a landscape architect, on the instructions of Trevor Bowen. They cost £25,000 to create and visitors were charged 1 shilling to enter, money raised was donated to local hospitals and £120,000 was raised during the next 30 years. The building housed the department store Derry and Toms until 1973, since the 1980s the garden has been used as a restaurant and club. The Roof Garden was listed as a Grade II site by English Heritage in 1998, there are over 30 different species of trees in the woodland garden, including trees from the original planting over sixty years ago, despite having only a metre of soil in which to grow.
Although they are on a rooftop, the trees were made the subject of preservation orders in 1976
Westfield London is a shopping centre in White City, United Kingdom, in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. The centre was developed by the Westfield Group at a cost of £1. 6bn, on a site bounded by the West Cross Route and it opened on 30 October 2008 and became the largest covered shopping development in the capital, dethroning the Whitgift Centre in Croydon. The site is part of the White City district, where other large scale development projects are under way or in the planning stages. Much of the site was in use as a railway depot excavated to a lower level, the centre is noted for its size, it has a retail floor area of 150,000 m², the equivalent of about 30 football pitches. At the time of its opening it was reported to be the second largest commercial centre in the UK, the nearest London Underground stations are Wood Lane, White City, Shepherds Bush and Shepherds Bush Market. The nearest rail station is Shepherds Bush, served by suburban London Overground services, the initial plan for a shopping centre at this location was developed by a consortium, the largest company involved being the UK division of Australian property company Multiplex.
However, due to financial losses in other ventures, including the construction of the new Wembley Stadium, Multiplex was forced to sell its stake to another Australian company. The development was built by Westfield Construction, the developers own construction arm and was delivered on schedule, robert Bird Group were the structural engineers for the job. The roof was designed by Knippers Helbig Advanced Engineering, the project took five years to build, employing 8,000 people. The Project Director was John Roberts, there was a structural/organisational challenge relating to the White City depot of the Central line railway. There were considerable precautions needed due to the expectation of finding unexploded bombs from raids on a munitions factory during the World War II blitz. The centre opened to the public on 30 October 2008 by Bethan Garratt and it has a retail floor area of 150,000 m². The development includes a retail area called The Village. The area includes brands Burberry, De Beers, Georg Jensen, Louis Vuitton, Miu Miu, Myla, Tiffany & Co and Versace.
Vue opened a cinema on 12 February 2010, including five 3-D-enabled screens. There are three other close by, White City, Shepherds Bush Market and Holland Park. London Overground/Southern, Shepherds Bush railway station is a constructed station on the West London Line. The station, which opened on 28 September 2008, is located on the side of the Westfield centre
Shared space is an urban design approach which seeks to minimise the segregation of pedestrians and vehicles. This is done by removing features such as kerbs, road markings, traffic signs. It has been suggested that, by creating a sense of uncertainty and making it unclear who has priority. This is conducive to an environment for both pedestrians and vehicles. Shared space schemes are motivated by a desire to reduce the dominance of vehicles, vehicle speeds. Shared space design can take different forms depending on the level of demarcation and segregation between different transportation modes. Variations of shared space are used in urban settings, especially those that have been made nearly car-free. As a separate concept, shared space normally applies to semi-open spaces on busier roads, the origin of term is generally linked with the work of Dutch traffic engineer Hans Monderman, who pioneered the method in the Dutch province of Friesland. Prior to the adoption of the term, street design projects carried out in Chambéry, the term was used by Tim Pharoah to describe informal street layouts with no traffic demarcation.
The term has been applied, especially by Ben Hamilton-Baillie. The European Shared Space project developed new policies and methods for the design of public spaces with streets between 2004 and 2008 under the leadership of Hans Monderman until his death in 2008. A review of the evolution of the shared space concepts is offered in Transport Reviews, Shared space is a design approach rather than a design type characterised by standard features. Hans Monderman suggested that a behavior in traffic is more positively affected by the built environment of the public space than by conventional traffic control devices. A reason for the apparent paradox that reduced regulation leads to safer roads may be found by studying the risk compensation effect, were losing our capacity for socially responsible behaviour. The greater the number of prescriptions, the more peoples sense of personal responsibility dwindles. When you dont exactly know who has right of way, you tend to seek eye contact with other road users and you automatically reduce your speed, you have contact with other people and you take greater care.
Monderman has stated that objections are more a matter of communication than design, the UKs Department for Transport issued national guidance on shared space in 2011. Their primary research in Ashford, suggested that in streets with high volumes of traffic, most people, but particularly women and older people, found the shared space intimidating and preferred the previous layout with conventional crossings. There are wide-ranging reservations about the practicality of the shared space philosophy, Shared space is bitterly opposed by many organisations representing blind, partially sighted and deaf people
The Earls Court Exhibition Centre was one of the countrys largest indoor arenas and a popular concert venue until its closure in 2014. Earls Court was once an area, covered with green fields. The Saxon Thegn Edwin held the lordship of the prior to the Norman conquest. By circa 1095, his tenure had been converted, and he held Kensington directly of the crown, a church had been constructed there by 1104. The earls held their manorial court where Old Manor Yard is now, Earls Court Farm is visible on Greenwoods map of London dated 1827. The construction of the Metropolitan District Railway station in 1865–69 was a catalyst for development, in the quarter century after 1867, Earls Court was transformed into a densely populated suburb with 1,200 houses and two churches. The Earls Court ward had a population of 9,659 according to the 2001 census, following the Second World War a number of Polish immigrants settled in the Earls Court area leading to Earls Court Road being dubbed the Danzig Corridor.
During the late 1960s a large transient population of Australian and New Zealand travellers began to use Earls Court as a UK hub and over time it gained the name Kangaroo Valley. It was at the one of the cheapest areas close to central London. The area was, for a time, the place to buy. This moved off in the direction of the New North Road in the 1980s, the name Kangaroo Valley lingers on in the usage of older expatriate Australasians and Australasian visitors, as does the alternative nickname Kangaroo Court. The change in the population is largely owed to rocketing property prices. The scale of change is illustrated by the divide between the eastern and western areas of Earls Court. Despite fighting fiercely for the centre it has, according to Dave Hill in The Guardian. Howard Carter, English archaeologist and primary discoverer of the tomb of Tutankhamun, benjamin Britten, English composer, conductor and pianist, lived at 173 Cromwell Road. Edwin Arnold, English poet and journalist, lived at 31 Bolton Gardens, alfred Hitchcock, English filmmaker and producer, lived at 153 Cromwell Road.
Dame Ellen Terry, leading Shakespearian stage actress in Britain in the 1880s and 1890s, Sir William Orpen, Irish portrait painter, lived at 8 South Bolton Gardens. Norman Lockyer, English scientist and astronomer credited with discovering the gas helium, hattie Jacques an English comedy actress of stage and screen including the Carry On films, lived at 67 Eardley Crescent