Demographics of Kenya
The demography of Kenya is monitored by the Kenyan National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya is a multi-ethnic state in the Great Lakes region of East Africa, it is inhabited by Bantu and Nilotic populations, with some Cushitic-speaking ethnic minorities in the north. Its total population was estimated at 47 million as of 2017. A national census was conducted in 1999. A new census was undertaken in 2009, but turned out to be controversial, as the questions about ethnic affiliation seemed inappropriate after the ethnic violence of the previous year. Preliminary results of the census were published in 2010. Kenya's population was reported as 38.6 million during the 2009 census compared to 28.7 million inhabitants in 1999, 21.4 million in 1989, 15.3 million in 1979. This was an increase of 2.5 percent over 30 years, or an average growth rate of more than 3 percent per year. The population growth rate has been reported as reduced during the 2000s, was estimated at 2.7 percent, resulting in an estimate of 46.5 million in 2016.
Kenya has a diverse population that includes most major ethnic and linguistic groups found in Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of the nation's inhabitants. Kenya's largest ethnic group is the Kikuyu, they make up less than a fifth of the population. Since Kenyan independence in 1963, Kenyan politics have been characterized by ethnic tensions and rivalry between the larger groups; this devolved into ethnic violence in the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis. In Kenya's last colonial census of 1962, population groups residing in the territory included European and Asian individuals. According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Kenya had a population of 38,610,097 by 2009; the largest native ethnic groups were the Kikuyu, Kalenjin, Kamba, Somalis, Meru and Maasai. Foreign-rooted populations included Asians and Kenyan Arabs. Arabs form a small but important minority ethnic group in Kenya, they are principally concentrated along the coast in cities such as Mombasa. A Muslim community, they came from Oman and Hadhramaut in Yemen, are engaged in trade.
Arabs are locally referred to as Washihiri or, less as Shihiri in the Bantu Swahili language, Kenya's lingua franca. According to the 2009 Census, Kenyan Arabs number 40,760 people. Kenyan Asians are descended from South Asian migrants. Significant Asian migration to Kenya began between 1896 and 1901 when some 32,000 indentured labourers were recruited from British India to build the Kenya-Uganda Railway; the majority of Kenyan Asians hail from the Punjab regions. The community grew during the colonial period, in the 1962 census Asians made up a third of the population of Nairobi and consisted of 176,613 people across the country. Since Kenyan independence large numbers have emigrated due to race-related tensions with the Bantu and Nilotic majority; those that remain are principally concentrated in the business sector, Asians continue to form one of the more prosperous communities in the region. According to the 2009 Census, Kenyan Asians number 46,782 people, while Asians without Kenyan citizenship number 35,009 individuals.
In 2017, they were recognised at the 44th tribe of Kenya. Bantus are the single largest population division in Kenya; the term Bantu denotes dispersed but related peoples that speak south-central Niger–Congo languages. From West-Central Africa, Bantus began a millennium-long series of migrations referred to as the Bantu expansion that first brought them to southeast Africa about 2,000 years ago. Most Bantu are farmers; some of the prominent Bantu groups in Kenya include the Kikuyu, the Kamba, the Luhya, the Kisii, the Meru, the Mijikenda. The Swahili people are descended from Mijikenda Bantu peoples that intermarried with Arab and Persian immigrants. Cushitic peoples form a small minority of Kenya's population, they speak languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family and came from Ethiopia and Somalia in northeastern Africa. Most are Muslim. Cushites are concentrated in the northernmost North Eastern Province; the Cushitic peoples are divided into two groups: the Eastern Cushites. The Southern Cushites were the second-earliest inhabitants of Kenya after the indigenous hunter-gatherer groups, the first of the Cushitic-speaking peoples to migrate from their homeland in the Horn of Africa about 2,000 years ago.
They were progressively displaced in a southerly direction or absorbed, or both, by the incoming Nilotic and Bantu groups until they wound up in Tanzania. There are no longer any Southern Cushites left in Kenya.. The Eastern Cushites include the Somali. Of these, the Somali are the most recent arrivals to Kenya, having first come from Somalia a few centuries ago. After the Northern Frontier District was handed over to Kenyan nationalists at the end of British colonial rule in Kenya, Somalis in the region fought the Shifta War against Kenyan troops to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north. Although the war ended in a cease-fire, Somalis in the region still identify and maintain close ties with their kin in Somalia and see themselves as one people. An entrepreneurial community, they established themselves in the business sector in Eastleigh, Nairobi. Europeans in Kenya are primari
Malcolm John MacDonald was a British politician and diplomat. MacDonald was the son of former Prime Minister Ramsay Margaret MacDonald. Like his father, he was born in Moray, he was a Labour Member of Parliament, but in 1931 he joined his father to break with the party and join the National Government and was expelled from the Labour Party. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford. MacDonald was first elected to Parliament for Bassetlaw in the 1929 general election and proved to be a "loyal" son, in contrast to Conservative leader Stanley Baldwin's son Oliver, elected a Labour MP. In 1931, the Labour government broke up and MacDonald's father formed the National Government with representatives drawn from all political parties. Few Labour members would support it, so Malcolm was appointed to a junior ministerial post as Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs; when the Labour MPs met to discuss the formation of the government, Malcolm was the only one present who spoke in favour of his father's actions and voted against a condemnatory resolution.
MacDonald held his seat in the 1931 general election as a National Labour candidate, continued to build up a reputation as a competent minister. When his father retired in 1935, the new Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, appointed Malcolm to the Cabinet for the first time as Secretary of State for the Colonies, his father had become Lord President of the Council and they became only the third father and son to sit together in the same Cabinet. In the 1935 general election held that autumn MacDonald narrowly lost his seat but after some discussion Baldwin decided to retain him in government, albeit moving him to the post of Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs in a direct swap with James Henry Thomas who had created problems with some Dominion governments; the following February MacDonald stood for Parliament in a by-election at Cromarty. This election proved chaotic as the local Conservative & Unionist Association declined to support him and instead adopted as their candidate Randolph Churchill, son of Winston Churchill who had emerged as a prominent Conservative critic of the government.
Despite this MacDonald returned to Parliament. MacDonald retained his position after Baldwin and MacDonald's final retirements in 1937, when together with the new Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain he set about negotiating a new set of agreements with the Irish Free State to resolve disputes over trade and the Treaty Ports that the United Kingdom still retained. Although the issue of Northern Ireland could not be agreed, all other matters were settled and MacDonald won many plaudits. In May 1938, Chamberlain moved him back to the Colonial Office – a move now seen as a promotion due to the increased prominence of the position given the situation in the British Mandate of Palestine. In October, the new Dominions Secretary, Lord Stanley and MacDonald was appointed to succeed him in addition to the Colonies, as the post was in a sensitive period and needed an experienced pair of hands; the following January, he relinquished the Dominions Office. In 1939, MacDonald oversaw and introduced the so-called MacDonald White Paper which aimed at the creation of a unified state, with controls on Jewish immigration.
The White Paper argued that with over 450,000 Jews having now settled in the mandate, the Balfour Declaration had now been met and the paper opposed an independent Jewish state. The League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission held that the White Paper was in conflict with the terms of the Mandate as put forth in the past; the outbreak of the Second World War suspended any further deliberations. It has been suggested that MacDonald and Chamberlain took this course of action in order to ensure that the situation in Palestine did not develop into a situation similar to that of Ireland where two evenly matched communities engaged in bitter ethnic conflict. With antisemitism rampant in Europe, MacDonald sought to find new settlements, in vain; the White Paper was bitterly opposed by the Jews in Palestine, as well as by many supporting the National Government in Britain. When it was voted on in Parliament many Government supporters abstained or voted against the proposals, including some Cabinet Ministers as well as Winston Churchill.
The objections to the'white paper' were raised following the plight of European Jews under Nazi regimes in Germany and Austria, who suffered under the Nazi oppression, but did not have other available goals of immigration, as most states at this point, did not accept Jewish refugees. In a UK Parliamentary debate, Lloyd George called the White Paper an act of perfidy while Winston Churchill voted against the government. In a leader the Manchester Guardian called it "a death sentence on tens of thousands of Central European Jews" The Liberal MP James Rothschild stated during the parliamentary debate that "for the majority of the Jews who go to Palestine it is a question of migration or of physical extinction". In May 1940, Chamberlain fell and Winston Churchill formed an all party coalition, bringing the Labour Party into the National Government for the first time. There was some speculation that their hostility might result in MacDonald being amongst the ministers dropped to make way for them but instead MacDonald was retained and became Minister of Health.
In June 1940, he was sent to Dublin for a series of meetings with Éamon de Valera: he was authorised to offer the end of the Partition of Ireland if the Free State would enter the war on the Allied side. De Vale
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Kenya African Union
The Kenya African Union was an organization devoted to achieving independence for British Kenya. In 1960 it became the current Kenya African National Union; the Kenya African Union was founded in 1944 under name Kenya African Study Union. The word "study" was dropped in 1947 when Jomo Kenyatta became the leader of the party. At the time Kenya was among several African colonies experiencing misrule as a result of the European power's distracting involvement in World War II. Kenyan Africans tried to use KAU to gain political rights through nonviolent approaches; the Kenya African Union formed to demand independence for Kenya in the early 1950s through a more forceful approach. Many protests and riots led to the organisation being proscribed in 1952, several of its leaders being detained; the guerilla warfare tactics of the Land and Freedom Army led to Kikuyus Kambas and others being labeled "Mau Mau" by the British. Displeased by this designation, Jomo Kenyatta gave a speech in 1952 to prove that the Kenya African Union was not what the British believed it was.
Kenyatta stated that the Mau Mau was an organization that promoted violence while the KAU was an organization that didn't. In his speech, Kenyatta stated the desire for all of Kenya to be united in order for the people to gain their independence. Along with his speech Kenyatta said that he would set up a government system to help settle the land differentiations and maintain peace in Kenya; the KAU began weak under the British. Kenya achieved independence and adopted a parliamentary system due to the leadership of politicians, part of KAU. Despite guerrilla warfare and protests, the peaceful negotiations led by former KAU leaders prevailed, inspiring other movements across Africa and the world; the Royal Commission helped settle the land arguments between the British and the Kenyans. The Royal Commission helped make government decisions and proved that the KAU was an organization that desired peace and tranquility
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
Edward Northey (British Army officer)
Major General Sir Edward Northey was a senior British Army officer of the First World War who commanded a brigade on the Western Front until wounded in 1915. Returning to service in 1916, Northey took command of a colonial force in Nyasaland in the East African Campaign becoming Governor of Kenya, he served as a general of Territorial forces and retired in 1926. Edward Northey was born in 1868 and educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, being commissioned into the King's Royal Rifle Corps in 1888, he served in expeditions to Hazara and the Miranzai Valley in 1891 and one to Isazai the following year. In 1899, Northey took part in the Second Boer War, remaining in the theatre until 1902; when the First World War broke out in 1914, Northey was a lieutenant colonel in the King's Royal Rifle Corps and served with the regiment on the Western Front during the first year of the war. In March 1915, Northey was promoted to brigadier-general and took over the 15th Infantry Brigade but was wounded during the Second Battle of Ypres.
The date is unclear, but Northey was surveying the site of a new communication trench when he was struck in the thigh by shrapnel. Returning to the army in 1916 after recovering from his wound, Northey was posted to Nyasaland in command of the Nyasa-Rhodesia Field Force, operating against Lettow-Vorbeck's indigenous and German forces in the East African Campaign. Northey was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1917 and was appointed Knight of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1918 for his war service, the same year he was promoted to major-general, he was elevated Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St George. At the war's end Northey was appointed Governor of the British East Africa Protectorate, which became known as Kenya in 1920. On 16 October 1919 The Times newspaper reported that Sir Edward Northey had met with an accident, while playing polo, which required the removal of his right eye; the accident occurred in British East Africa. In 1919, Northey issued a circular which instructed government officials to coerce African labour to work on European-owned farms and estates, despite earlier Colonial Office objections to this plan.
The scandal generated by the Northey proposal caused the Colonial Office to make clear in 1921 that compulsory paid labour by local Africans could only be used on government projects, not to direct labour to European estates, only if necessary and with Colonial Office approval. In 1922, Northey was transferred to the lesser post of High Commissioner of Zanzibar, returning to Britain in 1924 to return to military service. On his return, Northey was placed in command of the 43rd Infantry Division, a Territorial Army formation; this responsibility was shared with command of the South West Area of Britain, Northey performed well at both duties until his retirement from military service in 1926. Northey died in 1953 after a peaceful retirement