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Kenzō Tange

Kenzō Tange was a Japanese architect, winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, designed major buildings on five continents, his career spanned the entire second half of the twentieth century, producing numerous distinctive buildings in Tokyo, other Japanese cities and cities around the world, as well as ambitious physical plans for Tokyo and its environs. Tange was an influential patron of the Metabolist movement, he said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was to call structuralism", a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism. Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier, Tange gained international recognition in 1949 when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, he was a member of CIAM in the 1950s. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X, though his 1960 Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism.

His university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War. His ideas were explored in designs for Skopje. Tange's work influenced a generation of architects across the world. Born on 4 September 1913 in Osaka, Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai. In contrast to the green lawns and red bricks in their Shanghai abode, the Tange family took up residence in a thatched roof farmhouse in Imabari on the island of Shikoku. After finishing middle school, Tange moved to Hiroshima in 1930 to attend high school, it was here that he first encountered the works of Le Corbusier. His discovery of the drawings of the Palace of the Soviets in a foreign art journal convinced him to become an architect. Although he graduated from high school, Tange's poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance exams to qualify for admission to the prestigious universities, he spent two years doing so and during that time, he read extensively about western philosophy.

Tange enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its military and attended classes. In 1935 Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo's architecture department, he studied under Shozo Uchida. Although Tange was fascinated by the photographs of Katsura villa that sat on Kishida's desk, his work was inspired by Le Corbusier, his graduation project was a seventeen-hectare development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, toured Japanese-occupied Jehol on his return; when the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces.

In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. He was awarded first prize for a design; the design was not realised. In 1946, Tange opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering, his students included Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki. Tange's interest in urban studies put him in a good position to handle post war reconstruction. In the summer of 1946 he was invited by the War Damage Rehabilitation Board to put forward a proposal for certain war damaged cities, he submitted plans for Maebashi. His design for an airport in Kanon, Hiroshima was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not; the Hiroshima authorities took advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants, in 1947 Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested they build a Peace Memorial and preserve buildings situated near ground zero, that point directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb.

In 1949 the authorities enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, in August 1949, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard and the atomic bomb dome; the building is raised on massive columns. The Centro Direzionale is a service center in Italy; the district is devoted to business. The project of the Centro Direzionale dates back to 1964, it was designed in 1982 by Tange. The layout includes 18 blocks of buildings, with high-rises up to 100 meters. There are office buildings as well as residential flats; the Center is meant to accommodate most, if not all, of the administrative offices of the city of Naples, such as the new Hall of Justice. It includes a pedestrian zone at ground level with shops and hotels. There is an u

Counter-illumination

Counter-illumination is a method of active camouflage seen in marine animals such as firefly squid and midshipman fish, in military prototypes, producing light to match their backgrounds in both brightness and wavelength. Marine animals of the mesopelagic zone tend to appear dark against the bright water surface when seen from below, they can camouflage themselves from predators but from their prey, by producing light with bioluminescent photophores on their downward-facing surfaces, reducing the contrast of their silhouettes against the background. The light may be produced by the animals themselves, or by symbiotic bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri. Counter-illumination differs from countershading, which uses only pigments such as melanin to reduce the appearance of shadows, it is one of the dominant types of aquatic camouflage, along with silvering. All three methods make. Counter-illumination has not so far come into widespread military use, but during the Second World War it was trialled in ships in the Canadian Diffused lighting camouflage project, in aircraft in the American Yehudi lights project.

In the sea, counter-illumination is one of three dominant methods of underwater camouflage, the other two being transparency and silvering. Among marine animals crustaceans and fish, counter-illumination camouflage occurs where bioluminescent light from photophores on an organism's ventral surface is matched to the light radiating from the environment; the bioluminescence is used to obscure the organism's silhouette produced by the down-welling light. Counter-illumination differs from countershading used by many marine animals, which uses pigments to darken the upper side of the body while the underside is as light as possible with pigment, namely white. Countershading fails when the light falling on the animal's underside is too weak to make it appear as bright as the background; this occurs when the background is the bright ocean surface, the animal is swimming in the mesopelagic depths of the sea. Counter-illumination goes further than countershading brightening the underside of the body.

Counter-illumination relies on organs that produce photophores. These are spherical structures that appear as luminous spots on many marine animals, including fish and cephalopods; the organ can be simple, or as complex as the human eye, equipped with lenses, colour filters and reflectors. In the Hawaiian bobtail squid light is produced in a large and complex two-lobed light organ inside the squid's mantle cavity. At the top of the organ is a reflector, directing the light downwards. Below this are containers lined with epithelium containing light-producing symbiotic bacteria. Below those is a kind of iris, consisting of branches of its ink sac. Both the reflector and the lens are derived from mesoderm. Light escapes from the organ downwards, some of it travelling directly, some coming off the reflector; some 95% of the light-producing bacteria are voided at dawn every morning. The emitted light shines through the skin of the squid's underside. To reduce light production, the squid can change the shape of its iris.

The light production is correlated with the intensity of down-welling light but about one third as bright. At night, nocturnal organisms match both the wavelength and the light intensity of their bioluminescence to that of the down-welling moonlight and direct it downward as they swim, to help them remain unnoticed by any observers below. In the eyeflash squid a species which daily migrates between the surface and deep waters, a study showed that the light produced is bluer in cold waters and greener in warmer waters, temperature serving as a guide to the required emission spectrum; the animal has more than 550 photophores on its underside, consisting of rows of four to six large photophores running across the body, many smaller photophores scattered over the surface. In cold water at 11 Celsius, the squid's photophores produced a simple spectrum with its peak at 490 nanometres. In warmer water at 24 Celsius, the squid added a weaker emission at around 440 nanometres, from the same group of photophores.

Other groups remained unilluminated: other species, A. veranyi from its other groups of photophores, can produce a third spectral component when needed. Another squid, Abralia trigonura, is able to produce three spectral components: at 440 and at 536 nanometres, appearing at 25 Celsius from the same photophores. Many species can in addition vary the light they emit by passing it through a choice of colour filters. Counterillumination camouflage halved predation among individuals employing it compared to those not employing it in the midshipman fish Porichthys notatus; the bioluminescence used for counter-illumination can be either autogenic (produced by the animal itself, as in pelagic cephalopods such as Vampyroteuthis and pelagic oc

Ghisi Shield

The Ghisi Shield is a piece of Renaissance parade armour made by the Italian goldsmith and engraver Giorgio Ghisi and dated 1554. It is part of the Waddesdon Bequest, held by the British Museum in London since 1898; the shield is made with its rim turned over a wire. The decoration on the outer face is damascened in gold and plated with silver, it is 55.8 centimetres in diameter, 7 centimetres deep, weighs 3.8 kilograms. An inscription on the front of the shield reads, "GEORGIVS DE GHISYS MNTVANZ FA M. D. LIIII". Ghisi was an artist a printmaker, from Mantua, but he was in the Netherlands from about 1550 to about 1555, the shield was made in Antwerp under the rule of the Habsburgs, it is one of only two surviving pieces of damascened metalwork known to have been made by Ghisi. The intricately decorated shield, damascened with gold and silver, was intended for display, not for use in battle, it is embossed with repoussé and chased work in high relief, with a framed central circular scene of battling horseman, surrounded by four strapwork cartouches containing allegorical female figures.

The frames around the five main scenes themselves incorporate detailed images on a much smaller scale, taken from the Iliad and ancient mythology, inlaid in gold. Further imagery of birds, putti and other figures, fills the field between the frames; the shield may have been designed by a Netherlandish artist, not Ghisi himself: other shields made in the Netherlands in the late 16th century have survived with similar decoration, but none of them demonstrate the accomplished decorative skills of Ghisi. For example, an iron shield held by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has similar strapwork and embossed imagery with scenes of Jason and the Golden Fleece; the Ghisi Shield was sold for £1,000 at the Allègre sale in Paris in 1863, sold in the sale of the Demidov Collection in Paris in 1870, shortly before the death of Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, 1st Prince of San Donato, for 1,600,000 francs. It was bought at the Demidov sale by Baron Anselm von Rothschild, inherited by his son Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, who left it to the British Museum after his death in 1898 as part of the Waddesdon Bequest.

The Ghisi Shield, British Museum, London. Includes the entry from "Bury 2001": Bury, The Print in Italy: 1550-1620, British Museum, 2001 The Ghisi Shield, British Museum The Engravings of Giorgio Ghisi, Michal Lewis, R. E. Lewis, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1985, ISBN 0870993976, 9780870993978, p.17-18 Rondache, The Hermitage, St Petersburg "Vliesschild", Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Spinnin' for 2012

"Spinnin' for 2012" is a song by British soul singer-songwriter Dionne Bromfield and rapper Tinchy Stryder. It was released on 23 September 2011 to Amazon and iTunes as a digital download in the United Kingdom, it is the Official Olympic Torch Relay Song for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The song appears on Bromfield's album Good for the Soul; the song is a reworked version of a Speech Debelle original, with both Stryder and Bromfield rewriting the track's lyrics. Joking about being unsuccessful in obtaining Olympic 2012 tickets, Stryder told The Sun: "I didn't get any tickets in the end, like loads of other people. I had no luck. I'm hoping that this song will get us a few, though." He went on to say, "I must be in with a chance, surely. I'm desperate to see some of the events, it will be massive. I'd love to watch the men's 100m final." Dionne Bromfield and Tinchy Stryder performed the song live on ITV entertainment programme Born to Shine. The song was scheduled to be performed on another ITV program Lorraine on Tuesday, 27 September 2011, but this did not proceed.

The music video was filmed in London, UK by US director Dale "Rage" Resteghini, known to be the favorite music video director for Soulja Boy. The video was premiered on Dionne Bromfield's YouTube channel on Thursday, 21 July 2011, at a total length of two minutes and fifty-six seconds; the video sees Tinchy Stryder and Dionne Bromfield in a black colored Mini Convertible driving around City of London and past Tower Bridge the scene switches to them both in a dark place, standing on a stage, where Bromfield and Stryder begin to dance on the stage surrounded by lighted torches. Bromfield is first dressed in a Union Jack decorated sleeveless shirt, before having a change of clothing, she proceeds to sing, with Stryder following up with pop rap rhymes over post-dubstep beats about success, he leaves out multisyllabic rhymes in this song in order to accommodate the purpose of the song; the last scene in the video sees Bromfield in two different outfits singing in front of dancers in front of a wall Stryder reappears in the scene and him and Bromfield strike a pose, before dap greeting proceeding back to the black colored Mini Convertible and driving away

Pancake lens

A pancake lens is colloquial term for a flat, thin lens a normal or wide prime lens for a camera. Pancake lenses are valued for providing quality optics in a compact package; the resulting camera and lens assembly may be small enough to be pocketable, a design feature, impractical with conventional SLR bodies and lens assemblies. Pancake lenses can be short and flat because they do not need large amounts of optical correction, i.e. extra lens elements. The problem arises when such lenses have too short a focal length to fit in front of the retractable mirrors used in reflex cameras. In such a situation, a pancake lens focuses in front of, rather than on, the focal plane of the camera; this has necessitated the design of retrofocus lenses that refocus the image further back, why such lenses are longer and bulkier than their "pancake" equivalents. Pancake-style prime lenses are simpler to manufacture than pancake zoom lenses like Sony E PZ 16-50mm F3.5-5.6 due to the general lack of an internal micromotor and fewer image correcting elements, allowing for a thinner profile.

Because of this limitation, pancake zoom lenses are much less common. While there is no specific size and weight in defining a pancake lens, most are light-weight and no more than a few centimeters in length; this varies depending upon the lens' build quality, focal length, maximum aperture. A body-cap lens is an extreme type of pancake lens, designed to both protect the camera internals as a body cap would, yet still allow the user to take photos; these lenses have no more than a couple optical lens elements, no image correcting elements, a very-slow fixed aperture, an thin focusing ring, a retractable lens element cover. Due to this compromise in design, body-cap lenses suffer from numerous image quality issues such as heavy vignetting and poor image sharpness. Examples of body-cap lenses include the Olympus Body Cap Lens 15mm f/8 and the Fujifilm XM-FL 24mm f/8. In the 1960s and 1970s the Nikon GN lens was a notable example, while in the 1970s and 1980s pancake lenses were used in compact single lens reflex cameras.

Throughout the 2010s, the design has seen a resurgence due to the growth of the mirrorless interchangeable-lens digital camera market. Pancake lenses have become lighter and feature thinner profiles than years past. An extreme example of this trend would be the Pentax DA 40mm F2.8 XS, released in 2012 and measuring only 9.14 millimetres long

Barthélémy Chinenyeze

Barthélémy Chinenyeze is a French volleyball player, a member of France men's national volleyball team and Polish club Asseco Resovia Rzeszów. He joined to French national team in 2017 and participated at the European Championship and the World Grand Champions Cup, he was a gold medalist of 2017 World League. On March 2, 2018 he went to Polish club Asseco Resovia Rzeszów because of injury of Bartłomiej Lemański. 2016/2017 French Championship, with Spacer's de Toulouse 2017 FIVB World League