Speech from the throne
A speech from the throne is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session. When a session is opened, the address sets forth the government's priorities with respect to its legislative agenda, for which the cooperation of the legislature is sought; the speech is accompanied with formal ceremony and is held annually, although in some places it may occur more or less whenever a new session of the legislature is opened. When monarchs exercised personal influence and overall decision-making in government, a speech from the throne would outline the policies and objectives of the monarch. In constitutional monarchies today, whether by law or by convention, the head of state reads the speech from the throne, but it is prepared by the ministers in cabinet; the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway are the only contemporary European monarchies in which the practice of the country's monarch giving a "throne speech" is still observed.
In other nations, the monarch may attend or still open the country's legislature and may give a speech but these speeches differ from the traditional throne speech in that they do not outline any government agenda. Many republics have adopted a similar practice in which the head of state a president, addresses the legislature. Of contemporary European monarchies today: the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway, still practice the traditional "throne speech" given by the monarch, outlining the government's agenda, with similar ceremonial. In other countries the monarch may or may not attend the opening of the country's legislature and may give a speech though these speeches would differ from the traditional throne speech in that they do not outline any government agenda. In the United Kingdom, the speech is known as Her Majesty's Most Gracious Speech, the Gracious Address, or, less formally, the Queen's Speech. In Canada, it is known as the Speech from the Throne. Since 1973, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec has delivered a short inaugural address termed the Allocution, after which the premier reads his or her Discours d'ouverture, called the Message inaugural from 1974 to 1984.
In Australia, this speech is called the Governor's opening speech. In Hong Kong, the governor's address was termed the Policy Address during Chris Patten's governorship. In the Irish Free State, the governor-general delivered the Governor-General's Address to Dáil Éireann. In the Commonwealth realms, the Speech From the Throne is an oration that forms part of a ceremony marking the opening of parliament; some records indicate the ceremony has taken place since the Medieval era, while others place its origins in the 16th century, when England was an absolute monarchy. The speech explained to parliament the reasons it was summoned and sometimes set out the sovereign's policies and objectives; the monarch would sometimes speak to parliament in person. However, various other figures gave the oration on the sovereign's behalf: between 1347 and 1363, it was read by the Chief Justice, it was given on his behalf by the Bishop of Winchester in 1410. It may have been written by or with the input of the king or queen's advisers, the monarch, as supreme governor, was the principal author.
Today, within the tenets of constitutional monarchy, the speech is written by the sitting cabinet, with or without the reader's participation, outlines the legislative programme for the new parliamentary session. Due to the parliamentary tradition of the sovereign being barred from the lower chamber, in those realms possessing a bicameral parliament, the ceremony takes place in the legislature's upper chamber, with members of both houses in attendance. In unicameral parliaments, the speech is read in the one legislative chamber. Unusually, in the Irish Free State, the speech was delivered in the lower house of its bicameral parliament. In the United Kingdom, the speech is read by the reigning sovereign at the State Opening of Parliament. Traditions surrounding the Opening and the speech go back to the 16th century; the ceremony now occurs annually soon after a general election. The monarch may, appoint a delegate to perform the task in his or her place.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Prince Rupert, British Columbia
Prince Rupert is a port city in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Located on Kaien Island, Prince Rupert is the land and water transportation hub of British Columbia's North Coast, has a population of 12,220 people. Prince Rupert was incorporated on March 10, 1910, it was named for Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, as the result of an open competition held by the Grand Trunk Railway, the prize for, $250. Prior to the opening of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, which developed a terminus at Prince Rupert, the business centre on the North Coast was Port Essington on the Skeena River. After the founding of Prince Rupert at the western terminus of the GTP, Port Essington was bypassed by many businesses and declined to being a fishing community. Charles Melville Hays, president of the Grand Trunk Railway, had many grand ideas for Prince Rupert, including berthing facilities for large passenger ships and the development of a major tourism industry.
These plans fell through when Hays died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic in April 1912. Mount Hays, the larger of two mountains on Kaien Island, is named in his honour, as is a local high school, Charles Hays Secondary School. Local politicians used the promise of a highway connected to the mainland as an incentive, the city grew over the next several decades. American troops completed the road between Prince Rupert and Terrace during World War II to facilitate the movement of thousands of allied troops to the Aleutian Islands and the Pacific. Several forts were built to protect the city at Fredrick Point. After World War II, the fishing industry for salmon and halibut, forestry became the city's major industries. Prince Rupert was considered the Halibut Capital of the World until the early 1980s. A long-standing dispute over fishing rights in the Dixon Entrance to the Hecate Strait between American and Canadian fisherman led to the formation of the 54-40 or Fight Society; the United States Coast Guard maintains a base in Alaska.
In 1946, the Government of Canada, through an Order in Council, granted the Department of National Defence the power to administer and maintain facilities to collect data in support of communications research. The Royal Canadian Navy was allotted forty positions. In either 1948 or 1949, Prince Rupert ceased operations, the positions were relocated to RCAF Whitehorse, Yukon; the 1949 Queen Charlotte earthquake, with a surface wave magnitude of 8.1 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII, broke windows and swayed buildings on August 22. In Summer 1958, Prince Rupert endured a riot over racial discrimination. Ongoing discontent with heavy-handed police practices towards Aboriginals escalated to rioting during a Port Days celebration following the arrest of an Aboriginal couple; as many as 1,000 people began skirmishing with police. The Riot Act was read for only the second time since Confederation. Over the years, hundreds of students were said to have paid their way through school by working in the lucrative fishing industry.
Construction of a pulp mill began in 1947 and it was operating by 1951. The construction of coal and grain shipping terminals followed. From the 1960s into the 1980s, the city constructed many improvements, including a civic centre, swimming pool, public library, golf course and performing arts centre; these developments that marked the town's changes from a mill town into a small city. In the 1990s, both the fishing and forestry industries suffered a significant downturn in economic activity. In July 1997, Canadian fishermen blockaded the Alaska Marine Highway ferry M/V Malaspina, keeping it in the port as a protest in the salmon fishing rights dispute between Alaska and British Columbia; the forest industry declined when a softwood lumber dispute arose between Canada and the USA. After the pulp mill closed down, many people were unemployed, much modern machinery was left unused. After reaching a peak of about 18,000 in the early 1990s, Prince Rupert's population began to decline, as people left in search of work.
The years from 1996 to 2004 were difficult for Prince Rupert, with closure of the pulp mill, the burning down of a fish plant and a significant population decline. 2005 may be viewed as a critical turning point: the announcement of the construction of a container port in April 2005, combined with new ownership of the pulp mill, the opening in 2004 of a new cruise ship dock, the resurgence of coal and grain shipping, the prospects of increased heavy industry and tourism may foretell a bright future for the area. Prince Rupert was ranked 193rd of the 200 Canadian cities in MoneySense Magazine's "Best Places 2013", the lowest rank of any city in British Columbia. Prince Rupert is situated on Kaien Island, just north of the mouth of Skeena River, linked by a short bridge to the mainland; the city is located along the island's northwestern shore. At the western terminus of Trans-Canada Highway 16, Prince Rupert is 16 km west of Port Edward, 144 km west of Terrace, 715 km west of Prince George. Prince Rupert has an oceanic climate and is located in a temperate rainforest.
Prince Rupert is known as “The City of Rainbows”, as it is Canada's wettest city, with 2,590 millimetres of annual precipitation on average, of which 2,470 millimetres is rain.
Great Bear Rainforest
The Great Bear Rainforest is a temperate rain forest on the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada comprising 6.4 million hectares. It is part of the larger Pacific temperate rainforest ecoregion, the largest coastal temperate rainforest in the world; the Great Bear Rainforest was recognized by the Government of British Columbia in February 2016, when it announced an agreement to permanently protect 85% of the old-growth forested area from industrial logging. The forest was admitted to the Queen's Commonwealth Canopy in September of the same year; the size of the Great Bear Rainforest called the North and Central Coast land use planning area or the Central and North Coast LRMP area, is 32,000 km2. As part of the 2006 North and Central Coast Land Use Decision three new land use zones were created: Protected Areas; as of 2009 16,000 km2 of the region has been designated as protected areas, 3,000 km2 as BMTAs. Commercial timber harvesting and commercial hydro-electric power projects are prohibited within BMTAs.
The Great Bear Rainforest extends from the Discovery Islands in the south to the BC-Alaska boundary in the north. It includes all offshore islands within this range except Vancouver Island and the archipelago of Haida Gwaii, its northern end reaches up Portland Canal to the vicinity of Stewart. To the south it includes Prince Rupert, most of Douglas Channel, half of Hawkesbury Island, part of Gardner Canal. Kitimat is to the east. Farther south, the region includes all of the coast west and south of the Fiordland Conservancy, Kitlope Heritage Conservancy Protected Area, Tweedsmuir North and Tweedsmuir South Provincial Parks—which includes Dean Channel, Burke Channel, Rivers Inlet, the communities of Bella Bella, Bella Coola, Hagensborg; the southern end of the region includes Bute Inlet. The Great Bear Rainforest is one of the largest remaining tracts of unspoiled temperate rainforest left in the world; the area is home to species such as cougars, salmon, grizzly bears, the Kermode bear, a unique subspecies of the black bear, in which one in ten cubs displays a recessive white coloured coat.
The forest features 90-metre Sitka spruce. Coastal temperate rainforests are characterized by their proximity to mountains. Abundant rainfall results when the atmospheric flow of moist air off the ocean collides with mountain ranges. Much of the Pacific coastline of North America shares this climate pattern, including portions of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Northern California. In the early 1990s environmentalists launched a large scale campaign to protect the Clayoquot Sound region of Vancouver Island. After years of conflict the British Columbia government announced a ban on clear-cutting in the Clayoquot rainforests and began a local planning process that incorporated First Nations of the area and independent scientists; the Clayoquot Sound campaign became the model for the Great Bear Rainforest campaign. Techniques used at Clayoquot Sound were further developed and new approaches adopted, such as international marketing campaigns, improved mapping technologies, the use of large-scale holistic ecosystem-based management models.
In 1997 the central and northern BC coastal region was renamed "Great Bear Rainforest" by a network of ENGOs, including Greenpeace, Sierra Club BC, Stand.earth, for the purpose of galvanizing an international campaign for its protection. The name, chosen without consulting local residents, was by 2005 being used by many organizations, including news media outlets; as Maureen Gail Reed writes, "the emotive significance of such a name cannot be underestimated". In May 2004, after years of conflict and negotiation, the various stakeholders agreed to recommend the BC government that about 3,500,000 acres, about 33% of the Great Bear Rainforest, be put under some form of protection, that new forms of ecosystem-based forestry be required throughout the rainforest; this fell short of the scientific recommendations, which had concluded that 44%–70% should be protected. The recommendation given to the BC government was a compromise solution agreed to by the many stakeholders after years of difficult negotiations.
The stakeholders include local governments. On 7 February 2006 a comprehensive protection package was announced for the Great Bear Rainforest, defined to include the central and north coasts of BC and Haida Gwaii; the Great Bear Rainforest Agreement included four key elements: rainforest protection, improved logging practices, the involvement of First Nations in decision making, conservation financing to enable economic diversification. The final agreement banned logging in 33% of the Great Bear Rainforest and made a commitment to implement ecosystem-based forestry management for the entire Great Bear Rainforest by 2009; the 2006 agreement between the BC government and a wide coalition of conservationists, loggers and First Nations established a series of conservancies stretching 400 kilometres along the coast. The proposed protected areas will contain 18,000 square kilometres
The white tiger or bleached tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger, reported in the wild from time to time in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Bihar in the Sunderbans region and in the former State of Rewa. Such a tiger has the black stripes typical of the Bengal tiger, but carries a white or near-white coat; the white Bengal tigers are distinctive due to the color of their fur. The white fur caused by a lack of the pigment pheomelanin, found in Bengal tigers with orange color fur; when compared to Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers tend to grow faster and heavier than the orange Bengal tiger. They tend to be somewhat bigger at birth, as grown adults. White Bengal tigers are grown when they are 2–3 years of age. White male tigers can grow up to 3 meters in length; as with all tigers, the white Bengal tiger’s stripes are like fingerprints, with no two tigers having the same pattern. The stripes of the tiger are a pigmentation of the skin. For a white Bengal tiger to be born, both parents must carry the unusual gene for white colouring, which only happens about once in 10,000 births.
Dark-striped white individuals are well-documented in the Bengal tiger subspecies as well as having been reported in several other subspecies. Several hundred white tigers are in captivity worldwide, with about one hundred being found in India, their unique white color fur has made them popular in entertainment showcasing exotic animals, at zoos. An additional genetic condition can remove most of the striping of a white tiger, making the animal pure white. One such specimen was exhibited at Exeter Change in England in 1820, described by Georges Cuvier as "A white variety of Tiger is sometimes seen, with the stripes opaque, not to be observed except in certain angles of light." Naturalist Richard Lydekker said that, "a white tiger, in which the fur was of a creamy tint, with the usual stripes faintly visible in certain parts, was exhibited at the old menagerie at Exeter Change about the year 1820." Hamilton Smith said, "A wholly white tiger, with the stripe-pattern visible only under reflected light, like the pattern of a white tabby cat, was exhibited in the Exeter Change Menagerie in 1820.", John George Wood stated that, "a creamy white, with the ordinary tigerine stripes so faintly marked that they were only visible in certain lights."
Edwin Henry Landseer drew this tigress in 1824. The modern strain of snow white tigers came from repeated brother–sister matings of Bhim and Sumita at Cincinnati Zoo; the gene involved may have come from a Siberian tiger, via their part-Siberian ancestor Tony. Continued inbreeding appears to have caused a recessive gene for stripelessness to show up. About one fourth of Bhim and Sumita's offspring were stripeless, their striped white offspring, which have been sold to zoos around the world, may carry the stripeless gene. Because Tony's genome is present in many white tiger pedigrees, the gene may be present in other captive white tigers; as a result, stripeless white tigers have appeared in zoos as far afield as the Czech Republic and Mexico. Stage magicians Siegfried & Roy were the first to attempt to selectively breed tigers for stripelessness. In 2004, a blue-eyed, stripeless white tiger was born in a wildlife refuge in Spain, its parents are normal orange Bengals. The cub was named Artico. A white tiger's pale coloration is due to the lack of the red and yellow pheomelanin pigments that produce the orange coloration.
This had long been thought to be due to a mutation in the gene for the tyrosinase enzyme. A knockout mutation in this gene results in albinism, the inability to make either pheomelanin or eumelanin, while a less severe mutation in the same gene in other mammals results in selective loss of pheomelanin, the so-called Chinchilla trait; the white phenotype in tigers had been attributed to such a Chinchilla mutation in tyrosinase, in the past white tigers were sometimes referred to as'partial albinos'. However, whole genome sequencing of normal and white tigers demonstrated instead that a naturally-occurring point mutation in the SLC45A2 gene is responsible; the resultant single amino acid substitution introduces an alanine residue that protrudes into the transport protein's central passageway blocking it, by a mechanism yet to be determined this prevents pheomelanin expression in the fur. Mutations in the same gene are known to underlie the cream coloration of horses, play a role in the paler skin of humans of European descent.
This is a recessive trait, meaning that it is only seen in individuals that are homozygous for this mutation, but that white tigers can be bred from any colored Bengal tiger pair each possessing the unique mutation. Inbreeding promotes recessive traits and has been used as a strategy to produce white tigers in captivity, but this has resulted in a range of other genetic defects; the stripe color varies due to the interaction of other genes. Another genetic characteristic makes the stripes of the tiger pale. White tigers, Siamese cats, Himalayan rabbits have enzymes in their fur which react to temperature, causing them to grow darker in the cold. A white tiger named Mohini was whiter than her relatives in
Hazelton, British Columbia
Hazelton is a village located at the junction of the Bulkley and Skeena Rivers in northern British Columbia, Canada. It was founded in 1866 and has a population of 305; the nearby larger community of New Hazelton is the northernmost point of the Yellowhead Highway, a major interprovincial highway which runs from Prince Rupert, British Columbia to Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. The Hazelton area comprises two municipalities, three unincorporated settlements, four First Nations’ villages: three of which are of the Gitxsan people and one of the Wetʼsuwetʼen people -; the Hazeltons are home to the Wet ` suwet ` en First Nations. Hazelton is one of the oldest settlements in northern British Columbia. Hazelton was the original gateway and staging area for the Omineca Gold Rush of 1869-73. Besides the hunt for riches, there was one other important reason to visit: it had the only proper hospital for hundreds of miles in any direction. One of its other, less appreciated, distinctions was in having dozens of roaming and howling sled dogs, as nearly everyone had their own team and many were allowed to run free.
Transportation options got better in 1891 when the Hudson's Bay Company’s sternwheeler Caledonia arrived from Port Essington. Being the head of navigation on the Skeena, Hazelton was to play host to more than a dozen sternwheelers throughout the next twenty-two years. Two Mile was a community two miles out of Hazelton. During the gold rush and rail construction, it was home to a stopping house and a prosperous red-light district; when it was announced in 1903, that the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway would be coming through near Hazelton, another flurry of excitement erupted and hundreds of settlers poured into the district, buying whatever land they could get a hold of. Everyone was certain there was a fortune to be made and Hazelton was advertised as the "Spokane of Canada". What made Hazelton more attractive was her mines, the Silver Standard and the Rocher de Boule. In 1911 two rival town-sites, Robert Kelly’s New Hazelton and the Grand Trunk Pacific’s South Hazelton both came into existence and competed to sell the most lots.
Thus, the original Hazelton was called "Old" and together they became known as the "Three Hazeltons". Where the railway station would be built was an issue for many years until both South and New Hazelton received one; the first car, a Flanders 20, arrived in Hazelton on the evening of October 4, 1911. It came from Seattle, it did not arrive by rail, which wouldn't be completed from Prince Rupert until 1912, nor did it come in by sternwheeler. It was brought in overland from Seattle. None of the people in town believed that story, as it was nearly impossible to walk into Hazelton overland in 1911, much less drive; the next day everyone went to go see the car where it was parked in front of the Hazelton Hotel and questioned the owner, PE Sands, on how he had accomplished the feat. At a banquet held in his honour that evening, Sands revealed his secret, he had brought along a mechanic and they had had to disassemble the car and load it onto mules. They'd had enough of doing that by the time they reached Hazelton.
They packed the car up on a sternwheeler and went to Skeena Crossing where the car was loaded on the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway for the trip to Prince Rupert. There the car was loaded on a coastal steamer for the trip back to Seattle. At a banquet given in Seattle by the Pacific Highway Association in November, he was presented with the Challoner & Mitchell trophy, a solid 14 ct. gold medallion in the shape a small wheel, now owned by the Village of Hazelton. The automobile is now on display at the Kittitas County Historical Museum in Washington. In November 1913, the Union Bank at New Hazelton was robbed by gunmen. In the commission of the crime, a young bank teller by the name of Jock McQueen was mortally wounded. Though a posse was swiftly formed to go after them, the bandits got away with $16,000, a great deal of money in those days; the second robbery occurred on April 7, 1914 a red letter day for the area as the last spike of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was being driven 180 mi away in Fort Fraser.
Little did anyone know that an historic event was about to happen right there in New Hazelton, one that would be remembered in hundreds of Canadian history books. Luckily, someone was there with a camera; those pictures would become among the most famous of that era in British Columbia. Hazelton has humid continental climate. Winters are milder than what the latitude may suggest, owing to pacific air masses; the average temperature in January is −8.9 °C and from December to February, there are an average of 32 days where the maximum temperature reaches or surpasses freezing. However, Arctic air masses can push temperatures below − 30.0 °C. The average annual snowfall is 185 cm. Summers are warm with a July daytime high of 23.3 °C although night time temperatures are cool, with a July low of 9.1 °C. In an average summer, there are 7 days where the temperature exceeds 30 °C; the average annual precipitation is 614 mm with March and April being the driest months and October through January being the wetter months.
The record high was 36.7 °C on August 20, 1977 and the record low was −40.5 °C on January 8, 1991. Cataline – a well-known packer, he served Hazelton throughout most of his career and chose to retire in Hazelton. Sperry Cline