Kerosene known as paraffin, lamp oil, coal oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid, derived from petroleum. It is used as a fuel in aviation as well as households, its name derives from Greek: κηρός meaning "wax", was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in industrial usage; the term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, while the term paraffin is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, in the United Kingdom. The term lamp oil, or the equivalent in the local languages, is common in the majority of Asia and "Earth Oil" in some parts of southern Asia. Liquid paraffin is a more viscous and refined product, used as a laxative. Paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is used to power jet engines of aircraft and some rocket engines and is commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel, for fire toys such as poi.
In parts of Asia, kerosene is sometimes used as fuel for small outboard motors or motorcycles. World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels per day. To prevent confusion between kerosene and the much more flammable and volatile gasoline, some jurisdictions regulate markings or colorings for containers used to store or dispense kerosene. For example, in the United States, Pennsylvania requires that portable containers used at retail service stations for kerosene be colored blue, as opposed to red or yellow. Kerosene is a low viscosity, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 and 275 °C, resulting in a mixture with a density of 0.78–0.81 g/cm3 composed of carbon chains that contain between 10 and 16 carbon atoms per molecule. It is immiscible in water; the distribution of hydrocarbon length in the mixture making up kerosene ranges from a number of carbon atoms of C6 to C20, although kerosene predominantly contains C9 to C16 range hydrocarbons.
The ASTM International standard specification D-3699-78 recognizes two grades of kerosene: grades 1-K and 2-K. 1-K grade kerosene burns cleaner with fewer deposits, fewer toxins, less frequent maintenance than 2-K grade kerosene, is the preferred grade of kerosene for indoor kerosene heaters and stoves. Regardless of crude oil source or processing history, kerosene's major components are branched and straight chain alkanes and naphthenes, which account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this boiling range, such as alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes, do not exceed 25% by volume of kerosene streams. Olefins are not present at more than 5% by volume; the flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C, its autoignition temperature is 220 °C. The freeze point of kerosene depends on grade, with commercial aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C. 1-K grade kerosene freezes around −40 °C. Heat of combustion of kerosene is similar to that of diesel fuel. In the United Kingdom, two grades of heating oil are defined.
BS 2869 Class C1 is the lightest grade used for lanterns, camping stoves, wick heaters, mixed with gasoline in some vintage combustion engines as a substitute for tractor vaporising oil. BS 2869 Class C2 is a heavier distillate, used as domestic heating oil. Premium kerosene is sold in 5-or-20-liter containers from hardware and garden stores and is dyed purple. Standard kerosene is dispensed in bulk by a tanker and is undyed. National and international standards define the properties of several grades of kerosene used for jet fuel. Flash point and freezing point properties are of particular interest for safety; the process of distilling crude oil/petroleum into kerosene, as well as other hydrocarbon compounds, was first written about in the 9th century by the Persian scholar Rāzi. In his Kitab al-Asrar, the physician and chemist Razi described two methods for the production of kerosene, termed naft abyad, using an apparatus called an alembic. One method used clay as an absorbent; the distillation process was repeated until most of the volatile hydrocarbon fractions had been removed and the final product was clear and safe to burn.
Kerosene was produced during the same period from oil shale and bitumen by heating the rock to extract the oil, distilled. During the Chinese Ming Dynasty, the Chinese made use of kerosene through extracting and purifying petroleum and converted it into lamp fuel; the Chinese made use of petroleum for lighting lamps and heating homes as early as 1500 BC. Although "coal oil" was well known by industrial chemists at least as early as the 1700s as a byproduct of making coal gas and coal tar, it burned with a smoky flame that prevented its use for indoor illumination. In cities, much indoor illumination was provided by piped-in coal gas, but outside the c
Le Bleymard is a former commune in the Lozère department in southern France. On 1 January 2017, it was merged into the new commune Mont Goulet; the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson ate in the village on the evening of 28 September 1878 before camping nearby, as recounted in his book Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes. The Robert Louis Stevenson Trail, a popular long-distance path following Stevenson's approximate route, runs through the village, a three-day "Festival Stevenson" is held in the area annually; the nearby Mont Lozère is a ski resort. Alphonse Magnien, Catholic educator Henri Rouvière, Professor of anatomy Communes of the Lozère department INSEE statistics Le Bleymard in Lozere
The Men's Greco-Roman 68 kg at the 1992 Summer Olympics as part of the wrestling program were held at the Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya from July 28 to July 30. The wrestlers are divided into 2 groups; the winner of each group decided by a double-elimination system. LegendD2 — Both wrestlers disqualified for passivity DO — The winner has not scored technical points E2 — Both wrestlers disqualified for rules violation EF — Win by withdrawal EV — Disqualification from the entire competition, for violation of the rules PA — Win by injury default or withdrawal PO — Win by decision and loser has no technical points PP — Win by decision and loser has technical points SO — Win by superiority and loser has no technical points SP — Win by superiority and loser has technical points ST — Win by technical superiority TO — Win by fall CP — Classification points TP — Technical points Official Report