Bukhara, is one of the cities of Uzbekistan. Bukhara is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments, the nations fifth-largest city, it had a population as of 31 August 2016 of approximately 247,644. Humans have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, the mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is yet Persian Language. Located on the Silk Road, the city has served as a center of trade, culture. UNESCO has listed the center of Bukhara as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara was known as Bokhara in 19th- and early 20th-century English publications, according to the Encyclopædia Iranica the name Bukhara is possibly derived from the Soghdian βuxārak Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi in his History of Bukhara mentions, Bukhara has many names. One of its name was Numijkat and it has been called Bumiskat. It has 2 names in Arabic, one is Madinat al Sufriya meaning - the copper city and another is Madinat Al Tujjar meaning - The city of Merchants. But, the name Bukhara is more known than all the other names, in Khorasan, there is no other city with so many names Since the Middle Ages, the city has been known as Buḫārā / بخارا in Arabic and Persian sources.
The modern Uzbek spelling is Buxoro, the history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. It is now the capital of Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan, located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship and religion. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became an intellectual center of the Islamic world. The historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites, Bukhara has been one of the main centres of world civilisation from its early days in 6th century BCE. From the 6th century CE, Turkic speakers gradually moved in and its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian history and art. The region of Bukhara was a part of the Persian Empire for a long time, the origin of many of its current inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region. The Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for fifteen days in 1220 CE.
Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara operation of 1920, an army of well-disciplined, on 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara
The Amu Darya, called the Amu River and historically known by its Latin name, Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, at Qaleh-ye Panjeh in Afghanistan, in ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Greater Iran and Turan. In classical antiquity, the river was known as the Ōxus in Latin and Ὦξος Ôxos in Greek—a clear derivative of Vakhsh, in Vedic Sanskrit, the river is referred to as Vakṣu. The Avestan texts too refer to the River as Yakhsha/Vakhsha, in Middle Persian sources of the Sassanid period the river is known as Wehrōd. The name Amu is said to have come from the city of Āmul, in modern Turkmenistan. Medieval Arabic and Muslim sources call the river Jayhoun which is derived from Gihon, this name is no longer used. Hara and to the river of Gozan (that is to say, the Amu. the Gozan River is the River Balkh, i. e. the Oxus or the Amu Darya. and were brought into Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan.
The rivers total length is 2,400 kilometres and its drainage basin totals 534,739 square kilometres in area, the river is navigable for over 1,450 kilometres. All of the water comes from the mountains in the south where annual precipitation can be over 1,000 mm. An ice cave at the end of the Wakhjir valley, in the Wakhan Corridor, in the Pamir Mountains, a glacier turns into the Wakhan River and joins the Pamir River about 50 kilometres downstream. Therefore, the Chelab stream may be considered the true source or parent stream of the Oxus. The Panj River forms the border of Afghanistan and Tajikistan and it flows west to Ishkashim where it turns north and north-west through the Pamirs passing the Tajikistan–Afghanistan Friendship Bridge. It subsequently forms the border of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan for about 200 kilometres, passing Termez and it delineates the border of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan for another 100 kilometres before it flows into Turkmenistan at Atamurat. As the Amudarya, it flows across Turkmenistan south to north, passing Türkmenabat, use of water from the Amu Darya for irrigation has been a major contributing factor to the shrinking of the Aral Sea since the late 1950s.
Historical records state that in different periods, the river flowed into the Aral Sea, into the Caspian Sea, about 1,385,045 square kilometres of land is drained by the Amu Darya into the Aral Sea endorheic basin. This includes most of Tajikistan, the southwest corner of Kyrgyzstan, the northeast corner of Afghanistan, part of the Amu Daryas drainage divide in Tajikistan forms that countrys border with China and Pakistan. About 61% of the lies within Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. Of the area drained by the Amu Darya, only about 200,000 square kilometres actively contribute water to the river and this is because many of the rivers major tributaries have been diverted, and much of the rivers drainage is dominated by outlying desert and steppe
Shakhrisabz, is a city in Qashqadaryo Region in southern Uzbekistan located approximately 80 km south of Samarkand with a population of 100,300. It is located at an altitude of 622 m, once a major city of Central Asia, it is primarily known today as the birthplace of 14th-century Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur. Formerly known as Kesh or Kish and tentatively identified with the ancient Nautaca and it was founded more than 2,700 years ago. Its name was changed to Shahrisabz in the modern era. From the 6th to 4th centuries BC it was a part of Akhemenid empire, alexander the Greats general Ptolemy captured the satrap of Bactria and pretender to the Persian throne, Bessus, at Nautaca thus ending the once great Achaemenid Empire. Alexander the Great chose to spend his winters and met his wife Roxanna in the area in 328-327 BC, from 4th to 8th century Kesh was one of urban centers of Sogdiana. Between 567 and 658 rulers of Kesh paid taxes to khagans of Turkic, in 710 the city was conquered by the Arabs.
Shahrisabz was the birthplace of Timur on April 9,1336, to the family of a local chief. Timur regarded Shahrisabz as his “home town” and planned it eventually to be the location of his tomb, during his reign, the center of activity shifted to Samarkand instead. The city struggled for autonomy under Bukharan rule, the Russians helped the Bukharan emir conquering the city in 1870. Several remaining impressive monuments from the Timurid Dynasty have enabled the old part of the city to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, Ak-Saray Palace Timurs Summer Palace, the “White Palace” was planned as the most grandiose of all Timurs constructions. It was started in 1380 by artisans deported by Timur from the recently conquered Khwarezm, only parts of its gigantic 65 m gate-towers survive, with blue and gold mosaics. Above the entry of the Ak-Saray are big letters saying, If you challenge our power – look at our buildings, Kok Gumbaz Mosque / Dorut Tilovat Complex A Friday mosque built in 1437 by Ulugh Beg in honor of his father Shah Rukh, its name meaning “Blue Dome”.
Located immediately behind the Kok Gumbaz Mosque is the so-called “House of Meditation”, Hazrat-i Imam Complex East of the Kok Gumbaz is another mausoleum complex called Dorus-Saodat, which contains the Tomb of Jehangir, Timur’s eldest and favorite son. The adjacent mosque is said to house the tomb of a revered 8th century imam Amir Kulal, Tomb of Timur Behind the Hazrat-i Imam Emsemble is a bunker with a door leading to an underground chamber, discovered by archaeologists in 1943. The room is filled with a single stone casket, on which inscriptions indicate that it was intended for Timur. However, the conqueror was buried in Samarkand, not at Shahrisabz, of interest are medieval baths and an 18th-century bazaar. Shahrisabz Museum of History and Material Culture In 1980s the Uzbek soviet group Yalla wrote a song about Shahrisabz
Lyab-i Hauz, or Lyab-i Khauz, is the name of the area surrounding one of the few remaining hauz that have survived in the city of Bukhara. Until the Soviet period there were many such ponds, which were the principal source of water. The Lyab-i Hauz survived because it is the centrepiece of a magnificent architectural ensemble, created during the 16th and 17th centuries, the small Qazi-e Kalyan Nasreddin madrasah was formerly located beside the Kukeldash madrasah. The history of this ensemble is closely connected with the name of Nadir Divan-Beghi, who was an important grandee, and an uncle of the Emir of Bukhara Imam Quli Khan. It is said that when Nadir Divan-Beghi built the Khanaka which bears his name, Nadir Divan-Beghi had decided that this site would be the perfect place for a pond, but the widow turned down his offer to buy the property. Then Nadir Divan-Beghi brought her before Imam Quli Khan in the hope that the Emir would coerce her into selling, the Emir of Bukhara ordered a congress of muftis to inquire into the question.
So, Nadir Divan-Beghi had to build a reservoir near the house of that stubborn Jew. But he dug an aryk, a ditch, to his new pond in such a way that the water ran right near her house. Soon the water began to undermine the foundations of the widows house, when she came to Nadir Divan-Beghi for justice, he confirmed his readiness to buy her house for a fair price. But widow rejected the money, laying down her own conditions instead and she promised give up her property if the Bukharan rulers would give to her another piece of land with permission to build a synagogue. In return for the widow’s holding Nadir Divan-Beghi gave her a plot of land, belonging to him, in a residential area, soon the first synagogue at Bukhara and a large pond were built. People started to call it Lyab-i Hauz, which means in Persian by the pond, the date of its construction is about 1620. But folk memory still retains another epithet – Haus-i Bazur, made with force, the madrasah was built in 1568-1569 and is the oldest building of the ensemble.
This Khanaka a rectangular edifice topped with a dome, the building has non-traditional narrow and prolate main portal along with two lateral entrances. The hall has excellent acoustic properties, the inner walls of the hall are recessed with niches fringed with stucco moldings. The dwelling space occupies corners and lateral walls of the building. The finishing of the entrance gate is made quite conservatively. The edges of the portal are overworked with epigraphy ornaments
The Tian Shan, meaning the Mountain of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia. The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Jengish Chokusu,7,439 metres, the Chinese name for Tian Shan may have been derived from the Xiongnu word Qilian – according to Tang commentator Yan Shigu, Qilian is the Xiongnu word for sky or heaven. The Tannu-Ola mountains in Tuva has the meaning in its name. Tian Shan is sacred in Tengrism, and its second-highest peak is known as Khan Tengri which may be translated as Lord of the Spirits. Tian Shan is north and west of the Taklamakan Desert and directly north of the Tarim Basin in the region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan. In the south it links up with the Pamir Mountains and to north, Chinese cartography from the Han Dynasty to the present agrees, with the Tian Shan including the Bogda Shan and Barkol ranges. The Tian Shan are a part of the Himalayan orogenic belt and they are one of the longest mountain ranges in Central Asia and stretch some 2,800 kilometres eastward from Tashkent in Uzbekistan.
The highest peak in the Tian Shan is the Victory Peak which, the Tian Shans second highest peak, Khan Tengri, straddles the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan border and at 7,010 metres is the highest point of Kazakhstan. Mountaineers class these as the two most northerly peaks over 7,000 metres in the world, the Torugart Pass, at 3,752 metres, is located at the border between Kyrgyzstan and Chinas Xinjiang province. The forested Alatau ranges, which are at an altitude in the northern part of the Tian Shan, are inhabited by pastoral tribes that speak Turkic languages. The Tian Shan are separated from the Tibetan Plateau by the Taklimakan Desert, the major rivers rising in the Tian Shan are the Syr Darya, the Ili River and the Tarim River. The Aksu Canyon is a feature in the northwestern Tian Shan. Continuous permafrost is found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3. One of the first Europeans to visit and the first to describe the Tian Shan in detail was the Russian explorer Peter Semenov, who did so in the 1850s.
Glaciers in the Tian Shan Mountains have been shrinking and have lost 27%, or 5.4 billion tons annually. It is estimated that by 2050 half of the glaciers will have melted. The Tian Shan have a number of named ranges which are mentioned separately. In China the Tian Shan starts north of Kumul City with the U-shaped Barkol Mountains, the Bogda Shan run from 350 to 40 kilometres east of Ürümqi
The portal of the caravanserai – which is one of the most ancient places among the Central Asia portals – peshtak with the central lancet arch of the niche in which there is a rectangular doorway. The arch concludes with a frame, executed from carved terracotta in the form of eight final stars connected with each other. The ring is decorated by Arabic inscriptions, on overhanging walls, under the layers of repair plaster, the remains of ancient ganched plasters with figures of vegetative characters are traced. The portal, as well as all caravanserais, has laid out from adobe brick with the subsequent facing baked bricks measuring 25х25 х4 cm in size. The average height of the walls ranges from 0,4 up to 0,7 m. The caravanserai occupies –8277 sq. m, rabat-i Mâlik holds a special place in the history of Iranian architecture. This is due to its impressive façade treatment of ornamental embedded cylindrical columns on the walls flanking the entrance portal. The only other building of the Islamic period that contains such a treatment, is found on the minaret of Jarkurgan/Dzharkurgan in the neighbouring Surkhondaryo province of Uzbekistan.
Luckily, detailed monochrome photographs are available of the old flanking walls to document this landmark building and this site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on 18 January 2008, in the Cultural category
The Kushan Empire was a syncretic empire, formed by Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. Emperor Kanishka was a patron of Buddhism, however, as Kushans expanded southward. The Kushans were one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation, the Kushans possibly used the Greek language initially for administrative purposes, but soon began to use Bactrian language. Kanishka sent his armies north of the Karakoram mountains, capturing territories as far as Kashgar and Yarkant, in the Tarim Basin of modern-day Xinjiang, China. A direct road from Gandhara to China remained under Kushan control for more than a century, encouraging travel across the Karakoram, the Kushan dynasty had diplomatic contacts with the Roman Empire, Sasanian Persia, Aksumite Empire and Han China. The Kushan empire fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms in the 3rd century AD, in the 4th century, the Guptas, an Indian dynasty pressed from the east. The last of the Kushan and Sasanian kingdoms were overwhelmed by invaders from the north.
Historian H. G. Rawlinson states that the Kushana Period is a prelude to the age of Guptas. Chinese sources describe the Guishuang, i. e, as the historian John E. Hill has put it, For well over a century. There have been arguments about the ethnic and linguistic origins of the Da Yuezhi and the Tochari. The five tribes constituting the Yuezhi are known in Chinese history as Xiūmì, Guìshuāng, Shuāngmǐ, Xìdùn, the Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria around 135 BC. The displaced Greek dynasties resettled to the southeast in areas of the Hindu Kush, some traces remain of the presence of the Kushans in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana. Archaeological structures are known in Takht-I-Sangin, Surkh Kotal, and in the palace of Khalchayan, various sculptures and friezes are known, representing horse-riding archers, and significantly men with artificially deformed skulls, such as the Kushan prince of Khalchayan. The Chinese first referred to people as the Yuezhi and said they established the Kushan Empire.
On the ruins of ancient Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoum, the Kushans are known to have built fortresses, the earliest documented ruler, and the first one to proclaim himself as a Kushan ruler, was Heraios. He calls himself a tyrant on his coins, and exhibits skull deformation and he may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios may have been the father of the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises, Ban Gus Book of Han tells us the Kushans divided up Bactria in 128 BC. He invaded Anxi, and took the Gaofu region and he defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda and Jibin
Ichan Kala is the walled inner town of the city of Khiva, Uzbekistan. Since 1990, it has protected as a World Heritage Site. The old town retains more than 50 historic monuments and 250 old houses, djuma Mosque, for instance, was established in the tenth century and rebuilt from 1788 to 1789, although its celebrated hypostyle hall still retains 112 columns taken from ancient structures. The most spectacular features of Ichan Kala are its crenellated brick walls and four gates, although the foundations are believed to have been laid in the tenth century, present-day 10-meters-high walls were erected mostly in the late seventeenth century and repaired. Ichan Kala - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
The Orlat plaques are a series of bone plaques that were discovered in the mid-1980s in Uzbekistan. They were found during excavations led by Galina Pugachenkova at the cemetery of Orlat, by the bank of the Saganak River, Pugachenkova published her finds in 1989. The plaques are thought to have been decorative belt buckles and they are decorated with battle scenes between soldiers wearing cataphracts, and one hunting scene. The date and attribution of the plaques are disputed, although the consensus tends to suggest a 1st-century CE date, Pugachenkova believes the plaques were made by the inhabitants of Kangju, thought to have been closely related to the Kushans and Tocharians. The soldiers would be either Sogdians or Sakas, much less probably Yuezhis or Parthians, les Saces, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Errance, c2006. Образ воина в таштыкском изобразительном искусстве // Семантика древних образов, detailed description of Orlat finds The Orlat battle plaques
Koi Krylgan Kala
Koi Krylgan Kala is an archaeological site, located outside the village of Taza-Keltiminar in the Ellikqala District in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. In ancient times it was sited along a canal in the Oxus delta region, there is some relationship between and Koi Krylgan Kala and Toprak Kala,30 km to the northwest. It is a complex of the Chorasmian Dynasty, an Iranian people who ruled the area of Khwarezm. The Apa-Saka tribe destroyed it c.200 BCE, but it was rebuilt into a settlement and it was discovered in 1938 by Sergey Pavlovitch Tolstov, leader of the Chorasmian Archaeological-Ethnological Expedition. It contained a Mazdian fire temple, and was decorated with frescos of wine consumption