Khalji dynasty

The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320. It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India; the dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity, conquests into the Hindu south, for fending off the repeated Mongol invasions of India. The Khaljis were of Turko-Afghan origin: a Turkic people that had settled in Afghanistan before moving to Delhi; the ancestors of Jalaluddin Khalji had lived in the Lamghan regions for over 200 years. There is some debate about the ethnic group; the Khalaj people in western Iran speak the Khalaj language. The modern Pashto-speaking Ghilzai Afghans are descendants of Khalaj people. After a number of ethnic transformations, the Afghan Khalaj became the Ghilzay tribe of Afghans. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, some sources refer to the Khalaj people as of Turkic, but some others do not. Ibn Khordadbeh mentions the Khalaj people while describing the "land of the Turks".

But the distance between the Amu Darya and the Talas is such as it would have been impossible for the tribes living beyond the Amu Darya to use the Talas pastures as winter quarters, leading to the conclusion that the text has been corrupted somehow or that some Khalaj still lived near the Khallukh at the time. Minorsky argues that the early history of the Khalaj tribe is obscure and adds that the identity of the name Khalaj is still to be proved. Mahmud al-Kashgari does not include the Khalaj among the Oghuz Turkic tribes, but includes them among the Oghuz-Turkman tribes. Kashgari felt the Khalaj did not belong to the original stock of Turkish tribes but had associated with them and therefore, in language and dress appeared "like Turks"; the 11th century Tarikh-i Sistan and the Firdausi's Shahnameh distinguish and differentiate the Khalaj from the Turks. Minhaj-i-Siraj Juzjani never identified Khalaj as Turks, but was careful not to refer to them as Afghans, they were always a category apart from Turks and Afghans.

Muhammad ibn Najib Bakran's Jahan-nama explicitly describes them as Turkic, although he notes that that their complexion had become darker and their language had undergone enough alterations to become a distinct dialect. The modern historian Irfan Habib has argued that the Khaljis were not related to the Turkic people and were instead ethnic Afghans. Habib pointed out that, in some 15th-century Devanagari Sati inscriptions, the Khaljis of Malwa have been referred to as "Khalchi" and "Khilchi", that the 17th century chronicle Padshahnama, an area near Boost in Afghanistan as "Khalich". Habib theorizes that the earlier Persian chroniclers misread the name "Khalchi" as "Khalji", but this is unlikely, as this would mean that every Persian chronicler writing between the 13th and 17th centuries made the same mistake. Habib argues that no 13th century source refers to the Turkish background of the Khaljis, but this assertion is wrong, as Muhammad ibn Najib Bakran's Jahan-nama explicitly describes the Khalaj people as Turkic.

The accounts describing the Khaljis' rise to power in India indicate that they were regarded as a race quite distinct from the Turks in late 13th century Delhi. Over the centuries, the Khaljis had intermarried with the local Afghans and adopted their manners, culture and practices, they were looked down as non-Turks by Turks. Therefore, the Turkish nobles wrongly looked upon them as Afghans, they were considered Afghans in the Delhi Court. Khaljis were vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi and served the Sultan of Delhi, Ghiyas ud din Balban. Balban's successors were murdered over 1289-1290, the Mamluk dynasty succumbed to the factional conflicts within the Mamluk dynasty and the Muslim nobility; as the struggle between the factions razed, Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji led a coup and murdered the 17-year-old Mamluk successor Muiz ud din Qaiqabad - the last ruler of Mamluk dynasty. Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, was known as a mild-mannered and kind monarch to the general public.

Jalaluddin succeeded in overcoming the opposition of the Turkish nobles and ascended the throne of Delhi in January 1290. Jalal-ud-din was not universally accepted: During his six-year reign, Balban's nephew revolted due to his assumption of power and the subsequent sidelining of nobility and commanders serving the Mamluk dynasty. Jalal-ud-din suppressed the revolt and executed some commanders led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor and repelled a Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India with the help of his nephew Juna Khan. Alauddin Khalji was the son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din, he raided the Hindu Deccan peninsula and Deogiri - the capital of the Hindu state of Maharashtra, looting their treasure. He murdered Jalal-ud-din and assumed power as Sultan. Alauddin Khalji continued expanding Delhi Sultanate into South India, with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusraw Khan, collecting large war booty from those they defeated, his commanders collected war spoils from Hindu kingdoms and paid khums on ghanima to Sultan's treasury, which helped strengthen the Khalji rule.

Alauddin Khalji reigned for 20 years. He attacked and seized Hindu states of Ranthambhor, Chittorgarh, Māndu and plundered the wealthy state of Devagiri withstood two Mongol raids. Alauddin

List of Asterix games

This is a list of Asterix games of all varieties. Asterix Adventure Games — a series of game books in the style of the Choose Your Own Adventure books but with some randomization by way of dice and included props. Written by Stephen Thraves. Asterix to the Rescue — rescue the captured druid from Rome. Operation Britain — get mistletoe from Britain for the potion. Asterix Against All Oddscircumnavigate occupied Gaul. Alea jacta est! — a roleplaying system including attributes and combat. The reader plays the part of Justforkix from Asterix and the Normans in a series of scenarios moderated by the game books. Translated by Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. Le rendez-vous du chef — English: The Meeting of the Chieftains La vedette armoricaine — English: The Idol of the Gauls L'affaire des faux menhirs — English: The Roman Conspiracy Le grand jeu — English: The Great Game Find Asterix — a Where's Wally? clone with Asterix as the object of the search in crowded scenes from the world of 50 BC. In 2006, licensed versions of numerous board games were produced, including Monopoly, Draughts, Game of the Goose, Trivial Pursuit, Pay Day and ladders, others.

There were releases made as European or Australian PAL. Most of the games were only released in PAL format for Europe and Australia, because of the comic's acceptance in that region, opposed to the lower popularity in other regions. lists of board games, card games, video games Asterix Adventure Games Alea jacta est! Gusworld: Finding Asterix Board Game Geek Asterix and Obelix games on MobyGames

Howard Francis

Howard Henry Francis, was a South African cricketer. Francis was born in Clifton, England. A batsman, he played for Gloucestershire from 1890 to 1894 before moving to South Africa in 1895. There he played for Western Province from 1895-96 to 1902-03, his highest first-class score was 55 against Middlesex at Clifton in 1894, when he and Jack Board added 137 for the ninth wicket out of a team total of 225. Francis was the top-scorer on either side when Lord Hawke's XI played the first match of their tour in 1898-99 against a Western Province XIII, scoring 45 in the first innings batting at number three. Three weeks he top-scored, with 33, in the first innings for Cape Colony against Lord Hawke's XI in the first first-class match of the tour, he played for South Africa in the two Test matches, unsuccessful. However, he top-scored batting at number three in South Africa's second innings in the First Test, scoring 29 out of a team total of 99. Francis was a footballer, playing for Clifton until he moved to South Africa.

Howard Francis at ESPNcricinfo Howard Francis at CricketArchive