The Magars are one of the ethno linguistic groups of Nepal representing 7.13% of Nepal's total population as per the census of 2011. Their ancestral homeland extends from the Western and the Southern edges of the Dhaulagiri range of the Himalayas to the Mahabharat foothills in the South and Kali Gandaki river basin in the East; the Magars ruled while establishing their own kingdoms in ancient Nepal similar time with Khas kingdom baise and chaubise kingdom called the Bara Magaranth located east of the Gandaki River and the Athara Magaranth located west of the Gandaki River inhabited by the Kham Magars. Mythical stories on the Origins of Magars: There are interesting mythical stories describing the origins of Magars. Three different versions relative to three different language groups are presented; the Magar of the Bahra Magaranth east of the Kali Gandaki River) are said to have originated in the land of Seem. Two brothers, Seem Magar and Chintoo Magar and one remained in Seem, while the other left, ending up in Kangwachen in southern Sikkim.
The Bhutia people lived at the northern end of this region. Over time, the Magars became powerful and made the northern Bhutia their vassals. Sintoo Sati Sheng ruled in a despotic manner, the Bhutia conspired to assassinate him. Sheng's queen took revenge and poisoned 1,000 Bhutia people at a place now called Tong Song Fong, meaning "where a thousand were murdered"; the Bhutia drove the Magar out, forcing them to again migrate further south. As part of this migration, one group migrated to Simrongadh, one group moved towards the Okhaldhunga region, another group seems to have returned to the east. No dates are given. A second Magar federation called Athara Magarat was situated west of the Gandaki River, inhabited by western magars; the first written history about Magar people dates as back as 1100 AD. But it is accepted that they have resided around Palpa from time immemorial, they are thought to be the earliest settlers from the north. This part of the country was divided into twelve districts, each under its own ruler, being known as the Barah, or twelve Magarant or twelve Thams, the members of each being of common extraction in the male line.
Some records show these twelve areas as being Arghakhanchi, Isma, Khanchi, Rising, Payung, Garhung and Satung. However, it is probable that some of the latter places should have been excluded in favour of Palpa, Dhurkot, Char Hajar and Piuthan and Salyan; the Magars of middle and western region played a role in Nepal's formative history. Their kingdom was one of the strongest of west Nepal in and around Palpa District during the time of the 22 and 24 rajya principalities; the 18th-century king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Nepal was announced and loved to call himself the King of Magarat. Many prominent historians of Nepal have claimed that Aramudi, an eighth-century ruler of the Kali Gandaki region, was a Magar King. "Aramudi" derives from the word for'river' in the Magar language.'Ari'-'Source of Water' +'Modi'-'River'='Arimodi' or'Aramudi', thus the literal meaning of Aramudi is source of river. But due to the lack of historical evidence there are some conflicting ideas among the historians.
The Magars are structured with septs, followed by sub-septs. Broadly speaking, Magars are divided into two main groups: Athara Magaratis. Before the unification of Nepal in the 18th century by the King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Magarat land was divided into two Magarat states. West of Kali Gandaki was called eighteen East of Kali Gandaki was called twelve Magarat, they are Ale,Rana,Thapa,Gaha, Pun,Raika and Gharti clans. Within these seven clans, more than 1100 sub-clans can be found; these Magar are equal in social standing. Linguistically, the Magars are divided into three groups. Baraha Magaratis speak Dhut dialect, whereas Athara Magaratis speak Kaike dialects. MagarDhut-speakers: Rana, Ale,Thapa, Gaha. MagarPang-speakers: Budha, Roka, KaikeMagar-speakers: Tarali Magar of Dolpa/Budha, Roka magar, Jhankri all Magar clans residing in Dolpa and Karnali districts. Of the 2,064,000 Magar people in Nepal, nearly 788,530 speak a Magar language as their mother tongue. Most of the others speak Nepali as their mother tongue.
The western inhabitants of Nepal did not speak the language in the past. But almost everyone has started learning the language; the western magars of Rapti Zone speak Magar Pang kura. In Dolpa District, the Magar speak Magar Kaike language; the Magar languages are rooted in the Bodic branch of the Tibetan family. Magar Dhut kura speakers are all Magar clans residing in twelve Magarats. Magar Pang kura speakers are all magar clans from eighteen Magarats. Magar Kaike language speakers are all magar clans in Karnali zone; the 1971 census put the total population of those who spoke the Magar language at 288,383, i.e. 2.49 percent of the total population of Nepal, of which more than half lived in the Western hills of Nepal. Many Magar words are used today as location names. Magar toponyms in Nepali include: tilaurakot, * Tansen Some scholars opine that the amount of Magar words in Nepali indicates that Magarat were larger than believed, extending from Dhading to Doti, they note that the place suffix -Kot indicates a place from which Magar kings ruled.
Kali Gadaki, Bheri, Modi all the river names with di or ti suffix are named after Magar language
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A shaman is someone, regarded as having access to, influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who enters into a trance state during a ritual, practices divination and healing; the word "shaman" originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Udehe/Orochi, Ilcha, Orok and Ulcha, "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning'shaman' derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia; the term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term "shamanism" was first applied by Western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighbouring Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking peoples.
Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some Western anthropologists began to use the term in a broad sense. The term was used to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa and completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another. Mircea Eliade writes, "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, the least hazardous, will be: shamanism ='technique of religious ecstasy'." Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness; the shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements.
The shaman operates within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment. Beliefs and practices that have been categorized this way as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, historians, religious studies scholars and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism. In the 20th century, many Westerners involved in the counter-cultural movement have created modern magico-religious practices influenced by their ideas of indigenous religions from across the world, creating what has been termed neoshamanism or the neoshamanic movement, it has affected the development of many neopagan practices, as well as faced a backlash and accusations of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation when outside observers have tried to represent cultures to which they do not belong.
The word shamanism derives from the Manchu-Tungus word šaman, meaning'one who knows'. The word "shaman" may have originated from the Evenki word šamán, most from the southwestern dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples; the Tungusic term was subsequently adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum; the word was brought to Western Europe in the late 17th century by the Dutch traveler Nicolaes Witsen, who reported his stay and journeys among the Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking indigenous peoples of Siberia in his book Noord en Oost Tataryen. Adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China; the etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- "to know". This has been questioned on linguistic grounds: "The possibility cannot be rejected, but neither should it be accepted without reservation since the assumed derivational relationship is phonologically irregular."
Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, as such would be the only used English word, a loan from this language. However, Mircea Eliade noted that the Sanskrit word śramaṇa, designating a wandering monastic or holy figure, has spread to many Central Asian languages along with Buddhism and could be the ultimate origin of the Tungusic word; this proposal has been critiqued since 1917. Ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an "anachronism" and an "impossibility", nothing more than a "far-fetched etymology."21st-century anthropologist and archeologist Silvia Tomaskova argues that by the mid-1600s, many Europeans applied the Arabic term shaitan to the non-Christian practices and beliefs of indigenous peoples beyond the Ural Mountains. She suggests that shaman may have entered the various Tungus dialects as a corruption of this term, been told to Christian missionaries, explorers and colonial administrators with whom the people had increasing contact for centuries.
Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, may have mistakenly "read backward" in time for the origin of this word. A shamaness is somet
The Chepang are an indigenous Tibeto-Burman ethnic group inhabiting the rugged ridges of the Mahabharat mountain range of central Nepal. Over the past two or three generations, the Chepang have begun to shift from a semi-nomadic lifestyle to a more settled way of life, relying upon the production of permanent fields of maize and bananas; the severe topography, has made permanent farming difficult, the forest has remained an important source of food for the Chepang. The collection of wild yams and tubers, fish caught from nearby rivers and wild birds, periodically wild deer hunted from nearby forests, have supplemented their need for carbohydrates and protein. With increasing populations, lack of arable land and few irrigation options, malnutrition has been a historic problem for the Chepang despite forest supplements; the Chepang have been characterized as the poorest of Nepal’s poor. Forced teenage pregnancies are common. Chepang men and women are egalitarian and no social ranking exists as it does in caste Nepalese society.
Many Chepang cannot read and write due to a lack of education beyond elementary school, this illiteracy stands in contrast to the great gains Nepal has been making in reducing illiteracy. According to the 2001 Nepal Census, there are 52,237 Chepang in the country, of which 67.63% were Hindu, 23.38% were Buddhists, 7.74% were Christians, 1.25% others. They are located in Dhading District, Chitwan District, Gorkha District, Makwanpur District, Tanahu District; the Chepangs themselves follow Animism, although they are influenced by both Hinduism and Buddhism, which came from the Tamangs just north of them. They observe all the Hindu festivals of Dashain and Sakrantis besides their own tribal festival Nwagi or Chhonam, performed on a Tuesday during third week of Bhadra. Chhonam is the auspicious day for eating a new crop. Before the celebration of this festival, eating certain agricultural products is prohibited. In the 5th National Gathering of Chepang, 2004, it was stated they practiced Prakriti, with ancestor worship as most important.
They worship many deities including Bhumi, Aita Bare, Namrung etc. etc. They observe other different festivals like, Maghe Sakranti, Saune Sakranti, Tihar. A higher percentage of the Chepang are Christian than the national average; the language is known as Chepang but is called Chyo-bang by the people themselves. Some Bahun Chettri castes call these people the "Praja" meaning "political subjects"; the people speak 3 different dialects of this Tibeto-Burman language, related to Raute and Raji, two undocumented languages spoken in western Nepal. Chepang language is one of the few languages which uses a duodecimal counting system rather than the decimal. Chepang are among the most vulnerable due to the combination of April 2015 Nepal earthquake and 2015 Nepal blockade. More than 50 per cent of the people killed were from marginalised communities ranked low in the Human Development Index. Chepang communities were suffering from severe malnutrition before the blockade, along with the Tamang. Due to historic discrimination and neglect and remote communities, Chepang have suffered discrimination at the hands of the Nepali Food Corporation in charge of emergency food distribution.
Social activist KP Kiran Sharma said Chepangs compulsorily eat rice during Dashain, where meat is eaten by more wealthy groups, but they are unlikely to afford rice this year. Hence they are among the most vulnerable ethnic groups facing potential population bottleneck in the winter of 2015/16 despite their small numbers. Chepangs in Lothhar fight cold with donated clothes Kathmandu PostThe Chepang Language - Linguistics research and language documentation -
The Sunuwar is an indigenous tribe from Nepal and some areas of India. They speak the Sunuwar language. According to the 2001 census of Nepal, 17% of the tribe follow the Kirant religion and adopt the Mundhum culture; the Kiranti-Kõinchs number 96,254. The term ‘Kõinchs’ is the name of the mother tongue. Other terms like Mukhiya or Mukhia are exonyms of the tribe. Sunuwar have their distinct language, religion and social customs, they inhabit the eastern hills of Himalayan Indina. They are concentrated along the Molung Likhu Khola and Khimti Khola regions. By administrative division, they dwell in Okhaldhunga and Dolakha districts of Nepal, politically known as Wallo, Kirant after the fall of the Kirant dynasty at the ancient Nepal valley. Wallo Kirant in the past was their Kipat or communal land, their migration took place in several parts of the country in Jhapa, Panchthar, Terathum, Sindhuli and other districts and abroad to places such as Darjeeling, Sikkim, Bhutan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada.
Most Sunuwar practice agriculture. Crop cultivation and cattle farming are the main agricultural works. Sunuwar people took part in the Second World War and were known as brave Gorkhali fighters, as well as honest; some Sunuwar still join Indian Army, Singapore Police Force and British Gurkha Army. Due to limited opportunities within the nation, people with education go abroad for work. Attractive salaries and facilities in other countries motivate these people to seek jobs abroad. Only few Sunuwar people are involved in the government service and private sectors in Nepal. Sunuwar are rich in culture and traditions, they have hundreds of traditional feasts and festivals with complex rules. Every traditional feast or festival has its own objectives and system of celebration; some festivals, such as Chandi Dance in, Gil puja, Meserani puja, are considered more important than others. They celebrate the Shyadar-pidar festival on the Day of Buddha Purnima, or after 5 days of Buddha Purnima according to the Nepali calendar.
Sunuwar New year is celebrated on the day of Basanta Panchami. As a community, they celebrate Meserani Pidar twice a year, based on the Lunar Calendar. Sunuwari Song: Reuhita Ragimshumshaa The 29 Kirat kings were as follows: Yalamber 2. Pavi 3. Skandhar 4. Balamba 5. Hriti 6. Humati 7. Jitedasti 8. Galinja 9. Pushka 10. Suyarma 11. Papa 12. Bunka 13. Swananda 14. Sthunko 15. Jinghri 16. Nane 17. Luka 18. Thor 19. Thoko 20 Verma 21. Guja 22. Pushkar 23. Keshu 24. Suja 25. Sansa 26. Gunam 27. Khimbu 28. Patuka 29. Gasti Place of Sunuwari Language Khijee or khiji First Place Bhujee or Bujhi Prette or priti Katee or Kati Mulegaun or Muli Phalate or Falate Ragane or Ragani Prapche or Prapchi Kirate chhap
The Tibetan Muslims known as the Kachee, form a small minority in Tibet. Despite being Muslim, they are recognized as Tibetans by the government of the People's Republic of China, unlike the Hui Muslims, who are separately recognized; the Tibetan word Kachee means Kashmiri and Kashmir was known as Kachee Yul. It is not known when Muslims first appeared in Tibet, although variants of the names of Tibet can be found in Arabic history books. During the reign of the Ummayad Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz, a delegation from Tibet and China requested him to send Islamic missionaries to their countries, Salah bin Abdullah Hanafi was sent to Tibet. Between the eighth and ninth centuries, the Abbasid rulers of Baghdad maintained relations with Tibet. However, there was little proselytisation among the missionaries at first, although many of them decided to settle in Tibet and marry Tibetan women. In 710-720, during the reign of Me Agtsom, the Arabs, who now had more of a presence in the inland China, started to appear in Tibet.
During the reign of Sadnalegs, there was a protracted war against Arab powers to the West. It appears that Tibetans captured a number of Arab troops and pressed them into service on the eastern frontier in 801. Tibetans were active as far west as Kabul. Arab forces began to gain the upper hand, the Tibetan governor of Kabul submitted to the Arabs and became a Muslim about 812 or 815 Islam was spread by the Salar people to the Buddhist Kargan Tibetans in Lamo-shan-ken; some Tibetans in Qinghai who converted to Islam are now considered Hui people. The Balti people of Baltistan in Pakistan and Kargil in India are descendants of Tibetan Buddhists who converted to Noorbakshia sect on most of the people converted to Shia Islam, a few converted to Sunni Islam, their Balti language is archaic and conservative and closer to Classical Tibetan than other Tibetan languages. Islam in China Uyghurs Hui people Dungan people Salar people Balti people Nepalese Muslims Akasoy, Anna. Islam and Tibet: interactions along the musk routes.
Routledge, 2016. ISBN 978-1-138-24704-8 Atwill, David G. “Boundaries of Belonging: Sino-Indian Relations and the 1960 Tibetan Muslim Incident.” The Journal of Asian Studies 75, no. 03: 595–620, doi:10.1017/S0021911816000553. Sheikh, Abdul Ghani.. "Tibetan Muslims." The Tibet Journal. Vol. XVI, No. 4. Winter, 1991, pp. 86–89. Siddiqui, Ataullah.. "Muslims of Tibet." The Tibet Journal. Vol. XVI, No. 4. Winter, 1991, pp. 71–85. Tibetan Muslims Islam in Tibet: Preface by His Holiness The Dalai Lama.
Bhotiya or Bhot are groups of ethno-linguistically related Tibetan people living in the Transhimalayan region of the SAARC countries. The word Bhotiya comes from the classical Tibetan name for Bod; the Bhotiya speak numerous languages including Ladakhi. The Indian recognition of such language is Bhoti / Bhotia having Tibetan scripts and it lies in the Parliament of India to become one of the official languages through Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution; the Bhotiya prefer to be referred as Thakur or Rajvanshi. The Bhotiya may be the original immigrants to north Oudh in the period of Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah; the Bhotiya people are related to several other groups and ethnic boundaries are porous. One group is the Bhutia, the main ethnolinguistic group of the northern part of the Indian state of Sikkim. A second is the Uttarakhand Bhotiya of the upper Himalayan valleys of the Kumaon and the Garhwal divisions of Uttarakhand; these include the Shauka tribe of Kumaon, the Tolchhas and the Marchhas of Garhwal, Gyagar Khampa of Khimling, Bhidang.
A third related group are the Dzongkha speaking Ngalop people, the main ethnolinguistic group of Bhutan. The Bhotiya are related to several dispersed groups in Nepal and the adjacent areas of India including the Tibetans and Sherpas. In Nepal, Bhotiya are 0.1 percent of the population. They live in villages through the Himilayas; the language of the Bhotiya people is Bhotia. It is written in the Tibetan alphabet. Bhoti and Bhotia is spoken in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Nepal and parts of Pakistan and West Bengal. Bhoti is not included in the languages with official status in India. On 27 February 2011, however, a resolution introduced by the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, for the inclusion of the language in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India passed without opposition; the Bhotiya, tribe people are native people belonging to Himalayan Belt. In Nepal they live in the northern and eastern regions of Nepal, where they and other Tibetans are the region's autochthonous people.
The Bhotiya live in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura. In Uttar Pradesh, the Bhotiya live in the Bahraich, Lakhimpur, Barabanki, Kanpur Nagar, Kanpur Dehat, Kheri districts. Bhotiya have six recognisable sub-groups: the Bhot, the Bhutia of Sikkim, the Tibbati, the Bhut, the Gyakar Khampa of Khimling, Bhidang of Uttarakhand. Bhotiya tribe are natives of other countries outside India and they are in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Nepal and Tibet. In Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Arunachal Pradesh, the Bhotiya people have Scheduled Tribe status. In Uttarakhand, the Bhotiya are a Scheduled Tribe under the "Schedule caste order 1950, the constitutional Scheduled tribe 1967 SC/ST." The Constitution of India recognizes the Bhotiya. Bhotiya marriages are similar to Hindu weddings; when the bride's palanquin arrives at her husband's house, gods are worshipped and she is admitted to the house.
Rice, silver or gold is put in the hands of bridegroom. She places them in a winnowing fan, hands them as a present to the wife of the barber; this ceremony is known as Karj Bharna. A man may have not more than three wives; the first wife is the head wife, she inherits an additional one tenth of the husband's estate. The Bhotiyas have distinctive funerary traditions. Young children who die of cholera or snakebite are buried. There is no fixed burial ground, no ceremonies are performed at the time of burial; the wealthy keep the ashes for lowal to several streams. After cremation, a stalk of kusha is fixed in the ground near a tank of water and sesamum is poured on it for ten days; this makes it a refuge for the deceased's spirit. Bhotiya Tribe, the natives of the Himalayan belt are maximum Buddhist followers along with followers of other religion. Though most of Bhotiya practice a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism. Ancestor worship is prevalent. Buddhist Bhotiyas engage a Lama to perform celebrations.
In Buddhism, correct thinking, ritual sacrifices, self-denial will enable the soul to break the cycle of reincarnation and reach Nirvana at death. Only those who follow the middle way and the noble eight-fold path can achieve that state; the Bhotiya are lamaistic Buddhists. In Uttarakhand, the Bhotiya may acknowledge superstitions, amulets for good luck, curses and witchcraft. Believers may appease their divinities with religious chants and sacrifices; the Buddhist Bhotiyas celebrate the Losar festival during the flowering of the apricot trees in autumn. Incense is offered to appease local deities. In Uttarakhand Chamoli and Uttarkashi, the Bhotiya are nomadic, migratory pastoralists, moving about the border lands between India and Tibet.and live in Pakistan with bhutta and bhutto nameThey are traders in the Himilayas for products such as, cereal and salt. Now, some are farmers and others are merchants of stones and herbs; the Bhotiya are experienced in the use of medicinal plants. The local fermented beverages are jan, daru.
A local fermented food stuff is sez. The traditional catalyzing agent