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Khartoum

Khartoum or Khartum is the capital of Sudan. With a population of 5,274,321, its metropolitan area is the largest in Sudan, the sixth-largest in Africa, the fourth-largest in the Arab world. Khartoum is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, the Blue Nile, flowing west from Ethiopia; the location where the two Niles meet is known as al-Muqran. From there, the Nile continues to flow north towards the Mediterranean Sea. Divided by these two parts of the Nile, Khartoum is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated overall population of over five million people, consisting of Khartoum proper, linked by bridges to Khartoum North and Omdurman to the west; the origin of the word Khartoum is uncertain. One theory argues that it is derived from Arabic khurṭūm referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles. Dinka scholars argue that the name derives from the Dinka words khar-tuom or khier-tuom, translating to "place where rivers meet".

This is supported by historical accounts which place the Dinka homeland in central Sudan as as the 13th-17th centuries A. D. Captain J. A. Grant, who reached Khartoum in 1863 with Captain Speke's expedition, thought the name was most from the Arabic qurtum, cultivated extensively in Egypt for its oil to be used as fuel; some scholars speculate that the word derives from the Nubian word Agartum, the Nubian and Egyptian god of creation. Other Beja scholars suggest Khartoum is derived from the Beja word hartoom, "meeting". In 1821, Khartoum was established 24 kilometres north of the ancient city of Soba, by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan into his realm. Khartoum served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army, but the settlement grew into a regional centre of trade, it became a focal point for the slave trade. It became the administrative center and official capital of Sudan. On 13 March 1884, troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad started a siege of Khartoum, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon.

The siege ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian garrison when on 26 January 1885 the heavily-damaged city fell to the Mahdists. On 2 September 1898, Omdurman was the scene of the bloody Battle of Omdurman, during which British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces defending the city. In 1973, the city was the site of an anomalous hostage crisis in which members of Black September held 10 hostages at the Saudi Arabian embassy, five of them diplomats; the US ambassador, the US deputy ambassador, the Belgian chargé d'affaires were murdered. The remaining hostages were released. A 1973 United States Department of State document, declassified in 2006, concluded: "The Khartoum operation was planned and carried out with the full knowledge and personal approval of Yasser Arafat."In 1977, the first oil pipeline between Khartoum and the Port of Sudan was completed. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Khartoum was the destination for hundreds of thousands refugees fleeing conflicts in neighboring nations such as Chad, Eritrea and Uganda.

Many Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees assimilated into society, while others settled in large slums at the outskirts of the city. Since the mid-1980s, large numbers of refugees from South Sudan and Darfur fleeing the violence of the Second Sudanese Civil War and Darfur conflict have settled around Khartoum. In 1991, Osama bin Laden purchased a house in the affluent al-Riyadh neighborhood of the city and another in Soba, he lived there until 1996. Following the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings, the United States accused bin Laden's al-Qaeda group and, on 20 August, launched cruise missile attacks on the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North. The destruction of the factory produced diplomatic tension between the U. S. and Sudan. The factory ruins are now a tourist attraction. In November 1991, the government of President Omar al-Bashir sought to remove half the population from the city; the residents, deemed "squatters", were southern Sudanese who the government feared could be potential rebel sympathizers.

Around 425,000 people were placed in five "Peace Camps" in the desert an hour's drive from Khartoum. The camps were watched over by armed security guards, many relief agencies were banned from assisting, "the nearest food was at a market four miles away, a vast journey in the desert heat." Many residents were reduced to having only burlap sacks as housing. The intentional displacement was part of a large urban renewal plan backed by the housing minister, Sharaf Bannaga; the sudden death of SPLA head and vice-president of Sudan, John Garang, at the end of July 2005, was followed by three days of violent riots in the capital. The riots died down after Southern Sudanese politicians and tribal leaders sent strong messages to the rioters; the situation could have been much more dire. The Organisation of African Unity summit of 18–22 July 1978 was held in Khartoum, during which Sudan was awarded the OAU presidency; the African Union summit of 16–24 January 2006 was held in Khartoum. The Arab League summit of 29th of August 1967 was held in Khartoum as the fourth Arab League Summit.

The Arab League summit of 28–29 March 2006

Paul-James Corrigan

Paul-James Corrigan is a Scottish stage and screen actor. He is best known as Stevie Burns in River City, he is known for his work with s1jobs, after fronting a TV campaign beginning in 2014'Davie Knows'. The ad drew over 1.6 million views on YouTube. In 2015, he appeared on stage opposite River City co-star Frank Gallagher in Butterfly at the Oran Mor in Glasgow; the Wolves in the Walls Carthage Must Be Destroyed Risk Free Fall Gobbo Mancub James and the Giant Peach No Mean City The Borrowers Paul-James Corrigan on IMDb

Markel Areitio

Markel Areitio Cedrún is a Spanish footballer who plays for CD Izarra as a goalkeeper. Born in Iurreta, Basque Country, Areitio played youth football for Iurretako FT and Athletic Bilbao, he made his debut as a senior for the latter's farm team in Tercera División. On 8 June 2015, Areitio was released by Athletic, subsequently joined SCD Durango in the fourth division. On 13 July of the following year he moved to SD Eibar's reserves. On 17 September 2016, Areitio was called up to the main squad for a La Liga match against Sevilla FC, as starter Asier Riesgo was suspended, he made his professional debut just hours coming on as a second-half substitute for Bebé in a 1–1 draw at the Ipurua Municipal Stadium after Yoel was sent off. Areitio comes from a family of goalkeepers: his grandfather's brother Carmelo Cedrún was a Spanish international, while his uncle Andoni Cedrún appeared in more than 300 league matches for Real Zaragoza. Both represented Athletic as a youth. Markel Areitio at Athletic Bilbao Markel Areitio at BDFutbol Markel Areitio at Soccerway