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The term Khedive is a title equivalent to the English word "servicemen" or viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt and Sudan, vassal of the Ottoman Empire; the self-declared title was recognized by the Ottoman government in 1867, used subsequently by Ismail Pasha, his dynastic successors until 1914. This title, known for its use by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, is recorded in English since 1867, derived via the French khédive. From the compound khvat-data- "created from oneself," from khvat- and data- "created." Following the French invasion of Egypt in 1798 and Napoleon's defeat of Egyptian forces, which consisted of the ruling Mamluk military caste, the Ottoman Empire dispatched troops from Rumelia under the command of Muhammad Ali Pasha to restore the Empire's authority in what had hitherto been an Ottoman province. However, upon the French defeat and departure, Muhammad Ali seized control of the country, declared himself ruler of Egypt consolidating an independent local powerbase.

After repeated failed attempts to remove and kill him, in 1805, the Sublime Porte recognized Muhammad Ali as Pasha and Wāli of Egypt. However, demonstrating his grander ambitions, he claimed for himself the higher title of Khedive, as did his successors, Abbas I, Sa'id I and Ibrahim Pasha; the Muhammad Ali dynasty’s use of the title Khedive was not sanctioned by the Ottoman Empire until 1867 when Sultan Abdülaziz recognized it as the title of Ismail Pasha. Moreover, the Porte accepted Ismail's alteration of the royal line of succession to go from father to son, rather than brother to brother, as was the tradition in the Ottoman Empire, Arab dynasties. In May 1879, the British Empire and France began pressuring the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II to depose Ismail Pasha, this was done on June 26, 1879; the more pliable Tewfik Pasha, Ismail's son, was made his successor as the new Khedive. Ismail Pasha left Egypt and went into exile to Naples, but was permitted by Sultan Abdülhamid II to retire to his Palace of Emirgan on the Bosphorus in Istanbul.

There he remained, less a state prisoner, until his death. He was buried in Cairo. After the nationalist Urabi Revolt of 1882, Britain invaded Egypt in support of Tewfik Pasha, would continue to occupy and dominate the country for decades. During this period, the Muhammad Ali Dynasty under Tewfik Pasha and his son Abbas Hilmi Pasha continued to rule Egypt and Sudan using the title Khedive, whilst still under nominal Ottoman sovereignty until 1914. With the outbreak of the First World War, Abbas Hilmi Pasha sided with the Ottoman Empire, which had joined the war on the side of the Central Powers, was subsequently deposed by the British, who declared Egypt a protectorate while he was on a visit to Vienna, his uncle Hussein Kamel was declared Sultan of Egypt by the British, who declared severance of the nominal ties of Egypt and Sudan to the Ottoman Empire, brought an end to the use of the title of Khedive. Hussein Kamel and Fuad I issued a series of restrictive orders to strip Abbas Hilmi Pasha, their nephew, of property in Egypt and Sudan, forbade contributions to him.

These barred Abbas Hilmi Pasha from entering Egyptian territory and stripped him of the right to sue in Egyptian courts. Abbas Hilmi Pasha accepted the new order of things and formally abdicated on May 12, 1931, he retired to Switzerland, where he died in Geneva on December 19, 1944. With "Article 17" of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, Turkey formally ceded all remaining claims and rights in Egypt and Sudan. Khedivate of Egypt Khedive Palace Muhammad Ali Dynasty List of monarchs of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty Egypt under Muhammad Ali and his successors Mestyan, Adam. "Khedive". In Fleet, Kate. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830. Etymonline RoyalArk- Egypt

List of newspapers in Russia

Izvestiya, broadsheet Kommersant, broadsheet Komsomolskaya Pravda, tabloid Moskovskaya Pravda, broadsheet Moskovsky Komsomolets, tabloid Nezavisimaya Gazeta, broadsheet RBK daily, broadsheet Rossiyskaya Gazeta, broadsheet Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti, broadsheet Sovetsky Sport, broadsheet Sport Express, broadsheet Trud, compact Vedomosti, broadsheet Vechernyaya Moskva, broadsheet Argumenty i Fakty, weekly Argumenty Nedeli, weekly Krasnaya Zvezda, 3 issues a week Kultura, weekly Literaturnaya Gazeta, weekly The Moscow Times, weekly Novaya Gazeta, 3 issues a week Pravda, 3 issue a week Zhizn, weekly History of Russian journalism List of newspapers in Ukraine Media of Russia TASS, known now as ITAR-TASS, News agency RIA Novosti, News agency Interfax, News agency A Complete Visual Directory of Russian National and Regional Newspapers "Russian Federation: Directory: the Press". Eastern Europe and Central Asia 2003. Europa Publications. 2002. ISBN 978-1-85743-137-7

Sphola Stupa

Sphola Stupa is a Buddhist monument located in the Khyber Pass, Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The monument located about 25 kilometers from Jamrūd is on a high rocky ledge and consists of a stone mound supported by a tiered base. Large sections of the stone have fallen away to the right of the mound. A man is standing on the top of the mound, another man is standing on a pile of rubble to the right. There is a valley beyond with steep mountains rising behind it; this ruined stupa built of stones features a dome resting upon a three-tiered base. Sphola sits in a ravine located in Zarai village midway between Ali Masjid and Landi Kotal in the Khyber Pass; the 2nd century stupa may have been constructed towards the end of the Kushan Empire or according to some sources soon after third to fifth centuries. It is the most complete Buddhist monument in the Khyber Pass, it is a reminder of the great Kushana Empire and Buddhism nexus, depicted in Gandhara artefacts. Gandhara sculptures were excavated at this stupa and are now housed in the museum in Peshawar.

Sphola Stupa is the only such monument left in the Khyber Pass area. But instead of being treated as a conservation site, it has been turned into a Frontier Constabulary check post – the height provides a useful vantage point to the troops


Mal or MAL may refer to: Mal, an assembly constituency in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal, India Malbazar or Mal, a town in Jalpaiguri located in North Bengal, India. Malta, a rail station in Montana, station code MAL MAL, a human gene that encodes myelin and lymphocyte protein Maackia amurensis leukoagglutinin, lectin from the tree Maackia amurensis MAL Hungarian Aluminium, a Hungarian aluminum manufacturer Maritime Administration of Latvia, government agency of Latvia that oversees maritime affairs Median arcuate ligament, a ligament under the diaphragm on the posterior abdominal wall Message Abstraction Layer, a CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control standard Methyl aminolevulinate, a photosensitiser used for photodynamic therapy for skin problems Mid-America League, a short lived independent minor baseball league Military Authority Lira, another name of the Tripolitanian lira Model Arab League, an educational program that simulates the activities of the Arab League MonetDB Assembly Language, an assembly-like language used by the MonetDB database MyAnimeList, an anime and manga social networking and social cataloging application website Mal people, an ethnic group of Southeast Asia Mal language Mal, a Hindu group of India Mal Muslim, a Muslim group of India and Bangladesh Mal, a list of people with the given name or nickname Mal, prince of the Drevlians Mal Ryder, stage name of British singer Paul Bradley Couling Suraj Mal, ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India Suraj Mal of Nurpur, Rajput ruler of Nurpur, Himachal Pradesh in India Todar Mal, finance minister of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Akbar the Great Mal, in the film Inception, played by Marion Cotillard MAL, Dr. Blight's evil supercomputer in the Captain Planet and the Planeteers series Mal Duncan, a DC Comic Book character Mal Reynolds, protagonist of the Firefly science-fiction franchise Mal, Maleficent's daughter in the 2015 Disney film Descendants Mal, the longboard style of surfboard Mal language, a Mon–Khmer language of Laos and Thailand Alaskan Malamute, a large breed of domestic dog, nicknamed Mal Methallylescaline, a hallucinogenic drug synthesized by Alexander Shulgin Mal: Live 4 to 1, a live album by Mal Waldron mal, a Korean unit of volume mål, one of the Norwegian units of measurement of area Malla MALS

Academy Museum of Motion Pictures

The Academy Museum of Motion Pictures is a museum under construction by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in Los Angeles, California. Set to open on December 14, 2020, the Academy Museum will be the nation's first large-scale museum dedicated to the art, craft and history of film; the permanent and rotating exhibits will provide an immersive experience for visitors to explore the cultural and creative contributions that Hollywood and the film industry have made around the world. The Museum will be established in the historic May Company Building—renamed the Saban Building following a $50 million gift from Cheryl and Haim Saban—on the corner of Wilshire and Fairfax on Los Angeles's Museum Mile; the 300,000 square-foot facility is being designed by Pritzker Prize–winning architect Renzo Piano with Renzo Piano Building Workshop and Gensler. The project is led by Bill Kramer, Director of the Academy Museum, with NBCUniversal's Vice Chairman Ron Meyer as head of the Academy Museum's Board of Trustees.

Pritzker Prize–winning architect Renzo Piano designed two buildings for the 300,000 square-foot campus: the Saban Building. The museum will include 50,000 square feet of galleries, two theaters, cutting-edge project spaces, an outdoor piazza, a rooftop terrace with sweeping views of the Hollywood Hills, an active education studio, special event spaces, a restaurant, store; the David Geffen Theater Located in The Sphere, the 1,000-seat David Geffen Theater will represent the relationship between art and technology. The theater’s programming will include presentations illuminating the art of filmmaking, film premieres from new and established filmmakers, other high-profile events. Ted Mann Theater The 288-seat Ted Mann Theater will provide a more intimate space for visitors and will offer special programs and screenings. Since the 1930s, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has been collecting movie-related materials and is now considered the world's prominent curator of cinema history.

The Academy's permanent collection of over 12 million photographs, 190,000 moving image items, 80,000 screenplays, 61,000 posters and over 104,000 pieces of production art will influence the Museum's future exhibitions. Some key objects in the Museum's collection include: Dorothy's ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz Shirley Temple's tap shoes from The Little Colonel Typewriter used to write the screenplay for Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho The only surviving shark mold from Jaws Tablets from The Ten Commandments The Aries 1B spaceship model from 2001: A Space Odyssey Formed in December 2017, the Board of Trustees serves as the main governing body of the Museum and is responsible for overseeing the Museum’s overall strategic vision; the Board comprises 19 film industry professionals with the intention to add more Trustees in the future. The Trustees include: NBCUniversal Vice Chairman Ron Meyer, Blumhouse Productions founder Jason Blum, three-time Oscar nominated actress Laura Dern, Dolby Family Ventures' David Dolby, Gaumont Vice Chairman and CEO Sidonie Seydoux Dumas, world-renowned fashion designer Diane von Fürstenberg, Paramount Pictures Chairman and CEO Jim Gianopulos, five-time Oscar nominated actor Tom Hanks, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences CEO Dawn Hudson and television producer Mark Johnson, CJ Group Vice Chairwoman Miky Lee, Cinepolis CEO Alejandro Ramirez Magaña, East West Bank Chairman and CEO Dominic Ng, Bloomberg Associates Principal Katherine Oliver, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences President David Rubin, Netflix CCO Ted Sarandos, K Period Media founder Kimberly Steward, producer Emma Thomas, Dolby Laboratories President and CEO Kevin Yeaman.

List of museums in Los Angeles Academy Museum of Motion Pictures Official website Oscars Official website

Normand Roger

Normand Roger is a Canadian composer, sound editor and sound designer. He is known for his work as a composer of soundtracks for animated films, having composed more than 200 such works since 1970, he has worked on the creation of music for documentaries, feature films, television dramas, children's series and new technologies with 3D and virtual reality. He is the composer of many original soundtracks for Frédéric Back, Paul Driessen, Michaël Dudok de Wit, Caroline Leaf and Aleksandr Petrov. Thirteen of his works have been nominated for Academy Awards, he notably wrote the theme for the PBS's Mystery!. Roger lectures throughout the world on sound for animation. Roger has spent nearly 40 years creating soundtracks for the National Film Board of Canada in his hometown of Montreal, after first being hired for its animation department at the age of 22, his extensive NFB credits include Every Child and The Sand Castle, both winners of the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film. He is married to animation film director and producer Marcy Page, whom he met while working with on her film, Paradisia.

1977 The Sand Castle 1979 Every Child - 1980 Mystery! - 1980 The Sweater - 1981 The Tender Tale of Cinderella Penguin - 1981 Crac 1987 The Man Who Planted Trees 1992 No Problem - 1995 The Champagne Safari - 1996 How Wings Are Attached to the Backs of Angels 1996 Shyness - 1999 The Old Man And The Sea - 2000 Father and Daughter - 2010 Glimpses/Impressions - Normand Roger on IMDb Filmography at the National Film Board of Canada