Khmelnytsky Uprising

The Khmelnytsky Uprising was a Cossack rebellion that took place between 1648 and 1657 in the eastern territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukraine. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allied with the Crimean Tatars and local Ukrainian peasantry, fought against Polish domination and against the Commonwealth forces; the insurgency was accompanied by mass atrocities committed by Cossacks against the civilian population against the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jews. The uprising has a symbolic meaning in the history of Ukraine's relationship with Russia, it ended. The event triggered a period of political turbulence and infighting in the Hetmanate known as the Ruin; the success of anti-Polish rebellion, along with internal conflicts in Poland as well as concurrent wars waged by Poland with Russia and Sweden and Second Northern War respectively), ended the Polish Golden Age and caused a secular decline of Polish power during the period known in Polish history as the Deluge.

In Jewish history, the Uprising is known for the concomitant outrages against the Jews who, in their capacity as leaseholders, were seen by the peasants as their immediate oppressors. However, Shmuel Ettinger argues that both Ukrainian and Polish accounts of the massacres overemphasize the importance of the Jewish role as landlords, while downplaying the religious motivation for Cossack violence. In 1569 the Union of Lublin granted the southern Lithuanian-controlled Ruthenian voivodeships of Volhynia, Bracław and Kiev—to the Crown of Poland under the agreement forming the new Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Kingdom of Poland was controlling several Ruthenian lands which formed the voivodeships of Lviv and Belz. Although the local nobility was granted full rights within the Rzeczpospolita, their assimilation of Polish culture alienated them from the lower classes, it was important in regard of powerful and traditionally influential great princely families of ruthenian origins, among them Wiśniowieccy, Ostrogscy, Zbarascy and Zasławscy, which acquired more power and were able to gather more lands, creating huge latifundia.

This szlachta, along with the actions of the upper-class Polish Magnates, oppressed the lower-class Ruthenians, with the introduction of Counter-Reformation missionary practices and the use of Jewish arendators to manage their estates. Local Orthodox traditions were under siege from the assumption of ecclesiastical power by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1448; the growing Russian state in the north sought to acquire the southern lands of Kievan Rus', with the fall of Constantinople it began this process by insisting that the Metropolitan of Moscow and All Rus′ was now the primate of the Russian Church. The pressure of Catholic expansionism culminated with the Union of Brest in 1596, which attempted to retain the autonomy of the Eastern Orthodox churches in present-day Ukraine and Belarus by aligning themselves with the Bishop of Rome. While all of the people did not unite under one church, the concepts of autonomy were implanted into consciousness of the area and came out in force during the military campaign of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

Born to a noble family, Bohdan Khmelnytsky attended Jesuit schools. At the age of 22 he joined his father in the service of the Commonwealth, battling against the Ottoman Empire in the Moldavian Magnate Wars. After being held captive in Constantinople, he returned to life as a registered Cossack, settling in his hometown of Subotiv with a wife and several children, he participated in campaigns for Grand Crown Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, led delegations to King Władysław IV Vasa in Warsaw and was well respected within the Cossack ranks. The course of his life was altered, when Aleksander Koniecpolski, heir to Hetman Koniecpolski's magnate estate, attempted to seize Khmelnytsky's land. In 1647 Chyhyryn starost Daniel Czapliński started to harass Khmelnytsky on behalf of the younger Koniecpolski in an attempt to force him off the land. On two occasions raids were made to Subotiv, during which considerable property damage was done and his son Yurii was badly beaten, until Khmelnytsky moved his family to a relative's house in Chyhyryn.

He twice sought assistance from the king by traveling to Warsaw, only to find him either unwilling or powerless to confront the will of a magnate. Having received no support from Polish officials, Khmelnytsky turned to his Cossack friends and subordinates; the case of a Cossack being unfairly treated by the Poles found a lot of support not only in his regiment but throughout the Sich. All through the autumn of 1647 Khmelnytsky traveled from one regiment to the other and had numerous consultations with different Cossack leaders throughout Ukraine, his activity raised the suspicions of Polish authorities used to Cossack revolts, he was promptly arrested. Polkovnyk Mykhailo Krychevsky assisted Khmelnytsky in his escape, with a group of supporters he headed for the Zaporozhia

Brett Stephens

Brett Alexander "Moose" Stephens is a former Australian rules footballer in the VFL/AFL and a performance coach for world class athletes, working with pro tennis players golfers and surfers. Stephens was a key position player from Croydon, had stints at places including Essendon and North Hobart and Sydney, before recruited from East Perth Football Club to the VFL's Fitzroy Football Club. Coach David Parkin gave the mature-age recruit Stephens his debut in 1987 at the age of 26, he rewarded him with consistent performances. In Fitzroy's best and fairest, he finished 2nd on two occasions, he retired in 1993 with 54 goals in a solid career. He represented Australia in International rules against Ireland and captained Victoria against Queensland in State of Origin. After his retirement, Stephens became a sports coach in both the mental and physical training sectors, fitness coaching Pete Sampras, Mark Philippoussis and his eventual wife, Zimbabwean tennis player Cara Black. Brett Stephens's playing statistics from AFL Tables


Microlunatus is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mesophilic and non-motile bacterial genus from the family of Propionibacteriaceae. Nakamura, K. "Microlunatus phosphovorus gen. nov. sp. nov. A new gram-positive polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium isolated from activated sludge". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 45: 17–22. Doi:10.1099/00207713-45-1-17. PMID 7857797. George M. Garrity. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. New York: Springer Science + Business Media. ISBN 0-387-68233-3. Mara, edited by Duncan; the handbook of water and wastewater microbiology. San Diego, Calif.: Academic. ISBN 0-08-047819-0. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Kawakoshi, A. DNA Research. 19: 383–94. Doi:10.1093/dnares/dss020. PMC 3473371. PMID 22923697