Ukrainian People's Republic
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic, a predecessor of modern Ukraine, was declared on 10 June 1917 following the February Revolution in Russia. It formed part of the Russian Republic, but proclaimed its independence on 25 January 1918. During its short existence the republic went through several political transformations - from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central Council with its general secretariat to the national republic led by the Directorate and by Symon Petliura. Between April and December 1918 the Ukrainian People's Republic did not function, having been overthrown by the Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky. From late 1919 the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic, but by the state de facto no longer existed in Ukraine; the 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia and of Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic. After the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917, many governments formed in Ukraine – most notably the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets and its Soviet successors.
These two entities, plus the White Movement, Green armies and the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, fought with each other, which resulted in many casualties among Ukrainians fighting in a Ukrainian civil war as part of the wider Russian Civil War of 1917-1922. The Soviet Union would extend control over what would become the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and a founding member of the Soviet Union. On 10 June 1917, the Ukrainian Central Council declared its autonomy as part of the Russian Republic by its First Universal at the All-Ukrainian Military Congress; the highest governing body of the Ukrainian People's Republic became the General Secretariat headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko. The Prime Minister of Russia Alexander Kerensky recognized the Secretariat, appointing it as the representative governing body of the Russian Provisional Government and limiting its powers to five governorates: Volyn, Podolie and Poltova. At first Vynnychenko protested and left his post as Secretariat leader, but returned to reassemble the Secretariat after the Tsentralna Rada accepted the Kerensky Instruktsiya and issued the Second Universal.
After the October Revolution the Kievan faction of the Bolshevik Party instigated the uprising in Kiev on November 8, 1917 in order to establish Soviet power in the city. Kiev Military District forces attempted to stop it, but after the Tsentralna Rada threw its support behind the Bolsheviks, the Russian forces were eliminated from Kiev. After expelling the government forces, the Rada announced a wider autonomy for the Ukrainian Republic, still maintaining ties to Russia, on November 22, 1917; the territory of the republic was proclaimed by the Third Universal November 20, 1917 of the Tsentralna Rada encompassing the governorates: Volyn, Podolie, Poltava, Yekaterinoslav, Taurida. It stated that the people of the governorates: Voronezh and Kursk were welcome to join the republic through a referendum. Further the Tsentralna Rada in its Universal stated that because there was no Government in the Russian Republic after the October Revolution it proclaimed itself the Supreme governing body of the territory of Ukraine until order in the Russian republic could be restored.
The Central Rada called all revolutionary activities such as the October Revolution a civil war and expressed its hopes for the resolution of the chaos. After a brief truce, the Bolsheviks realized that the Rada had no intention of supporting the Bolshevik Revolution, they re-organized into an All-Ukrainian Council of Soviets in December 1917 in an attempt to seize power. When that failed due to the Bolsheviks' relative lack of popularity in Kiev, they moved to Kharkiv; the Bolsheviks of Ukraine declared the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic outlawed and proclaimed the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets with capital in Kiev, claiming that the government of the People's Secretaries of Ukraine was the only government in the country. The Bolshevik Red Army entered Ukraine from the Russian SFSR in support of the local Soviet government; as the relationships between members within the Tsentralna Rada soured, a series of regional Soviet republics on the territory of Ukraine proclaimed their independence and allegiance to the Petrograd sovnarkom.
The Donetsk-Kryvoi Rog Republic was created by a direct decree of Lenin as part of the Russian SFSR with its capital in Kharkiv. That decree was implemented by Fyodor Sergeyev who became the chairman of the local government as well as joining the Soviet government of Ukraine, simultaneously. Unlike Fyodor Sergeyev's Republic, the Odessa Republic was not recognized by any other Bolshevik governments and on its own initiative had entered a military conflict with Romania for control over the Moldavian Democratic Republic, whose territory it was contesting; the following information is based on the exposition of the Museum of Soviet occupation in Kiev March 8–12 – February Revolution in the Russian Empire, victory of the democratic forces March 17 – establishment of the Ukrainian Central Council April 4 – recreation of Prosvita, establishment of the Ukrainian Cooperative Committee, the Temporary Military Council, liberation of the people of Galicia Andrei Sheptytsky April 9 – Mykhailo Hrushevsky returns from exile to he
Kiev Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire from 1796 to 1919 and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1919 to 1925. It was formed as a governorate in the Right-bank Ukraine region following a division of the Kiev Viceroyalty into the Kiev and the Little Russia Governorates, with the administrative centre in Kiev. By the start of the 20th century it consisted of 12 uyezds, 12 cities, 111 miasteczkos and 7344 other settlements. After the October Revolution it became part of the administrative division of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1923 it was divided into several okrugs and on 6 June 1925 it was abolished by the Soviet administrative reforms; the Kyiv Governorate on the right bank of Dnieper was established by Emperor Paul I's edict of November 30, 1796. However it was not until 1800 when there was appointed the first governor and the territory was governed by the Kyiv Viceroy Vasiliy Krasno-Milashevich. Three existing Left-bank Ukraine viceroyalties were merged into one Little Russia Governorate centered on Chernigov, while the Kyiv Governorate was now comprised on Right-bank Ukraine.
With Kyiv still a capital, the governorate included the right-bank parts of the former Kyiv Viceroyalty merged with territories of the former Kyiv and Bracław Voivodeships which were gained by the Russian Empire from the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The edict took effect on August 1797, bringing the total number of uyezds to twelve. On January 22, 1832, the Kyiv Governorate, along with the Volhynia and the Podolia Governorates formed the Kyiv Governorate General known as the Southwestern Krai. At the time, Vasily Levashov was appointed the Military Governor of Kyiv as well as the General Governor of Podolia and Volhynia. In 1845, the population of the Governorate was 1,704,661. At the turn of the 20th century, the governorate included twelve uyezds named by their centers: Berdychiv, Chyhyryn, Kyiv, Radomyshl, Tarashcha, Uman and Zvenyhorodka. By the 1897 Russian Census, there were 3,559,229 people in the guberniya making it the most populous one in the whole Russian Empire.
Most of population was rural. There were 459,253 people living including about 248,000 in Kyiv. According to the mother tongue, the census classified the respondents as follows: 2,819,145 Little Russians representing 79.2% of the population, 430,489 Jews representing 12.1% of the population, 209,427 Great Russians representing 5.9% of the population, 68,791 Poles representing 1.9% of the population. By faith, 2,983,736 census respondents were Orthodox Christians, 433,728 were Jews and 106,733 were of the Roman Catholic Church. Kyiv Governorate remained a constituent unit of the larger Governorate General with Kyiv being the capital of both well into the 20th century. In 1915, the General Governorate was disbanded. Russian Empire Census of 1897 Kiev – 247,723 Berdichev – 53,351 Uman – 31,016 Cherkassy – 29,600 Skvira – 17,958 Zvenigorodka – 16,923 Vasilkov – 13,132 Tarascha – 11,259 Radomysl – 10,906 Smaller citiesChigirin – 9,872 Kanev – 8,855 Lipovets – 8,658 In the times after the Russian revolution in 1917–1921, the lands of Kiev Governorate switched hands many times.
After the last Imperial governor, Alexey Ignatyev until March 6, 1917, the local leaders were appointed by competing authorities. At times, the Governorate Starosta and the Governorate Commissar both claimed the Governorate, while some of the short-lived ruling regimes of the territory did not establish any particular administrative subdivision; as chaos gave way to stability in the early 1920s, the Soviet Ukrainian authority re-established the Governorate whose leading post was titled the Chairman of the Governorate's Revolutionary Committee or of the Executive Committee. In the course of the Soviet administrative reform of 1923–1929 the Kiev Governorate of Ukrainian SSR was transformed into six okruhas in 1923, since 1932, Kiev Oblast at the territory. Berdychiv Okruha Bila Tserkva Okruha Kiev Okruha Malyn Okruha Uman Okruha Cherkasy Okruha Shevchenko Okruha 1839-1852 Ivan Funduklei 1852-1855 Andrei Krivtsov 1855-1864 Pavel Gesse 1864-1866 Nikolai Kaznakov 1866-1868 Nikolai Eiler 1868-1871 Mikhail Katakazi 1881-1885 Sergei Gudim-Levkovich 1885-1898 Lev Tomara 1898-1903 Fyodor Trepov 1903-1905 Pavel Savvich 1905-1905 Aleksandr Vatatsi 1905-1906 Pavel Savvich 1906-1906 Aleksei Veretennikov 1906-1907 Pavel Kurlov 1907-1909 Pavel Ignatiev 1909-1912 Aleksei Girs 1912-1915 Nikolai Sukovkin 1915-1917 Aleksei Ignatiev as Governing Commissioners 1917-1917 Mikhail Sukovkin 1917-1918 Oleksandr Salikovsky as Governing Elders 1918-1918 I.
Chartoryzhski 1919-1919 Andrei Cherniavsky 1919-1919 Yakov Yakovlev 1919-1920 Abram Glinski 1920-1920 Ivan Klimenko 1920-1920 Panas Lyubchenko 1920-1920 Yan Gamarnik 1920-1921 Ale
General Nicholas Nikolaievich Annenkov was an influential Russian General of the Infantry, Governor-General of Kiev and Bessarabia, member of the State Privy Council. He was the brother of Varvara Annenkova. Born into great wealth as a member of the nobility of Nizhny Novgorod, Nicholas Annenkov was the son of Colonel Nicholas Nikanorovich Annenkov. After attending Moscow University, he joined the Army to fight against Napoleon, thereby beginning a military career that would last the rest of his life. By his mid-20s he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich of Russia and promoted to Colonel of the Infantry. During the Turkish Campaign of 1828, Annenkov distinguished himself and was awarded the Order of St. Anna. During the 1831 November Uprising in Poland, Annenkov served as Chief of Staff to General Baron Fabian Gottlieb von Osten-Sacken. During one attack, Annenkov captured 1,200 combatants, he was appointed to Tsar Nicholas I's personal suite. Owing to his military successes, in 1844 Nicholas Annenkov was promoted to Adjutant General of the Infantry.
On November 3, 1848, he was made a member of the State Council. In 1854 General Annenkov was appointed Interim Governor-General of New Russia and Bessarabia, a posting that coincided with the Crimean War, his actions during the Siege of Sevastopol and the bombardment of Odessa resulted in further decorations: the silver medal and the light-bronze medal. From 1856 to 1862 Annenkov served as State Comptroller of the Imperial Court. In 1861 Tsar Alexander II of Russia promoted him to Order of St. Vladimir, his final posting, from 1862 to 1865, was as Governor-General of the western provinces. As a final duty to the state, General Annenkov accompanied the body of Nicholas Alexandrovich, Tsarevich of Russia, back to Russia. Though Annenkov rejoined the State Council upon returning, he died shortly thereafter. General Nicholas Annenkov was married to Vera Ivanova Bukharina, daughter of Ivan Bukharin, Governor-General of Kiev, they had five children: 1) General Mikhail Annenkov 2) Elena, married to Ambassador Aleksandr Nelidov and mistress to Russian Minister of Finance A.
A. Abaza, his brother Alexei, prince Galitzine, was an early friend of Tchaikovsky.
Imperial Russian Army
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars; the last living veteran of the Russian Imperial Army was Ukrainian supercentenarian Mikhail Krichevsky, who died in 2008. Russian tsars before Peter the Great maintained professional hereditary musketeer corps known as streltsy; these were raised by Ivan the Terrible. In times of war the armed forces were augmented by peasants; the regiments of the new order, or regiments of the foreign order, was the Russian term, used to describe military units that were formed in the Tsardom of Russia in the 17th century according to the Western European military standards. There were different kinds of regiments, such as the regulars and reiters. In 1631, the Russians created two regular regiments in Moscow. During the Smolensk War of 1632–1634, six more regular regiments, one reiter regiment, a dragoon regiment were formed.
They recruited children of the landless boyars and streltsy, volunteers and others. Commanding officers comprised foreigners. After the war with Poland, all of the regiments were disbanded. During another Russo-Polish War, they were created again and became a principal force of the Russian army. Regular and dragoon regiments were manned with datochniye lyudi for lifelong military service. Reiters were manned with small or landless gentry and boyars' children and were paid with money for their service. More than a half of the commanding officers were representatives from the gentry. In times of peace, some of the regiments were disbanded. In 1681, there were 25 dragoon and reiter regiments. In the late 17th century, regiments of the new type represented more than a half of the Russian Army and in the beginning of the 18th century were used for creating a regular army. Conscription in Russia was introduced by Peter the Great in December 1699, though reports say Peter's father used it; the conscripts were called "recruits" Peter I formed a modern regular army built on the German model, but with a new aspect: officers not from nobility, as talented commoners were given promotions that included a noble title at the attainment of an officer's rank.
Conscription of peasants and townspeople was based on quota system, per settlement. It was based on the number of households it was based on the population numbers; the term of service in the 18th century was for life. In 1793 it was reduced to 25 years. In 1834, it was reduced to 20 years plus five years in the reserve, in 1855 to 12 years plus three years in the reserve; the history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Russian General Alexander Suvorov, considered one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. From 1777 to 1783 Suvorov served in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, becoming a lieutenant-general in 1780, general of infantry in 1783, on the conclusion of his work there. From 1787 to 1791 he again fought the Turks during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won many victories. Suvorov's leadership played a key role in a Russian victory over the Poles during the Kościuszko Uprising; as a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving Revolutionary France and the First French Empire, but as an adversary to Napoleon, the leadership of the new tsar, Alexander I of Russia, who came to the throne as the result of his father's murder became crucial.
The Russian army in 1805 had many characteristics of Ancien Régime organization: there was no permanent formation above the regimental level, senior officers were recruited from aristocratic circles, the Russian soldier, in line with 18th-century practice, was beaten and punished to instill discipline. Furthermore, many lower-level officers were poorly trained and had difficulty getting their men to perform the sometimes complex manoeuvres required in a battle; the Russians did have a fine artillery arm manned by soldiers trained in academies and who would fight hard to prevent their pieces from falling into enemy hands. Napoleon defeated the Russians and Austrians at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. On August 26, 1827, Nicholas I of Russia declared the "Statute on Conscription Duty"; this statute made it mandatory that all Russian males ages twelve to twenty-five were now required to serve in the Russian armed forces for 25 years. This was the first time that the massive Jewish population was required to serve in the Russian military.
The reasoning for Nicolas for mandatory conscription was because “in the military they would learn not only Russian but useful skills and crafts, they would become his loyal subjects."Many Jewish families began to emigrate out of the Russian Empire in order to escape the conscription obligations. Due to this, the government began to employ khappers who would kidnap Jewish children and turn them over to the government for conscription, it became known that "the khappers were not scrupulous about adhering to the minimum age of 12 and impressed children as young as 8."
Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina from June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of northern Bukovina and Hertza, of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times. These regions, with a total area of 50,762 km2 and a population of 3,776,309 inhabitants, were subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union; the Soviet Union had planned to accomplish the annexation with a full-scale invasion, but the Romanian government, responding to a Soviet ultimatum delivered on June 26, agreed to withdraw from the territories in order to avoid a military conflict. Nazi Germany, which had acknowledged the Soviet interest in Bessarabia in a secret protocol to the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, had been made aware prior to the planned ultimatum on June 24, but had not informed the Romanian authorities, nor were they willing to provide support; the Fall of France, a guarantor of Romania's borders, on 22 June, is considered an important factor in the Soviet decision to issue the ultimatum.
On August 2, 1940, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, encompassing most of Bessarabia, as well as a portion of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR located on the left bank of the Dniester. The Hertza region, the regions inhabited by Slavic majorities were included in the Ukrainian SSR. A period of political persecution, including executions, deportations to labour camps and arrests, occurred during the Soviet administration. In July 1941, Romanian and German troops recaptured Bessarabia during the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. A military administration was established and the region's Jewish population was either executed on the spot or deported to Transnistria, where further numbers were killed. In August 1944, during the Soviet Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, the Axis war effort on the Eastern Front collapsed. A coup d'état in Romania on 23 August 1944 caused the Romanian army to cease resisting the Soviet advance and join the fight against Germany.
Soviet forces advanced from Bessarabia into Romania, capturing much of its standing army as POWs and occupying the country. On September 12, 1944, Romania signed the Moscow Armistice with the Allies; the Armistice, as well as the subsequent peace treaty of 1947, confirmed the Soviet-Romanian border as it was on January 1, 1941. Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, Hertza remained part of the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, when they became part of the newly independent states of Moldova and Ukraine. In its declaration of independence of August 27, 1991, the government of Moldova condemned the creation of the Moldavian SSR, declaring that it had no legal basis; as a historical region, Bessarabia was the eastern part of the Principality of Moldavia. In 1812, under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest, the region was ceded by the Ottoman Empire to the Russian Empire; the Bessarabian question was both national in nature. According to the 1897 census, Bessarabia, at the time a guberniya of the Russian Empire, had a population, 47.6% Moldovans, 19.6% Ukrainians, 8% Russians, 11.8% Jews, 5.3% Bulgarians, 3.1% Germans, 2.9% Gagauz.
These figures showed a strong decrease in the proportion of Moldovans/Romanians in comparison to the census of 1817, conducted shortly after the Russian Empire annexed Bessarabia in 1812. According to the data of this census, Moldovans/Romanians represented 86% of the population; the decrease seen in the census of 1897 was due to the Russian policy of settling of other nationalities and Russification in the territory of Bessarabia. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, a National Council was formed in Bessarabia to manage the province; the council, known locally as Sfatul Țării, initiated several national and social reforms, on December 2/15 1917 declared the Moldavian Democratic Republic an autonomous republic within the Russian Federative Democratic Republic. The Rumcherod, a rival council loyal to the Petrograd Soviet, was formed and by late December had gained control over the capital, Chișinău, proclaimed itself the sole authority over Bessarabia. With the consent of the Entente, according to the Romanian historiography, on the request of Sfatul Țării, Romanian troops entered Bessarabia in early January, by February had pushed the Soviets over the Dniester.
Despite declarations by the Romanian prime minister that the military occupation was made with the consent of the Bessarabian government, the intervention was met with protest by the locals, notably by Ion Inculeț, president of Sfatul Țării, Pantelimon Erhan, head of the provisional Moldavian executive. The executive authorised the badly organised Moldavian militia to resist the Romanian advance, although with little success. In the wake of the intervention, Soviet Russia broke off diplomatic relations with Romania and confiscated the Romanian Treasure, at the time stored in Moscow for safekeeping. To calm the situation, the Entente representatives in Iași issued a guarantee that the presence of the Romanian Army was only a temporary military measure for the stabilisation of the front, without further effects on the political life of the region. In January 1918, Ukraine declared its independence from Russia, leaving Bessarabia physically isolated from the Petrograd government, leading to the declaration of independence of the Moldavian Republic on January 24/February 5.
Some historians consider. Following several Soviet protests, on February 20/March 5, the Romanian prime minister, General Alexandru Averescu, signed a treaty with the
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta