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Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda. It is near the nation's geographic centre; the city has been Rwanda's economic and transport hub since it became the capital following independence in 1962. The city hosts offices of the President of Rwanda and government ministries; the city is within the province of Kigali City, enlarged in January 2006, as part of local government reorganisation in the country. Kigali's city limits cover the whole province; the city's urban area covers about 70% of the municipal boundaries. The earliest inhabitants of what is now Rwanda were the Twa, a group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who settled the area between 8000 and 3000 BC and remain in the country today, they were followed between 700 BC and AD 1500 by a number of Bantu groups, including the Hutu and Tutsi, who began clearing forests for agriculture. According to oral history the Kingdom of Rwanda was founded in the 14th century on the shores of Lake Muhazi, around 40 kilometres east of modern Kigali.

At that time Rwanda was a small state in a loose confederation with larger and more powerful neighbours and Gisaka. By playing these neighbours against each other, the early kingdom flourished in the area, expanding westwards towards Lake Kivu and taking the Kigali area in the process. In the late 16th or early 17th centuries, the kingdom of Rwanda was invaded by the Banyoro and the kings forced to flee westward, leaving Kigali and eastern Rwanda in the hands of Bugesera and Gisaka; the formation in the 17th century of a new Rwandan dynasty by mwami Ruganzu Ndori, followed by eastward invasions and the conquest of Bugesera, marked the beginning of the Rwandan kingdom's dominance in the area. The capital of the kingdom was in the south of the country; the city of Kigali was founded in 1907 by explorer Richard Kandt. Rwanda and neighbouring Burundi had been assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of 1884, Germany established a presence in the country in 1897 with the formation of an alliance with the king, Yuhi V Musinga.

Kandt arrived in 1899, searching for the source of the Nile. When Germany decided in 1907 to separate the administration of Rwanda from that of Burundi, Kandt was appointed as the country's first Resident, he chose to make his headquarters in Kigali due to its central location in the country, because the area afforded good views and security. Kandt built himself a house in Nyarugenge, the first European-style house in the city, which remains in use today as the Kandt House Museum of Natural History. Despite a German ordinance written in 1905, which prohibited "non-indigenous natives" from entering Rwanda, Kandt began permitting the entry of Indian traders in 1908, which allowed commercial activity to begin in Rwanda in 1908; the first businesses were established in Kigali that year by Greek and Indian merchants, with assistance from Baganda and Swahili people. Items traded beads. However, commercial activity was limited and there were only around 30 firms in the city by 1914. Kandt opened government-run schools in Kigali, which began educating Tutsi students.

Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi in 1916, during World War I, were granted sovereignty by a League of Nations mandate in 1919. In early 1917, Belgium attempted to assert direct rule on the colony, placing King Musinga under arrest and sidelining Rwandans in the judiciary. In this period, Kigali was one of two provincial capitals, alongside Gisenyi; the difficulty of governing the complex Rwandan society, a crippling famine, led the Belgians to re-establish the German-style indirect rule at the end of 1917. Musinga was restored to his throne at Nyanza, with Kigali remaining home to the colonial administration; this arrangement persisted until the mid-1920s, but from 1924 the Belgians began once more to sideline the monarchy, this time permanently. Belgium took over appointment of officials and expansion of control. Kigali remained small through the remainder of the colonial era, as much of the administration took place in Ruanda-Urundi's capital Usumbura, now known as Bujumbura in Burundi.

Usumbura's population exceeded 50,000 during the 1950s, was the colony's only European-style city, while Kigali's population remained at around 6,000 until independence in 1962. Kigali become the capital upon Rwandan independence in 1962; the traditional capital was the seat of the mwami in Nyanza, while the colonial seat of power was in Butare known as Astrida. Butare was the leading contender to be the capital of the new independent nation, but Kigali was chosen because of its more central location; the city grew during the following decades, but retained a small-town feel, with just 25,000 people and five paved roads by the early 1970s. On 6 July 1973 there was a bloodless military coup, in which minister of defence Juvénal Habyarimana overthrew ruling president Gregoire Kayibanda. Businesses closed for a few days, troops patrolled across the city, but life had returned to normal and the army had left the streets by 11 July. In April 1994 President Habyarimana was assassinated, when his plane was shot down near Kigali Airport.

This was the catalyst for the Rwandan genocide, in which 500,000–1,000,000 Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu were killed in well-planned attacks on the orders of the interim government. Opposition politicians based in Kigali were killed on the first day of the genocide, the city became the setting for fierce fighting between the army and the Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front. On 8 April, Rwandan government forces attacked th

Mud Spring (Antelope Valley)

Mud Spring called Aquaje Lodoso, is a spring and historic site in the western Antelope Valley, within northern Los Angeles County, southern California. It is located the western Mojave Desert at an elevation of 2,871 feet, north of Lake Hughes and east of the Tehachapi Mountains. Aquaje Lodoso was an aguaje, a watering place on the Spanish and Mexican El Camino Viejo inland north-south route in colonial Alta California, it was located between Elizabeth Cow Spring water sources. It was a watering place on the Old Tejon Pass road between the Antelope and San Joaquin Valleys in the 1840s and early 1850s until that road was replaced by the Stockton–Los Angeles Road, a new and easier road through Fort Tejon Pass; the Butterfield Overland Mail 1st Division had a station operating at Mud Springs, on the Stockton - Los Angeles Road. In 1860, a correspondent of the Daily Alta California wrote an account of his travel by stagecoach to Los Angeles from San Francisco, he mentions that the Butterfield Overland Mail had a station operating at Mud Springs in 1860.

It was 14 miles east from French John's Station, 13 miles north from Clayton's—Widow Smith's Station near San Francisquito Pass in the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Butterfield Overland Mail in California

Cerebral hemisphere

The vertebrate cerebrum is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres; each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter, the cerebral cortex, supported by an inner layer of white matter. In eutherian mammals, the hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a large bundle of nerve fibers. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure and the fornix join the hemispheres and these are present in other vertebrates; these commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. There are three known poles of the cerebral hemispheres: the occipital pole, the frontal pole, the temporal pole; the central sulcus is a prominent fissure which separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Macroscopically the hemispheres are mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, a slight warping of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side.

On a microscopic level, the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, shows the functions of cells, quantities of neurotransmitter levels and receptor subtypes to be markedly asymmetrical between the hemispheres. However, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species; each cerebral hemisphere has an outer layer of cerebral cortex, of grey matter and in the interior of the cerebral hemispheres is an inner layer or core of white matter known as the centrum semiovale. The interior portion of the hemispheres of the cerebrum includes the lateral ventricles, the basal ganglia, the white matter. There are three poles of the cerebrum, the occipital pole, the frontal pole, the temporal pole; the occipital pole is the posterior end of each occipital lobe in each hemisphere. It is more pointed than the rounder frontal pole; the frontal pole is at the frontmost part of the frontal lobe in each hemisphere, is more rounded than the occipital pole.

The temporal pole is located between the frontal and occipital poles, sits in the anterior part of middle cranial fossa in each temporal lobe. If the upper part of either hemisphere is removed, at a level about 1.25 cm above the corpus callosum, the central white matter will be exposed as an oval-shaped area, the centrum semiovale, surrounded by a narrow convoluted margin of gray substance, studded with numerous minute red dots, produced by the escape of blood from divided blood vessels. If the remaining portions of the hemispheres be drawn apart a broad band of white substance, the corpus callosum, will be observed, connecting them at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure; each labium is part of the cingulate gyrus described. If the hemispheres are sliced off to a level with the upper surface of the corpus callosum, the white substance of that structure will be seen connecting the two hemispheres; the large expanse of medullary matter now exposed, surrounded by the convoluted margin of gray substance, is called the centrum semiovale.

The blood supply to the centrum semiovale is from the superficial middle cerebral artery. The cortical branches of this artery descend to provide blood to the centrum semiovale; the cerebral hemispheres are derived from the telencephalon. They arise five weeks after conception as bilateral invaginations of the walls; the hemispheres grow round in a C-shape and back again, pulling all structures internal to the hemispheres with them. The intraventricular foramina allows communication with the lateral ventricles; the choroid plexus is formed from vascular mesenchyme. Broad generalizations are made in popular psychology about certain functions being lateralized, that is, located in the right or left side of the brain; these claims are inaccurate, as most brain functions are distributed across both hemispheres. Most scientific evidence for asymmetry relates to low-level perceptual functions rather than the higher-level functions popularly discussed. In addition to this lateralization of some functions, the low-level representations tend to represent the contralateral side of the body.

The best example of an established lateralization is that of Broca's and Wernicke's Areas where both are found on the left hemisphere. These areas correspond to handedness however, meaning the localization of these areas is found on the hemisphere opposite to the dominant hand. Function lateralization such as semantics, intonation, prosody, etc. has since been called into question and been found to have a neuronal basis in both hemispheres. Perceptual information is processed in both hemispheres, but is laterally partitioned: information from each side of the body is sent to the opposite hemisphere. Motor control signals sent out to the body come from the hemisphere on the opposite side. Thus, hand preference is related to hemisphere lateraliza

Variegated mountain lizard

The variegated mountain lizard is an agamid lizard found in northern India and Nepal. From C. A. L. Gunther The Reptiles of British India: Head covered with small, keeled shields above. Tongue scarcely notched in front. A fold across the throat. Nape of the neck granular, with scattered larger tubercles. Both sexes with a nuchal crest, composed of triangular lobes. Trunk compressed. Ventral scales keeled, of moderate size. All the scales of the tail keeled, those on its lower side being the largest; the hind limb extends to the eye. Back with alternate brown or black and grayish or yellowish-white cross bands which ascend obliquely backwards. A white or yellow band along the upper lip. Gular sac black behind; the colors, vary to a considerable extent in this species. A large female is wholly black above, variegated with yellow, all the larger scales being of the latter color; the characteristic bands on the head and side of the neck arc present. This species is a native of Sikkim. Annandale, N. 1912. Zoological results of the Abor Expedition, 1911–1912.

Rec. Indian Mus. Calcutta 8: 7–59.. Gray, J. E. 1853. Descriptions of some undescribed species of reptiles collected by Dr. Joseph Hooker in the Khassia Mountains, East Bengal, Sikkim Himalaya. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 386–392

Lincoln School (Acton, Maine)

The Lincoln School is a historic former one-room schoolhouse at 8 Orchard Road in Acton, Maine. Built in 1884, it is the best-preserved of the town's surviving district school buildings, was its last active district school, closed in 1957, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. The Lincoln School is set at the southwest corner of Orchard and County Roads in rural southern Acton, it is a single-story wood frame structure, measuring 21 by 28 feet, with a gable roof and clapboard siding. Two small additions extend the building to the rear, its main facade, facing east, is symmetrically arranged, with a single door flanked by sash windows, a third window in the gable above. The door opens into a vestibule area spanning the width of the building, with two doors providing access to the classroom. Privies are located in the first addition, a woodshed in the second; the school was built in 1884. A few years after its construction, district schools were brought under control of the town, a long-running process of consolidation was begun.

The first district schools to be closed were in 1895. This school, remained open, receiving necessary modernization following the introduction of state-level standards in 1909. Acton's last three district schools, this one among them, were closed in 1957; the building has since been used as a meeting place for the local 4-H club. National Register of Historic Places listings in York County, Maine

Henry Woodward (Australian politician)

Henry Phipps John Woodward was an Australian politician and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for a single term between 1944 and 1947. He was a member of the Labor Party. Woodward was born in Brent Knoll in Somerset and was the son of a General dealer, he was educated to elementary level in England and worked with his father but became a produce agent and farmer in East Brent. Woodward was a farm produce agent and company director, he sat in parliament as a member of the Labor Party but joined the Liberal Party after leaving office. Woodward entered parliament as the Labor member for Lane Cove after he won the seat at 1944 state election; this was a surprise result as Lane Cove was considered one of the most conservative seats in the assembly. The incumbent Democtratic Party member Herbert FitzSimons had retired and his party's new candidate was John Cramer a future Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives and a cabinet minister under Robert Menzies; the Liberal Democrat candidate was Norman Thomas a former United Australia Party member for the seat of Bondi.

Divisions between the two conservative parties resulted in Woodward gaining a 23% leakage of Thomas' second preferences and an 800-vote victory. The unification of New South Wales' urban conservative politicians in the Liberal Party in 1945, augured the end of Woodward's parliamentary career, he was defeated by Liberal candidate Ken McCaw at the 1947 election. Woodward did not hold caucus, parliamentary or ministerial office