Rwanda Ruanda the Republic of Rwanda, is a country in Central Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland, its capital city is Kigali. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is elevated; the climate is temperate to subtropical, with two dry seasons each year. Rwanda has a population of over 12.6 million living on 26,338 sq. km of land, therefore it is the most densely populated mainland African country. The population is predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa. Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu and Twa; the Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people and are considered descendants of Rwanda's earliest inhabitants. Scholars disagree on differences between the Hutu and Tutsi. Christianity is the largest religion in the country.

The sovereign state of Rwanda has a presidential system of government. The president is Paul Kagame of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, who has served continuously since 2000. Today, Rwanda has low levels of corruption compared with neighbouring countries, although human rights organisations report suppression of opposition groups and restrictions on freedom of speech; the country has been governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times. Rwanda is one of only two countries in the world with a female majority in the national parliament, the other country being Bolivia. Hunter-gatherers settled the territory in the stone and iron ages followed by Bantu peoples; the population coalesced first into clans and into kingdoms. The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power and enacting anti-Hutu policies. Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I.

Both European nations perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy. The Hutu population revolted in 1959, they massacred numerous Tutsi and established an independent, Hutu-dominated republic in 1962. A 1973 military coup saw a change of leadership; the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990. The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus, were killed when their aircraft was shot down on 6 April 1994. Social tensions erupted in the 1994 genocide that followed, in which Hutu extremists killed an estimated 500,000-1,000,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu; the RPF ended the genocide with a military victory. Rwanda's developing economy suffered in wake of the 1994 genocide, but has since strengthened; the economy is based on subsistence agriculture. Coffee and tea are the major cash crops for export. Tourism is a fast-growing sector. Rwanda is one of only two countries in which mountain gorillas can be visited safely, visitors pay high prices for gorilla tracking permits. Music and dance are an integral part of Rwandan culture drums and the choreographed intore dance.

Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, a unique cow dung art. Rwanda has been governed as a unitary presidential system with a bicameral parliament ruled by Rwandan Patriotic Front since 1994; the country is member of the African Union, the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, COMESA, OIF and the East African Community. Modern human settlement of what is now Rwanda dates from, at the latest, the last glacial period, either in the Neolithic period around 8000 BC, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC. Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter-gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early Iron Age settlers, who produced dimpled pottery and iron tools; these early inhabitants were the ancestors of the Twa, aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who remain in Rwanda today. Between 700 BC and 1500 AD, a number of Bantu groups migrated into Rwanda, clearing forest land for agriculture.

The forest-dwelling Twa moved to the mountain slopes. Historians have several theories regarding the nature of the Bantu migrations. An alternative theory is that the migration was slow and steady, with incoming groups integrating into rather than conquering the existing society. Under this theory, the Hutu and Tutsi distinction arose and was a class distinction rather than a racial one; the earliest form of social organisation in the area was the clan. The clans were not limited to genealogical lineages or geographical area, most included Hutu and Twa. From the 15th century, the clans began to coalesce

2012 Myanmar by-elections

The 2012 Myanmar by-elections were held on 1 April 2012. The elections were held to fill 48 vacant parliamentary seats. Three of those remained vacant. There was no plan to fill the additional five seats cancelled in the 2010 election and one seat vacated after the decease of a RNDP member; the main opposition party National League for Democracy was re-registered for the by-elections on 13 December 2011 as part of the reforms in Burma since 2010. It won, its leader Aung San Suu Kyi ran in the seat of Kawhmu. 9 September 2011: Tun Aung Khaing replaced Aung Kyaw Zan, removed from office. 1 March 2012: Aung Sein Tha died in office and was not replaced. 28 January 2012: Bogyi a.k.a. Aung Ngwe died in office and was not replaced. 2012: Phone Myint Aung left the NDF to join the NNDP. 5 February 2013: Tin Shwe resigned from his seat to become a Hotels and Tourism Deputy Minister and was not replaced. 2013: Maung Sa Pru died in office and was not replaced. In February 2012, President Thein Sein remarked that the government would "seriously consider" allowing Southeast Asian observers from the Association of South East Asian Nations to observe the election.

The Burmese government confirmed that it had requested for ASEAN election observers to arrive on 28 March, five days before the election. Canada, United States, European Union and North Korea, as well as ASEAN dialogue partners, were invited to observe the election, although it remained unclear the degree of access these international observers were to have; the United States sent three journalists. On 13 March 2012, the Union Election Commission approved political party monitors to monitor polling stations during the election. In the previous election, only Union Solidarity and Development Party monitors had been allowed to observe the elections and ballot counts. A civilian-led monitoring group, including members of the 88 Generation Students Group scrutinised election irregularities. On 28 March 2012, Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade sent a delegation consisting of Senator Consiglio Di Nino and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Deepak Obhrai.

Aung Din of the US Campaign for Burma said that the Burmese government was exploiting the elections to have Western sanctions lifted as as possible, since a free and transparent election had been one of the conditions set by the European Union and American governments. Moreover, the National League for Democracy has pointed out irregularities in voter lists and rule violations by local election committees. On 21 March 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was quoted as saying "Fraud and rule violations are continuing and we can say they are increasing."With regard to the invitations of international election observers, a US State Department spokesperson said that the Burmese government fell short of expectations to accommodate observers during the entirety of the campaign season, nearing the end, as a select number of observers were allowed only to observe the election: Asian Network for Free Elections, a Bangkok-based election monitoring organisation, has publicly called the election observations inadequate, failing to meet international standards, being too restrictive, coming too late, all of which make it logistically impossible to monitor all 48 polling stations.

On 20 March 2012, Somsri Hananuntasuk, executive director of ANFREL, was deported from Yangon, purportedly for entering the country on a tourist visa. On 23 March 2012, the three by-elections in Kachin State, namely in the constituencies of Mogaung and Bhamo Townships, were postponed due to the security situation there. Two days before the by-elections, at press conference, Suu Kyi remarked that the voter irregularities were "beyond what is acceptable for democratic elections," said she did not consider the campaign "genuinely free and fair" and referred to acts of intimidation toward party members. On 1 April, the opposition National League for Democracy alleged irregularities, claiming that ballot sheets had been tampered to allow the election commission to cancel the vote for Suu Kyi's party. Two Australian MPs, who were selected to observe the by-elections as part of Australia's monitoring team, were denied visas to enter the country. Much of the international reaction on the by-elections revolved around the sanctions imposed by Western countries.

President Thein Sein and the Burmese government were eager to work with Aung San Suu Kyi to remove these measures. President Thein Sein remarked that the by-elections were conducted "in a successful manner."The Union Solidarity and Development Party said it would lodge official complaints to the Union Election Commission on poll irregularities, voter intimidation, purported campaign incidents that involved National League for Democracy members and supporters. The National League for Democracy sent an official complaint to the commission, regarding ballots that it claimed had been tampered with wax. In response to the by-elections, a Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesman said: ASEAN leaders, including those from Cambodia, and

Red Turban invasions of Goryeo

The Red Turban invasions of Goryeo occurred in the 14th century, when the Red Turban Rebellion spread to Goryeo on the Korean Peninsula. The Red Turban rebels, originating in the Zhejiang area, were opposed to the Yuan dynasty of China and the Mongolian plateau. After gaining control of Liaodong, the Red Turbans invaded Goryeo in 1359 and 1360; the Mongol invasions of Korea lasted from 1231–1259, Goryeo became a vassal state of Yuan in 1270 until 1356. In the mid-14th century, when the Yuan dynasty was beginning to crumble due to the Red Turban Rebellion, Gongmin reformed the Korean government, abolished Mongolian military outposts, purged pro-Yuan sentiments, regained lost northern territories. In December 1359, part of the Red Turban army moved their base to the Liaodong Peninsula. However, they were experiencing a shortage of war materials and lost their withdrawal route to Chinese mainland; the Red Turban army took the city of Pyongyang. In January 1360, the Goryeo army led by An U and Yi Bang-sil retook Pyongyang and the northern region, captured by the enemy.

Of the Red Turban army that had crossed the Yalu River, only 300 troops returned to Liaoning after the war. In November 1360, the Red Turban troops invaded again Goryeo's northwest border with 200,000 troops and they occupied Gaegyeong, the capital of Goryeo, for a short period, King Gongmin escaped to Andong. However, Generals Choe Yeong, Yi Seonggye, Jeong Seun and Yi Bang-sil repulsed the Red Turban army. Sha Liu and Guan Xiansheng, who were Red Turban generals, were killed in the battles; the Goryeo army continually cleared them from the Korean Peninsula. Although Goryeo had repulsed the Red Turbans, both the population and the economy had been damaged. Wokou pirates had been troubling the southern peninsula for some time. Generals Choe Yeong and Yi Seong-gye were called upon by King Gongmin to combat them, thereby giving the successful generals much influence and a power base in the country. General Yi Seonggye identified himself with the reformist Sinjin faction. In 1388, unwilling to lead the invasion of Liaodong and fight the Ming dynasty, General Yi Seonggye decided to revolt against U of Goryeo and his fellow general, Choe Yeong, swept back to the capital, Gaegyeong, to secure control of the government.

In 1392, General Yi founded Joseon dynasty. Korea under Yuan rule Gongmin of Goryeo Yi Seong-gye Red Turbans Naver encyclopedia