Kilwa Sultanate

The Kilwa Sultanate was a Medieval sultanate, centered at Kilwa, whose authority, at its height, stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast. According to the legend, it was founded in the 10th century by Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi, a Persian prince of Shiraz, his family ruled the Sultanate until the year 1277. They were replaced by the Arab family of Abu Moaheb until 1505, when they were overthrown by a Portuguese invasion. By 1513, the sultanate was fragmented into smaller states, many of which became protectorates of the Sultanate of Oman; the story of Kilwa begins around 960-1000 AD. According to legend, Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi was one of seven sons of a ruler of Shiraz, his mother an Abyssinian slave. Upon his father's death, Ali was driven out of his inheritance by his brothers. Setting sail out of Hormuz, Ali ibn al-Hassan, his household and a small group of followers first made their way to Mogadishu, the main commercial city of the East African coast. However, Ali failed to get along with the city's Somali elite and he was soon driven out of that city as well.

Steering down the African coast, Ali is said to have purchased the island of Kilwa from the local Bantu inhabitants. According to one chronicle, Kilwa was owned by a mainland Bantu king'Almuli' and connected by a small land bridge to the mainland that appeared in low tide; the king agreed to sell it to Ali ibn al-Hassan for as much colored cloth as could cover the circumference of the island. But when the king changed his mind, tried to take it back, the Persians had dug up the land bridge, Kilwa was now an island. Rather than being a literal retelling of events, this legendary history serves to legitimize the dynasty through ties to Islam. According to Horton and Middleman, "the descent from a noble Islamic family and an Abyssinian slave'explains' why the rulers were both black but with royal Muslim descent, it began to attract many merchants and immigrants from further north, including Persia and Arabia. In just a few years, the city was big enough to establish a satellite settlement at nearby Mafia Island.

Kilwa's emergence as a commercial center challenged the dominance once held by Mogadishu over the East African coast. Suleiman Hassan, the ninth successor of Ali, wrested control of the southerly city of Sofala. Wealthy Sofala was the principal entrepot for the gold and ivory trade with Great Zimbabwe and Monomatapa in the interior; the acquisition of Sofala brought a windfall of gold revenues to the Kilwa Sultans, which allowed them to finance their expansion and extend their powers all along the East African coast. At the zenith of its power in the 15th century, the Kilwa Sultanate owned or claimed overlordship over the mainland cities of Malindi and Sofala and the island-states of Mombassa, Zanzibar, Mafia and Mozambique - what is now referred to as the "Swahili Coast". Kilwa claimed lordship across the channel over the myriad of small trading posts scattered on the coast of Madagascar. To the north, Kilwa's power was checked by the independent Somali city-states of Barawa and Mogadishu. To the south, Kilwa's reach extended as far as Cape Correntes, below which merchant ships did not dare sail.

While a single figure, the Sultan of Kilwa, stood at the top of the hierarchy, the Kilwa Sultanate was not a centralized state. It was more a confederation of commercial cities, each with its own internal elite, merchant communities and trade connections; the Sultan might appoint a governor or overseer, but his authority was not consistent - in some places he was a true governor in the Sultan's name, whereas in more established cities like Sofala his powers were much more limited, more akin to an ambassador to the city, than its governor. Despite its origin as a Persian colony, extensive inter-marriage and conversion of local Bantu inhabitants and Arab immigration turned the Kilwa Sultanate into a veritable melting pot, ethnically indifferentiable from the mainland; the mixture of Perso-Arab and Bantu cultures is credited for creating a distinctive East African culture and language known today as Swahili. Nonetheless, the Muslims of Kilwa would refer to themselves as Shirazi or Arabs, to the unconverted Bantu peoples of the mainland as Zanj or Khaffirs.

The Kilwa Sultanate was wholly dependent on external commerce. It was a confederation of urban settlements, there was little or no agriculture carried on within the boundaries of the sultanate. Grains and other necessary supplies to feed the large city populations had to be purchased from the Bantu peoples of the interior. Kilwan traders from the coast encouraged the development of market towns in the Bantu-dominated highlands of what are now Kenya, Tanzania and Zimbabwe; the Kilwan mode of living was as middlemen traders, importing manufactured goods from Arabia and India, which were swapped in the highland market towns for Bantu-produced agricultural commodities for their own subsistence and precious raw materials which they would export back to Asia. The exception was the coconut palm tree. Grown all alon

Hooper Cottage

Hooper Cottage is a heritage-listed residence at 17 Gilderthorpe Avenue in the Sydney suburb of Randwick in the City of Randwick local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1847 to 1848, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Pre-1780s - local Aboriginal people in the area used the site for fishing and cultural activities. In 1789 Governor Arthur Phillip referred to "a long bay". Aboriginal people are believed to have inhabited the Sydney region for at least 20,000 years; the population of Aboriginal people between Palm Beach and Botany Bay in 1788 has been estimated to have been 1500. Those living south of Port Jackson to Botany Bay were the Cadigal people who spoke Dharug, while the local clan name of Maroubra people was "Muru-ora-dial". By the mid nineteenth century the traditional owners of this land had either moved inland in search of food and shelter, or had died as the result of European disease or confrontation with British colonisers.

One of the earliest land grants in this area was made in 1824 to Captain Francis Marsh, who received 4.9 hectares bounded by the present Botany and High Streets and Belmore Roads. In 1839 William Newcombe acquired the land north-west of the present town hall in Avoca Street. Randwick takes its name from the town of Randwick, England; the name was suggested by his brother James. Simeon was born in the English Randwick and the brothers were responsible for the early development of both Randwick and its neighbour, Coogee. Simeon had come to the colony in 1841 as a 21 year old surveyor, he built his Blenheim House on the 1.6 hectares he bought from Marsh, called his property "Randwick". The brothers sold land profitably in the area and elsewhere. Simeon campaigned for construction of a road from the city to Coogee and promoted the incorporation of the suburb. Pearce sought construction of a church modelled on the church of St. John in his birthplace. In 1857 the first St Jude's stood on the site of the present post office, at the corner of the present Alison Road and Avoca Street.

Randwick was slow to progress. The village was isolated from Sydney by swamps and sandhills, although a horse-bus was operated by a man named Grice from the late 1850s, the journey was more a test of nerves than a pleasure jaunt. Wind blew sand over the track, the bus sometimes became bogged, so that passengers had to get out and push it free. From its early days Randwick had a divided society; the wealthy lived elegantly in large houses built when Pearce promoted Randwick and Coogee as a fashionable area. But the market gardens and piggeries that continued alongside the large estates were the lot of the working class. On the estates that became racing empires, many jockeys and stablehands lived in huts or under canvas. An poorer group were the immigrants who existed on the periphery of Randwick in a place called Irishtown, in the area now known as The Spot, around the junction of St. Paul's Perouse Road. Here families lived in makeshift houses, taking on the most menial tasks in their struggle to survive.

In 1858 when the NSW Government passed the Municipalities Act, enabling formation of municipal districts empowered to collect rates and borrow money to improve their suburb, Randwick was the first suburb to apply for the status of a municipality. It was approved in February 1859, its first Council was elected in March 1859. Randwick had been the venue for sporting events, as well as duels and illegal sports, from the early days in the colony's history, its first racecourse, the Sandy Racecourse or Old Sand Track, had been a hazardous track over hills and gullies since 1860. When a move was made in 1863 by John Tait, to establish Randwick Racecourse, Simeon Pearce was furious when he heard that Tait intended to move into Byron Lodge. Tait's venture prospered, however and he became the first person in Australia to organise racing as a commercial sport; the racecourse made a big difference to the progress of Randwick. The horse-bus gave way to trams that linked the suburb to civilisation. Randwick soon became a prosperous and lively place, it still retains a busy residential and commercial life.

Today, some of the houses have been replaced by home units. Many European migrants have made their homes in the area, along with students and workers at the nearby University of NSW and the Prince of Wales Hospital. Land a Crown grant to Captain Marsh in 1824. In 1847 Alderman, Council auditor and one of area's first residents, market gardener George Hooper bought the 26 hectares of land for orchards and market gardens, built the first cottage in the same year on about 5.3 hectares as a farmhouse. In 1848 Hooper builds vernacular two-storey Georgian house with courtyard, converts original cottage to kitchen/servants' quarters. C. 1860 the name Figtree Avenue first appears on a map. In 1864 George Hooper leaves for Queensland; the estate and house left in trust to Hooper's wife Mary. Pearce was trying to entice wealthy residents to the Randwick area, Hooper was a friend of the Pearce family. George's brother, James Hooper, worked as a market gardener on Randwick Road in 1858/9, from 1865-1880 James was listed as living in Orange Street.

In the 1840-80 period of market gardens and orchards in area, supplying close by City Markets. Occupants of Hooper's cottage were market gardeners. 1887 the cottage was bought by

1893–94 Stoke F.C. season

The 1893–94 season was Stoke's fifth season in the Football League. Stoke finished the season in 11th position after picking up 29 points of which 27 were claimed at the Victoria Ground. Indeed, Stoke's home form of 1893–94 was excellent with 13 wins from 15 but their away from was terrible as they failed to win any away game during the season. Stoke competed in the short lived United Counties League, won on goal average by West Bromwich Albion. In 1893–94 the Stoke side was broken up with Alf Underwood, Bill Rowley and Ted Evans all losing their first choice status. Eleventh place in the table was achieved, thanks in main to an excellent home record of 13 wins from 15; the only defeat in front of their own fans came shortly after Christmas when Wolverhampton Wanderers won 3–0 whilst eventual champions Aston Villa were held 3–3 in the other game. As their home form was good Stoke's away from was awful picking up just two points and conceded 62 goals on their travels. Indeed, from 1 April 1893 to 17 March 1895 not one away win was gained and by coincidence it was Sheffield Wednesday whom Stoke beat on each occasion at the start and at the end of that dismal run.

There was tragedy during the season as young defender Jack Proctor fell ill with pneumonia and died at the age of 22. Stoke competed in the United Counties League this season which involved two groups of four teams playing each other twice and the winners of each group playing each other to win the title. Stoke finished 2nd in their group behind West Bromwich Albion on goal average. West Brom went on to lose to Derby County in the final; the tournament failed to get the supporters in through the gates and after just one season the United Counties League was scrapped. Season 1893–94 saw one of Stoke's best FA Cup displays since they entered the competition in 1883. Competing in gale-force winds, they knocked out Everton 1–0 with a Joe Schofield goal in the final minute of the match; the Stoke players were praised by watching reporters for making the match entertaining in difficult conditions. Alas they went out in the next round defeated by Sheffield Wednesday. Key: P = Matches played; the United Counties League was not deemed a success due to poor attendances and was scrapped after just one season