Dark Future is a 1988 alternate history and post-apocalyptic science-fantasy miniature wargame by Games Workshop. It is set in the then-future year of 1995, in a post-apocalyptic fantasy-inspired alternate reality where the United States—as well as the rest of the world—has fallen apart. Society has collapsed, the natural laws of physics have broken down. Megacorps are now in total control, technology runs rampant, Sanctioned Ops patrol the roads and highways tracking down and destroying the renegade scum who live there, outside of the law and doing what they please. Another game like it, bearing the name Dark Future, was developed for Games Workshop as a cyberpunk role-playing game, but was canceled; the game's co-author and GW board game developer Marc Gascoigne ported it onto Richard Halliwell's car-racing game system, using a mechanic developed for Judge Dredd role-playing game adventure Slaughter Margin. The game was seen as a replacement for GW's early board game Battlecars, which merged James Bond-like combative car gadgets in a Death Race 2000 and Mad Max-styled background.
The novels that were written by Jack Yeovil—a pen name of Kim Newman—created an elaborate alternate history in which Elvis Presley is a hard-as-nails bounty hunter and Oliver North is President of the United States. In 2005 the Dark Future setting was brought back as a series of novels published by Games Workshop's fiction imprint Black Flame, they updated the setting to 2021, released several new titles. However, while several pop-culture references were updated in the books, some lines retain their original wording, now seem out of place. In the board game, the player plays the part of a Sanctioned Op—a bounty hunter of the future—or a Renegade, dueling for survival in high-tech vehicles of the present. In May 2015 it was announced that Dark Future would be rebooted as a digital game entitled'Dark Future: Blood Red States'. Published in 1988 it was a standard Games Workshop boxed game containing rules, cardboard track sections and plastic cars a similar size to standard Matchbox or Hotwheels toy cars.
This is a volume of advanced rules for Dark Future. Inside this book players will find new rules for manoeuvers, shooting and new equipment. New vehicles are presented, new scenarios, new characters as well. Auroch Digital, the UK indie developer responsible for the digital versions of a previous Games Workshop cult classic, Chainsaw Warrior, announced that they would be developing a reboot of the board game as a digital title for Windows; the game is due to be released on Steam in late 2017. Designer Tomas Rawlings described the inspiration for adapting the original being due to the themes still prevalent today, stating "The original rule book talks about the impact of climate change; this was from 1988. When I read news articles that suggest conflicts like that in Darfur and Syria has climate as a partial catalyst, it shows how prescient Dark Future was. We’re taking this seriously in the design and have got some scientists with support from The Wellcome Trust embedded into the game design process" White Dwarf 100: Highway Warriors!
- A preview of the forthcoming Dark Future game. White Dwarf 102: Dark Future Release Preview White Dwarf 103: Illuminations - Review of Carl Critchlow, Thrud the Barbarian and Dark Future Artist. White Dwarf 103:'Eavy Metal - Pictures of painted DarkFuture models White Dwarf 104: Redd Harvest - Dealing with the famed Sanction Op, Redd Harvest herself. White Dwarf 104: Thrud the Barbarian - "I have seen the Future, it is Dark". White Dwarf 105: Street Fighter - An article dealing with the ins and outs of fighting outside the car. White Dwarf 106: A Day at the Races - New car types and equipment for racers. White Dwarf 107: White Line Fever: Advanced Manoeuvres - excerpt from White Line Fever dealing with speed and handling. White Dwarf 107: Three Wheelers - Rules for Trikes and motorcycle combinations from White Line Fever. White Dwarf 107:'Eavy Metal Citadel and diecast conversions. White Dwarf 108: White Line Fever: Advanced Shooting - excerpt from White Line Fever dealing with shooting, fire arcs and more.
White Dwarf 108: Citadel Miniatures - Dark Future Street Warriors White Dwarf 110: Tournament Rules - Simplified rules for quick play, just a little more advanced than the Starter Rules... White Dwarf 112: St. Louis Blues - A look at the famed Sanctioned Op group. White Dwarf 124: Dead Man's Curve, part 1 - Advanced rules for campaigns, darkness, salvage, experience. White Dwarf 125: Dead Man's Curve, part 2 - More advanced rules for success, recruitment, cybernetics and gamesmasters. Challenge 52: Sand Cats - A Renegade gang that needs to be hunted down; the post-apocalyptic and science-fantasy world of the Dark Future series—as detailed by Yeovil/Newman—plays with multiple sci-fi, dystopia clichés while blending in alternate history and homages & cameos to other fiction. The world has undergone an intense social and moral collapse, combined with a dramatic rise in technology.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Referring to himself as a "consulting detective" in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, forensic science, logical reasoning that borders on the fantastic, which he employs when investigating cases for a wide variety of clients, including Scotland Yard. First appearing in print in 1887's A Study in Scarlet, the character's popularity became widespread with the first series of short stories in The Strand Magazine, beginning with "A Scandal in Bohemia" in 1891. All but one are set in the Victorian or Edwardian eras, between about 1880 and 1914. Most are narrated by the character of Holmes's friend and biographer Dr. Watson, who accompanies Holmes during his investigations and shares quarters with him at the address of 221B Baker Street, where many of the stories begin. Though not the first fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes is arguably the best known, with Guinness World Records listing him as the "most portrayed movie character" in history.
Holmes's popularity and fame are such that many have believed him to be not a fictional character but a real individual. Considered a British cultural icon, the character and stories have had a profound and lasting effect on mystery writing and popular culture as a whole, with the original tales as well as thousands written by authors other than Conan Doyle being adapted into stage and radio plays, films, video games, other media for over one hundred years. Edgar Allan Poe's C. Auguste Dupin is acknowledged as the first detective in fiction and served as the prototype for many that were created including Holmes. Conan Doyle once wrote, "Each is a root from which a whole literature has developed... Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?" The stories of Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Lecoq were popular at the time Conan Doyle began writing Holmes, Holmes' speech and behaviour sometimes follow that of Lecoq. Both Dupin and Lecoq are referenced at the beginning of A Study in Scarlet.
Conan Doyle said that Holmes was inspired by the real-life figure of Joseph Bell, a surgeon at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, whom Conan Doyle met in 1877 and had worked for as a clerk. Like Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing broad conclusions from minute observations. However, he wrote to Conan Doyle: "You are yourself Sherlock Holmes and well you know it". Sir Henry Littlejohn, Chair of Medical Jurisprudence at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, is cited as an inspiration for Holmes. Littlejohn, Police Surgeon and Medical Officer of Health in Edinburgh, provided Conan Doyle with a link between medical investigation and the detection of crime. Other inspirations have been considered. One has been argued to be Maximilien Heller, by French author Henry Cauvain, it is not known if Conan Doyle read Maximilien Heller, but he was fluent in French, in this 1871 novel, Henry Cauvain imagined a depressed, anti-social, opium-smoking polymath detective, operating in Paris. Michael Harrison has suggested that a German self-styled "consulting detective" named Walter Scherer may have been the model for Holmes.
Details about Sherlock Holmes' life are scarce in Conan Doyle's stories. Mentions of his early life and extended family paint a loose biographical picture of the detective. An estimate of Holmes's age in "His Last Bow" places his year of birth at 1854, his parents are not mentioned in the stories, although Holmes mentions that his "ancestors" were "country squires". In "The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter", he claims that his grandmother was sister to the French artist Vernet, without clarifying whether this was Claude Joseph, Carle, or Horace Vernet. Holmes's brother Mycroft, seven years his senior, is a government official. Mycroft has a unique civil service position as a kind of human database for all aspects of government policy, he lacks Sherlock's interest in physical investigation, preferring to spend his time at the Diogenes Club. Holmes says. A meeting with a classmate's father led him to adopt detection as a profession, he spent several years after university as a consultant before financial difficulties led him to accept John H. Watson as a fellow lodger.
The two take lodgings at 221B Baker Street, London, an apartment at the upper end of the street, up seventeen steps. Holmes worked as a detective for twenty-three years, with physician John Watson assisting him for seventeen, they were roommates before Watson's 1888 marriage and again after his wife's death. Their residence is maintained by Mrs. Hudson. Most of the stories are frame narratives, written from Watson's point of view as summaries of the detective's most interesting cases. Holmes calls Watson's writing sensational and populist, suggesting that it fails to and objectively report the "science" of his craft: Detection is, or ought to be, an exact science and should be treated in the same cold and unemotional manner. You have attempted to tinge it with romanticism, which produces much the same effect as if you worked a love-story... Some facts should be suppressed, or, at least, a just sense of proport
Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films and the film medium. The concept is used interchangeably with that of film reviews. A film review implies a recommendation aimed at consumers, however not all film criticism takes the form of reviews. In general, film criticism can be divided into two categories: journalistic criticism which appears in newspapers and other popular mass-media outlets. Academic film criticism takes the form of a review. Film was introduced in the late 19th century; the earliest artistic criticism of film emerged in the early 1900s. The first paper to serve as a critique of film came out of The Optical Lantern and Cinematograph Journal, followed by the Bioscope in 1908. Film is a new form of art, in comparison to music and painting which have existed since ancient times. Early writing on film sought to argue that films could be considered a form of art. In 1911, Ricciotto Canudo wrote a manifesto proclaiming cinema to be the "Sixth Art". For many decades after, film was still being treated with less prestige than longer-established art forms.
By the 1920s, critics were analyzing film for its value as more than just entertainment. The growing popularity of the medium caused major newspapers to start hiring film critics. In the 1930s, the film industry developed concepts of stardom and celebrity in relation to actors, which led to a rise in obsession with critics as well, to the point that they were seen on "red carpet" and at major events with the actors, it was in the 1940s. Essays analyzing films with a distinctive charm and style to persuade the reader of the critic's argument, it was the emergence of these styles that brought film criticism to the mainstream, gaining the attention of many popular magazines. As the decades passed, the fame for critics grew and gave rise to household names among the craft like James Agee, Andrew Sarris, Pauline Kael and in modern times Roger Ebert and Peter Travers. Film critics working for newspapers, broadcast media, online publications review new releases, although review older films. An important task for these reviews is to inform readers on whether or not they would want to see the film.
A film review will explain the premise of the film before discussing its merits. The verdict is summarised with a form of rating. Numerous rating systems exist, such as 5 - or academic-style grades and pictograms; some well-known journalistic critics have included: James Agee. Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel popularised the concept of reviewing films in a television format in the show Siskel & Ebert At the Movies which became syndicated in the 1980s. Both critics had established their careers in print media, continued to write written reviews for their respective newspapers alongside their television show; some websites, such as Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic, seek to improve the usefulness of film reviews by compiling them and assigning a score to each in order to gauge the general reception a film receives. Blogging has introduced opportunities for a new wave of amateur film critics to have their opinions heard; these review blogs may focus on one genre, director or actor, or encompass a much wider variety of films.
Friends, friends of friends, or strangers are able to visit these blogsites, can leave their own comments about the movie and/or the author's review. Although much less frequented than their professional counterparts, these sites can gather a following of like-minded people who look to specific bloggers for reviews as they have found that the critic exhibits an outlook similar to their own. YouTube has served as a platform for amateur film critics; some websites specialize in narrow aspects of film reviewing. For instance, there are sites that focus on specific content advisories for parents to judge a film's suitability for children. Others focus on a religious perspective. Still others highlight more esoteric subjects such as the depiction of science in fiction films. One such example is Insultingly Stupid Movie Physics by Intuitor; some online niche websites provide comprehensive coverage of the independent sector. They tend to offer uncompromising opinions free of any commercial interest, their film critics have an academic film background.
The Online Film Critics Society, an international professional association of Internet-based cinema reviewers, consists of writers from all over the world, while New York Film Critics Online members handle reviews in the New York tri-state area. A number of websites allow Internet users to submit movie reviews and aggregate them into an average. Community-driven review sites have allowed the common movie goer to express their opinion on films. Many of these sites allow users to rate films on a 0 to 10 scale, while some rely on the sta
Alternate history or alternative history is a genre of speculative fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently. These stories contain "what if" scenarios at crucial points in history and present outcomes other than those in the historical record; the stories are sometimes based on fact. Alternate history has been seen as a subgenre of literary fiction, science fiction, or historical fiction. Another term used for the genre is "allohistory". Since the 1950s, this type of fiction has, to a large extent, merged with science fiction tropes involving time travel between alternate histories, psychic awareness of the existence of one universe by the people in another, or time travel that results in history splitting into two or more timelines. Cross-time, time-splitting, alternate history themes have become so interwoven that it is impossible to discuss them apart from one another. In Spanish, German, Italian and Galician, the genre of alternate history is called uchronie / ucronia / ucronía / Uchronie, which has given rise to the term Uchronia in English.
This neologism is based on the prefix ου- and the Greek χρόνος, meaning "time". A uchronia means " no time"; this term also inspired the name of the alternate history book list, uchronia.net. The Collins English Dictionary defines alternative history as "a genre of fiction in which the author speculates on how the course of history might have been altered if a particular historical event had had a different outcome." According to Steven H Silver, an American science fiction editor, alternate history requires three things: a point of divergence from the history of our world prior to the time at which the author is writing, a change that would alter history as it is known, an examination of the ramifications of that change. Several genres of fiction have been misidentified as alternate history. Science fiction set in what was the future but is now the past, like Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey or George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, is not alternate history because the author did not make the choice to change the past at the time of writing.
Secret history, which can take the form of fiction or nonfiction, documents events that may or may not have happened but did not have an effect on the overall outcome of history, so is not to be confused with alternate history. Alternate history is related to, but distinct from, counterfactual history; this term is used by some professional historians to describe the practice of using researched and reasoned speculations on "what might have happened if..." as a tool of academic historical research, as opposed to a literary device. The earliest example of alternate history is found in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita Libri. Livy contemplated an alternative 4th century BC in which Alexander the Great had survived to attack Europe as he had planned. Livy concluded that the Romans would have defeated Alexander. Another example of counterfactual was posited by cardinal and Doctor of the Church Peter Damian in the 11th century. In his famous work De Divina Omnipotentia, a long letter in which he discusses God's omnipotence, he treats questions related to the limits of divine power, including the question of whether God can change the past, for example, bringing about that Rome was never founded:I see I must respond to what many people, on the basis of your holiness’s judgment, raise as an objection on the topic of this dispute.
For they say: If, as you assert, God is omnipotent in all things, can he manage this, that things that have been made were not made? He can destroy all things that have been made, so that they do not exist now, but it can not be seen. To be sure, it can come about that from now on and hereafter Rome does not exist, but no opinion can grasp how it can come about that it was not founded long ago... One early work of fiction detailing an alternate history is Joanot Martorell's 1490 epic romance Tirant lo Blanch, written when the loss of Constantinople to the Turks was still a recent and traumatic memory for Christian Europe, it tells the story of the knight Tirant the White from Brittany who travels to the embattled remnants of the Byzantine Empire. He becomes a Megaduke and commander of its armies and manages to fight off the invading Ottoman armies of Mehmet II, he saves the city from Islamic conquest, chases the Turks deeper into lands they had conquered. One of the earliest works of alternate history published in large quantities for the reception of a large audience may be Louis Geoffroy's Histoire de la Monarchie universelle: Napoléon et la conquête du monde, which imagines Napoleon's First French Empire emerging victorious in the French invasion of Russia in 1811 and in an invasion of England in 1814 unifying the world under Bonaparte's rule.
In the English language, the first known complete alternate history is Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story "P.'s Correspondence", published in 1845. It recounts the tale of a man, considered "a madman" due to his perceptions of a different 1845, a reality in which long-dead famous people, such as the poets Robert Burns, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats, th
Venue was the listings magazine for the Bristol and Bath areas of the UK. It was founded in 1982 by journalists, working for another Bristol magazine, Out West, consciously modelled on London's Time Out magazine. Published fortnightly, Venue gained a reputation for the quality and authority of its coverage of the local arts and entertainments scene, it played a leading part in re-establishing Ashton Court Festival and was an early champion of the Bristol Sound in the early 1990s. It continued to play a significant role in nurturing and promoting local art, theatre and music until its closure in April 2012. Venue's last editor was the playwright Tom Wainwright. Venue had a reputation for investigative reporting of local issues, including health, local politics and environmental matters. Venue featured humour and satire which many found attractive, but, criticised as puerile. Stand-up comedian Mark Watson and comedy scriptwriter Stephen Merchant both worked for Venue when they were younger. Author and reviewer Kim Newman contributed regularly.
Another author, Eugene Byrne, one of the magazine's founders, remained involved with it as Consulting Editor until the magazine ceased publication. In 2000 the company was sold to Bristol United Press, the company which runs the Bristol Evening Post and Western Daily Press newspapers. BUP in turn was owned by the Northcliffe Newspaper Group, part of the Daily Mail & General Trust group; the takeover by BUP was controversial with many readers and staff because the conservative political outlook of the Daily Mail was different to that of Venue. In 2001, Venue magazine started to publish weekly, trading as Venue Publishing, the company diversified further in the years after this, it produced a successful controlled circulation lifestyle monthly, Folio, as well as several annual guides including Eating Out West, Drinking Out West, Days Out West, a Student Guide for Bristol and Bath and a Festival Guide. Venue Publishing undertook contract publishing for large local events such as the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta and the Bristol Harbour Festival.
In 2005, Venue Publishing established an in-house design agency, offering design services to external clients. The magazine was associated with some other provincial listings magazines in the 1980s like Manchester's, Southampton's Due South Magazine and The List which covers Edinburgh and Glasgow. Only the latter is still publishing; the Bristol Evening Post ceased its Saturday edition in April 2012. A month on 25 May 2012, The Post launched a new 64-page lifestyle magazine, The Weekend, a supplement included with its Friday edition; this carried many listings and entertainment articles derived from the Venue website and was justifiably straplined powered by Venue. From issue #43 of The Weekend, the strapline was dropped; the Weekend magazine was relaunched with issue #252 as a larger-format publication, but still carrying many of the original Venue-style listings. However, the distinctive Venue logo continued to be seen in printed format each Wednesday in a section of three or four pages in that day's Bristol edition of the free Metro, the section being headed "WHAT'S ON - The week ahead with Venue".
The Venue name still continued on periodic publications such as Venue Festival Guide'13 and Eating Out West 2013/14, the latter title reflecting the title of the magazine's own predecessor. The Venue website, one of the longest-running commercial websites in the UK, was set up in 1995. Since the demise of the printed Venue magazine, the website continues to include event listings, music and comedy reviews, selected features from the Bristol Post's Weekend supplement, several of the annual guides and includes a popular free personal advertisements section. Venue Magazine Final Post; the Venue website was closed by Local World at 11am on Friday 29 November 2013. Venue writers and photographers etc. published an open letter on the site which subsequently went viral and was picked up by Buzzfeed
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R